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2:21 For you have been
leaving you an
example for you
follow in His
For even to this were you called [it is inseparable from your
vocation]. For Christ also suffered for you, leaving you [His
personal] example, so that you should follow in His footsteps.
Bible - Lockman)
For even hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered for us,
leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps:
This suffering is all part of what God has called you to. Christ, who
suffered for you, is your example. Follow in his steps.
Bible - Lockman)
Phillips: Indeed this is part of your calling. For Christ suffered for
you and left you a personal example, and wants you to follow in his
Wuest: For to this very thing were you called [namely, to patient
endurance in the case of unjust punishment], because Christ also
suffered on your behalf, leaving behind for you a model to imitate, in
order that by close application you might follow in His footprints; (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: for
to this ye were called, because Christ also did suffer for you,
leaving to you an example, that ye may follow his steps,
FOR YOU HAVE
BEEN CALLED FOR THIS PURPOSE: eis touto gar eklethete (2PAPI):(Mt
10:38; 16:24; Mk 8:34,35; Lk 9:23, 24, 25; 14:26,27; Jn 16:33; Acts
9:16; 14:22; 1Th 3:3; 4:2; 2Ti 3:12)
It is part of a true Christian’s
calling to bear what is put upon him wrongfully.
Whenever you think of the glory of
your risen Lord, remember what your redemption cost him, and quit all
dead works, lay aside the grave-clothes of care and anxiety, and live
in newness of life as those who have been redeemed by the risen
Peter 2 Commentary)
study of related noun
kletos = the "called") means to speak to another person in order to
bring them nearer, either physically or in a personal relationship and
includes the nuance of giving them an invitation.
is in the
passive, where the passive is what some linguists
refer to as "divine" passive indicating that the action is
performed by God. In this verse, it
is God Who calls saints to bear up triumphantly though suffering
unjustly for doing what is good.
Wuest makes the point that
in this context kaleo describes...
The divine call of God to a
lost sinner (which) is an effectual call into salvation,
and an accompaniment of that salvation is suffering for righteousness’
sake, the natural result of the Christian’s contact with the people of
the world and their reaction towards the Lord Jesus who is seen in the
life of the saint.
K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans
Does the church (especially in
America) really understand this aspect of the "call" on our life?
Do we understand that our life is not our own, for we have "bought
with a price" and that our mission is to glorify God in our body?
Do we understand that to us...
it has been granted (literally a
gift of grace) for Christ's sake, not only to believe in Him, but also
to suffer for His sake? (Php 1:29-note)
Comment: Note not just to suffer mistreatment, derision, etc
as a Christian but with a purpose - for Christ's sake.
How so? We suffer for Jesus in the sense that by our
patient endurance of unjust punishment [which is what Peter also
describing], we are bearing a powerful testimony to His saving,
transforming grace, grace that enables us to do something quite
unnatural and yea, even supernatural. And Christ gets the glory. If we
understand this truth and genuinely believe this truth suffering can
take on a whole new significance.
Do we understand that "indeed,
all who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus will be persecuted."
Do we understand
the supernatural power that flows through us when we willingly
joyfully submit to this truth? (2Cor 12:10-note).
present context the called
refers to those
who have been summoned by God (the following phrases are meant to be
read as one long sentence which gives a Biblical statement regarding
according to His purpose (Romans
to salvation (Romans 8:30
saints by calling (1Cor 1:2)
both Jews and Greeks (1Cor 1:24)
having been called "with a holy" (2 Timothy 1:9
heavenly calling (Hebrews 3:1
out of darkness into His marvelous light (1 Peter 2:9
to walk worthy (Ephesians 4:1
by grace (Gal 1:6)
not from among Jews only, but also from among Gentiles (Romans 9:24
through the "gospel" that we "may gain the glory of our Lord Jesus
Christ" (2Th 2:14)
and be brought "into fellowship with His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord"
and return in triumph "with Him" at the end of this age (Revelation
great doctrine of our calling should cause all the "called of Jesus
Christ" to cry out "Glory!"...and to earnestly desire to walk worthy of the calling to which they have
been called, motivated by the "hope of His calling".
The Christian’s holy calling
is described in some detail in Ephesians 1-3, especially Ephesians
we see the truths that saints are chosen (Eph 1:4-note),
predestined (Eph 1:5, 1:11-see notes
adopted as sons (Eph 1:5
accepted in the Beloved (Eph 1:6
redeemed through His blood (Ephesians 1:7
forgiven (Eph 1:7
sealed with the Holy Spirit (Ep 1:13-note)
and given the earnest of our inheritance (Ep 1:14-note).
In addition to a holy calling,
saints also have a high ("upward") calling
(Php 3:14-note) and
a heavenly calling (Heb 3:1-note)
ALSO SUFFERED FOR YOU, LEAVING YOU AN EXAMPLE: kai Christos epathen (3SAAI) huper
humon humin hupolimpanon (PAPMSN) hupogrammon:
(1Pe 2:24; 3:18; 4:1; Lk 24:26; Acts 17:3; Heb 2:10) (An example: Ps
85:13; Jn 13:15; Ro 8:29; 1Cor 11:1; Eph 5:2; Php 2:5; 1Jn2:6; 1Jn
3:16; Rev 12:11)
(See Torrey's Topic
"Example of Christ")
Since Christ - Peter
now proceeds to illustrate his exhortation to slaves by citing
Christ's example of suffering unjustly.
There was no reason why he should
be made to suffer, for he had done no wrong. He was buffeted for no
fault of his own, yet how patiently he endured it all! He did not even
open his mouth to murmur or complain; but he handed the whole matter
over to the Supreme Court of Appeal: “to him that judgeth
righteously.” It will be wise for us also to feel that we can afford
to wait, knowing that our Avenger liveth, and that, in his own good
time, he will rectify all wrongs, and justify his people against all
their accusers. It is sweet, for the dear love of Jesus, to put up
with a thousand things which, otherwise, we should resent. “But,” says
one, “if you tread on a worm, it will turn.” Perhaps it will, but a
Christian is not a worm; he is a being of a nobler order than that,
and he does not go for his example to reptiles; he looks up to Christ,
and follows his steps.
Peter 2 Commentary)
(pascho) means to undergo an experience or experience a
painful, usually difficult circumstances.
speaks of past completed action and
indicative mood is
the mood of reality. Christ truly did suffer during His life on our
behalf even before His ultimate suffering and agony on the Cross.
Christ understands what you are going through when you suffer.
Since He Himself was tempted
(tested) in that which He has suffered, He is able to come to the
aid (to run to the cry for help) of those who are tempted
(are continually being tested)" (He 2:18-note).
For you -
The preposition for (huper) can mean in behalf of or for
the sake of and in this context clearly depicts Christ's
For you gives a deeper
purpose of Christ’s suffering; he suffered not only to set an example
for the believers to follow, but his suffering was in fact vicarious.
The content of such vicarious suffering is not completely developed
here; one significant part of it is mentioned in
1 Peter 2:24 (note).
United Bible Societies' New Testament Handbook Series
(hupolimpano from hupo = under + leipo = to
leave) means to leave behind something for someone.
from hupo =
before + grapho = write) (only used here in NT) literally means “writing under” and was
used of words given to children to copy, both as a writing exercise
and as a means of impressing a moral.
More specifically hupogrammos referred to a line
of writing at the top of a tablet written by the teacher so that the
child could write under it and make his letters like the master. Sometimes
it was used with reference to the act of tracing over written letters.
is used in the non-canonical book, 2 Maccabees 2:28, describing the
outlines of a sketch which the artist fills in with details.
Figuratively as used by Peter hupogrammos signifies a
model or example of conduct to be imitated or to be avoided.
What is the example? Although not a popular teaching, suffering
unjustly is the example believers are to be willing to follow (see
Barclay writes that
can mean two things—an outline
sketch which the learner had to fill in or the copyhead of copperplate
handwriting in a writing exercise book which the child had to copy out
on the lines below.
A T Robertson notes that...
Clement of Alexander (Strom. V. 8.
hupogrammos of the
copy-head at the top of a child’s exercise book for the child to
imitate, including all the letters of the alphabet. The papyri give
many examples of hupographē and hupographō in the sense of copying a
UBS Handbook adds that...
The word for example is used only
here in the whole New Testament; in classical Greek literature, it has
two meanings: (1) a piece of writing from a teacher which a child is
expected to trace or imitate, and (2) an artist’s sketch which is
prepared for others to color and complete. Christ therefore left a
perfect model, upon which the Christian is expected to pattern his own
United Bible Societies' New Testament Handbook Series
Vincent writes that
A graphic word, meaning a copy set
by writing-masters for their pupils. Some explain it as a copy of
characters over which the student is to trace the lines.
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Tale of the
- A former missionary
told the story of two rugged mountain goats who met on a
narrow pathway. On one side was a chasm 1,000 feet deep;
on the other, a steep cliff rising straight up. There was
no room to turn around, and the goats could not back up
without falling. What would they do? Finally, instead of
fighting for the right to pass, one of the goats knelt
down and became as flat as possible. The other goat then
walked over him, and they both proceeded safely. In a
sense, this is what Jesus Christ did for us when He left
heaven's glory and came to this earth to die for our sins.
He saw us trapped between our sin and God's righteousness
with no way to help ourselves. He came in human likeness
and took the form of a servant (Php 2:5, 6,7-note).
Then, by dying for sinful mankind, He let us "walk over Him" so
that we could experience forgiveness and receive eternal life.
Peter pointed to Christ as an example of humility. When we are
mistreated for Jesus' sake, we must learn to be humble enough to
let others walk over us if need be. This is not a sign of
weakness but of strength and true humility. Such a response,
when done for Christ's sake, brings glory to His name. —D C Egner
Savior, make me humble,
Take away all sinful pride;
When I suffer from injustice,
Help me stay close by Your side. —DJD
Example of Christ
CONFORMITY TO, REQUIRED IN
Holiness -1Peter 1:15,16; Romans 1:6
Righteousness -1John 2:6
Purity -1John 3:3
Love -John 13:34; Ephesians 5:2; 1 John 3:16
Humility -Luke 22:27; Philippians 2:5,7
Meekness -Matthew 11:29
Obedience -John 15:10
Self-denial -Matthew 16:24; Romans 15:3
Ministering to others -Matthew 20:28; John 13:14,15
Benevolence -Acts 20:35; 2Corinthians 8:7,9
Forgiving injuries -Colossians 3:13
Overcoming the world -John 16:33; 1John 5:4
Being not of the world -John 17:16
Being guileless -1Peter 2:21, 22
Suffering wrongfully -1Peter 2:21, 22, 23
Suffering for righteousness -Hebrews 12:3,4
Saints predestinated to follow -Romans 8:29
Conformity to, progressive -2Corinthians 3:18
FOR YOU TO
FOLLOW: hina epakolouthesete (2PAAS):
(hina) introduces a purpose clause explaining the reason or
purpose for Christ's example. We are not just to stare at it or to
read about it, but to do it!
(epakoloutheo from epi = upon or an
intensifier + akoloutheo = to follow literally and also
figuratively in a moral sense - see below) literally means to follow
after, to follow upon or follow closely. To follow close upon.
Literally to go along in someone's footsteps. The figurative meaning
is to follow or imitate someone's life, living in the same way.
Another nuance describes pursuing a matter (with devotion, dedication
or attention) (as in 1Ti 5:10). Mark 16:20 refers to accompanying
The root verb
akoloutheo in the NT refers to being a disciple of Christ, which can
include external following (Mt 8:19, Mk 10:28) but with the added idea
of "a total commitment and in an exclusive relation to one who is
recognized as not just a teacher but the Messiah. This discipleship
brings participation in salvation (Mk 10:17, Lk 9:61, 62, Jn 8:12, Rev
14:4) but also in suffering (Mt 8:19, 20, Mk 8:34, Jn 12:25, 26)"
the present context, to follow is used figuratively to mean imitate
Christ's example. Caleb, the godly OT saint gives us a wonderful
illustration of what it means to follow in His steps...
Numbers 14:24 "But My servant
Caleb, because he has had a different spirit and has followed
(Lxx = epakoloutheo) Me fully, I will bring into the land which
he entered, and his descendants shall take possession of it.
Comment: May his tribe
Moulton and Milligan add
From its original meaning “follow,”
“follow after,” this verb came to be used in a number of closely
related senses from iii/B.C. onwards. Thus it means “am personally
- 4x in 4v in NAS - Mark 16:20; 1Ti 5:10, 24; 1Pet 2:21. NAS = devoted herself(1),
follow(1), follow after(1), followed(1).
Mark 16:20 And they went out and
preached everywhere, while the Lord worked with them, and confirmed
the word by the signs that followed. [And they promptly reported all
these instructions to Peter and his companions. And after that, Jesus
Himself sent out through them from east to west the sacred and
imperishable proclamation of eternal salvation.
1 Timothy 5:10 having a reputation for good works; and if she has
brought up children, if she has shown hospitality to strangers, if she
has washed the saints' feet, if she has assisted those in distress,
and if she has devoted (followed after) herself to every good work.
1 Timothy 5:24 The sins of some men are quite evident, going before
them to judgment; for others, their sins follow after.
1 Peter 2:21 For you have been
called for this purpose, since Christ also suffered for you, leaving
you an example for you to follow in His steps,
- 14x in NAS - Lev 19:4, 31; 20:6; Num 14:24; Deut 12:30; Josh
6:8; 14:8f, 14; Esther 5:1; Job 26:3; 31:7; Pr 7:22; Isa 55:3
Leviticus 19:4 'Do not turn to
(Lxx = epakoloutheo) idols or make for yourselves molten gods; I am
the LORD your God.
Leviticus 19:31 'Do not turn to
(Lxx = epakoloutheo) mediums or spiritists; do not seek them out to be
defiled by them. I am the LORD your God.
Deuteronomy 12:30 beware that you
are not ensnared to follow (Lxx = epakoloutheo) them, after
they are destroyed before you, and that you do not inquire after their
gods, saying, 'How do these nations serve their gods, that I also may
Job 31:7 "If my step has turned
from the way, Or my heart followed (Lxx = epakoloutheo) my
eyes, Or if any spot has stuck to my hands,
Proverbs 7:22 Suddenly he
follows (Lxx = epakoloutheo) her As an ox goes to the slaughter,
Or as one in fetters to the discipline of a fool,
Isaiah 55:3 "Incline your ear
and come to (Lxx = epakoloutheo) Me. Listen, that you
may live; And I will make an everlasting covenant with you, According
to the faithful mercies shown to David.
an interesting use of this verb noting that...
The sins of some men are quite
evident, going before them to judgment; for others, their sins
(although hidden still) follow after (epakoloutheo). (1Ti
Vincent explains that...
The compound verb implies close
following. From writers and painters, the metaphor changes now to a
changes the metaphor from a writer (hupogrammos)
to that of a guide.
HIS STEPS: tois ichnesin autou:
"follow His steps" (No preposition for "in" in the Greek
Wuest makes a good point observing that...
Peter changes over easily from the
idea of a child tracing over the writing of the writing-master to a
Christian planting his feet in the foot-prints left by our Lord.
In this context, these footprints are foot-prints of suffering. But
the illustration holds good for our Lord’s entire life. Just as a
child slowly, with painstaking effort and close application, follows
the shape of the letters of his teacher and thus learns to write, so
saints should with like painstaking effort and by close application,
endeavor to be like the Lord Jesus in their own personal lives. Or, as
a small child endeavors to walk in the footprints made by his father’s
feet in the snow, so we are to follow in the path which our Lord took.
The Greek word “follow” means literally “to take the same road” as
someone else takes. We should walk the same road that Jesus walked, in
short, be Christlike.
K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans
(ichnos) means the sole of the foot on which men and animals
go, a footstep, a footprint or an impression left by the sole of the
foot in walking and is used metaphorically here and elsewhere in the
NT of imitating someone’s example.
3x in the NT. In addition to this verse ichnos is also in...
Romans 4:12 and the father of
circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who
also follow in the steps of the faith of our father Abraham
which he had while uncircumcised.
2Corinthians 12:18 I urged Titus to
go, and I sent the brother with him. Titus did not take any advantage
of you, did he? Did we not conduct ourselves in the same spirit and
walk in the same steps?
Ichnos - 22x in the
- Gen 42:9, 12; Deut
11:24; 28:35, 65; Josh 1:3; 1 Sam 5:4; 2 Sam 14:25; 1 Kgs 5:3; 18:44;
2 Kgs 9:35; 19:24; Job 9:26; 11:7; 38:16; Ps 18:36; 77:19; Prov 5:5;
30:19; Ezek 32:13; 43:7; Dan 10:10
Deuteronomy 11:24 "Every place on
which the sole (Lxx = ichnos) of your foot treads shall be
yours; your border will be from the wilderness to Lebanon, and from
the river, the river Euphrates, as far as the western sea.
Joshua 1:3 "Every place on which
the sole (Lxx = ichnos) of your (plural = not just Joshua but
the people of Israel entering the promised land) foot treads, I have
given it to you, just as I spoke to Moses.
Comment: Great verse
emphasizing the principle of a divine tension - God's sovereign
promises, man's responsibility to in faith and trust obey Him and lay
hold of that which He has already given us. The whole land was given,
but they could only posses that which they claimed. In a similar way
believers today have been granted every spiritual blessing in the
heavenly places in Christ, and yet we must lay hold of these blessings
by faith that obeys. F B Meyer puts it this way "The land of rest and
triumph is ours by deed of gift; yet we must go up and possess it. We
must claim it by putting down the foot of faith."
You enlarge my steps under me, and my feet (Lxx = ichnos) have
NET Psalm 77:19-note
You walked through the sea; you passed through the surging waters, but
left no footprints (Lxx = ichnos).
In the plural (as in this verse) ichnos means a continuous line of impressions, a trail or a track.
follow a man's footprints or footsteps is to move in the direction he
is going. So in the figurative sense ichnos indicates a
record left by someone's conduct or manner of life which provides an
example for others to imitate.
Obviously to follow in His steps does not imply that we will do
everything He did, but it does refer to the general idea that we will
follow His example of enduring undeserved suffering, demonstrating the
same attitude He had.
steps, saints should
"walk, even as He walked" (1John
We should love as He loved...
"By this all men will know that you
are My disciples, if you have love for one another." (John 13:35)
We should think as He thought...
Have this attitude
= command to do this continually,
make this your lifestyle) in yourselves which was also in Christ
Jesus, (Php 2:5-note).
Christ emptied Himself. Behold our pattern!
This is a good definition of a disciple! Jesus' disciples are called to follow exactly the footprints He left
and they are not like footprints on the seashore which fade away and
blur as the waves wash over them.
Charles Sheldon wanted to attract local college students to God, so he
began preaching a series of practical, Sunday evening sermons on how
to follow "in His steps" in business, in journalism, in other careers. From the
popular series he wrote magazine articles, which in time became the
best-selling book In His Steps (Click
here for online version).
NOR WAS ANY
FOUND IN HIS
He was guilty of no sin, neither was deceit (guile) ever found on His
lips. [Isa. 53:9].
Bible - Lockman)
KJV: Who did
no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth:
He never sinned, and he never deceived anyone. (NLT
- Tyndale House)
Who committed no sin, nor was guile found in his mouth'. Yet when he
was insulted he offered no insult in return. (Phillips:
Who never in a single instance committed a sin, and in whose mouth,
after careful scrutiny, there was found not even craftiness; (Eerdmans)
who did not commit sin, nor was guile found in his mouth,
COMMITTED NO SIN: hos hamartian ouk epoiesen (3SAAI): (Is
53:9; Mt 27:4,19,23,24; Lk 23:41,47; Jn 8:46; 2Co 5:21; Heb 4:15;
7:26,27; 9:28; 1Jn 2:1; 3:5)
(ou) expresses direct and full negation, independently
and absolutely, and objectively. Ou differs from the other
Greek negative particle me (3361)
which implies a conditional and hypothetical negation, and in contrast
to ou is subjective. Peter is saying "no sin",
Peter had lived in closely
company with Jesus for three years and knew that He was perfect. Isn't
it true as a general
principle that intimate relationships often reveal the best or the
worst in people, and yet Peter's affirms that he had seen nothing but the best
in Jesus, even in the worst of times!
Peter is fully qualified to give
personal testimony of
the sinless state of the unblemished and spotless Lamb
of God. (1Pe 1:19-note)
NOR WAS ANY DECEIT FOUND IN HIS MOUTH: oude heurethe (3SAPI) dolos en
to stomati autou:
1:47; Re 14:5)
His grave was assigned with
wicked men, Yet He was with a rich man in His death, Because
He had done no violence, Nor was there any deceit in His mouth.
which is derived from dello
meaning to bait) literally refers to a fishhook, trap, or trick all of
which are various forms of deception. Dolos is a deliberate
attempt to mislead, trick, snare or "bait" (baiting the trap in
attempt to "catch" the unwary victim) other people by telling lies. It
is a desire to gain advantage or preserve position by deceiving
others. A modern term in advertising is called "bait and switch" where
the unwary consumer is lured in by what looks like an price too good
to be true!
Larry Richards explains that
picks up the metaphor from hunting
and fishing. Deceit is an attempt to trap or to trick and thus
involves treachery...Deception sometimes comes from within, as our
desires impel us to deceive. But more often in the NT, deceit is error
urged by external evil powers or by those locked into the world's way
of thinking. (Richards,
L O: Expository Dictionary of Bible Words: Regency)
"We best get the meaning of this
from the corresponding verb (doloun). Doloun has two
characteristic usages. It is used of debasing precious metals and of
adulterating wines. Dolos is deceit; it describes the quality
of the man who has a tortuous and a twisted mind, who cannot act in a
straightforward way, who stoops to devious and underhand methods to
get his own way, who never does anything except with some kind of
ulterior motive. It describes the crafty cunning of the plotting
intriguer who is found in every community and every society." In
another writing Barclay explains that dolos can be translated "guile"
and that "It comes from a word which means bait; it is used for
trickery and deceit. It is used for instance of a mousetrap.
When the Greeks were besieging Troy and could not gain entry, they
sent the Trojans the present of a great wooden horse, as if it was a
token of good will. The Trojans opened their gates and took it in. But
the horse was filled with Greeks who in the night broke out and dealt
death and devastation to Troy. That exactly is dolos. It is
crafty, cunning, deceitful, clever treachery. Dolos is the
trickery of the man who is out to deceive others to attain his own
ends, the vice of the man whose motives are never pure. (Barclay,
W: The Daily Study Bible Series, Rev. ed. Philadelphia: The
Westminster Press or
The picture of dolos is that of one who
takes advantage through craft
and underhanded methods including guile, deceit (implies
an intent to mislead and commonly suggests a false appearance or
double-dealing), cunning (attaining
or seeking to attain one’s ends by guileful or devious means) or
furtiveness, lack of candor and skill in concealing one’s aims &
2:23 and while being
reviled, He did
Himself to Him who
When He was reviled and insulted, He did not revile or offer insult in
return; [when] He was abused and suffered, He made no threats [of
vengeance]; but he trusted [Himself and everything] to Him Who judges
Bible - Lockman)
Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he
threatened not; but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously:
He did not retaliate when he was insulted. When he suffered, he did
not threaten to get even. He left his case in the hands of God, who
always judges fairly. (NLT
- Tyndale House)
When he suffered he made no threats of revenge. He simply
committed his cause to the one who judges fairly. (Phillips:
who when His heart was being wounded with an accursed
sting, and when He was being made the object of harsh rebuke and
biting, never retaliated, and who while suffering never threatened,
but rather kept on delivering all into the keeping of the One who
judges righteously; (Eerdmans)
who being reviled -- was not reviling again, suffering -- was not
threatening, and was committing himself to Him who is judging
BEING REVILED: hos loidoroumenos (PPPMSN): (Ps
38:12, 13, 14; Isa 53:7; Mt 27:39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44; Mk 14:60,61;
15:29, 30, 31, 32; Lk 22:64,65; 23:9,34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39; Jn
8:48,49; 19:9, 10, 11; Acts 8:32, 33, 34, 35; He 12:3)
(Torrey's Topic "Reviling
While being reviled He did not
revile - This passage parallels and fulfills the prophecies in the
Psalms and Isaiah 53...
Those who seek my life lay
snares for me and those who seek to injure me have threatened
destruction, and they devise treachery all day long. 13 But I, like a
deaf man, do not hear; and I am like a dumb man who does not open
his mouth. 14 Yes, I am like a
man who does not hear, And in whose mouth are no arguments.
(Psalms 38:12, 13, 14)
See Spurgeon's comments
Verse 12 ,
Verse 13 ,
(Spurgeon comments that in Ps 38:14 "He repeats the fact of his
silence that we may note it, admire it, and imitate it. We have an
advocate, and need not therefore plead our own cause. The Lord will
rebuke our foes, for vengeance belongs to him; we may therefore wait
patiently and find it our strength to sit still.
He (Messiah) was oppressed and
He was afflicted, yet He did not open His mouth. Like a lamb
that is led to
slaughter, and like a sheep that is silent before its shearers,
so He did not open His mouth. (Isaiah 53:7)
(Comment: Observe that Christ's silence in the face of reproach
is emphasized by repeating it three times! Oh, the forbearance of God!
from loidoros = reviling, railing, one who reviles as in 1Cor
5:11) means to subject one to verbal abuse, and to
to reproach, vilify, speak in a highly insulting manner, insult
strongly. Revile implies a scurrilous, abusive attack prompted by
anger or hatred. Rail (against) means to scold someone using
harsh, insolent, or abusive language.
indicating that Christ was continually reviled and railed against
by His protagonists. Even continuous suffering at the hands of the
angry mob did not elicit from our Lord any retaliatory words.
To show the strong character
of the word, Moulton and Milligan cite Calvin on the use 1Co
Loidoria (derived from loidoreo is
used in 1Ti 5:14, 1Pe 3:9, "insult for insult")
is a harsher railing, which not only rebukes a man, but also sharply
bites him, and stamps him with open contumely (harsh language or
treatment arising from haughtiness and contempt). Hence loidoreo
is to wound man as with an accursed sting.
NIDNTT comments on the use
of loidoreo in classic Greek...
The group of words connected
with loidoreo (probably related to Lat. ludus, game), is
frequently found in classic Greek. In general it is not used in a
religious sense. It was rather in the political and social life of the
Greeks that importance came to be attached to slander, insult and
disparagement of an opponent, e.g. as a weapon of the orator in a
political dispute, or of the Homeric heroes...
They (loidoreo, loidoria,
loidoros = a reviler) retain the meaning which they have in classic
Greek, although they are used chiefly in religious contexts. If for
the Greek it was one of the arts of life to know how to insult others
or bear insults against oneself, for the believer the suffering of
slander and insults is evidence of the cross the Christian disciple is
called to bear (1Pe 2:23)
Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986.
This common word group has the
secular sense of reproach, insult, calumny, and even blasphemy. In the
LXX it carries the nuance of wrangling, angry remonstrance, or chiding
as well as thee usual calumny. Philo has it for mockery or invective.
G., Friedrich, G., & Bromiley, G. W. Theological Dictionary of the
New Testament. Eerdmans)
Loidoreo - 4x in 4v - John
9:28; Acts 23:4; 1Cor 4:12; 1 Pet 2:23. Here are the other 3 uses...
John 9:28 They reviled
him and said, "You are His disciple, but we are disciples of Moses.
Acts 23:4 But the bystanders
said, "Do you revile God's high priest?"
1Corinthians 4:12 and we toil,
working with our own hands; when we are reviled, we bless; when
we are persecuted, we endure;
Loidoreo - 6x In the
Septuagint (LXX) -
Gen 49:23; Ex17:2; 21:18; Num 20:3, 13; Deut 33:8
Calvin defined revile as...
a harsher railing, which not
only rebukes a man but also sharply bites him, and stamps him with
open contumely. It is to wound a man with an accursed sting. (Note:
"Contumely" means harsh language or treatment arising from
haughtiness and contempt)
HE DID NOT REVILE IN RETURN: ouk anteloidorei (3SIAI): (Acts
4:29; 9:1; Ep 6:9)
records one such example of His not reviling in return...
And while He was being accused by
the chief priests and elders, He made no answer. Then Pilate said to
Him, "Do You not hear how many things they testify against You?" And
He did not answer him with regard to even a single charge, so that the
governor was quite amazed. (Mt 27:12, 13, 14)
signifies absolute negation. Jesus absolutely did not revile when
reviled! He is our example!
How are you doing, beloved of the Lord?
Remember, if you try to "not revile in return" in your old
self, you own strength, your natural ability, you don't stand a
chance! Even if we catch the wicked words before they are propelled
from our lips, we still have to deal with our heart, for out of our
mouth comes that which fills our heart. And so how do we "not
revile in return"? The truth is this response (or choice to not
give a response) is not possibly naturally but only be achieved
supernaturally. If Jesus is our example and He succeeded (which
He did) then we must surrender to the Spirit of Christ in us and rely
on His enabling power to give us the ability to "not revile
in return". There is simply no other way to live like Jesus, then
to live supernaturally by His Spirit. And He will give us many
"opportunities" to practice dying to self and acknowledging our
natural weakness so that we might begin to learn that it is only His
grace that is truly sufficient and that it is only in our weakness
that His power is made perfect. (2Cor 12:9-note;
And then God will receive the glory for something we and everyone else
knows can only be achieved supernaturally! (Mt 5:16-note,
cp the similar command to do all things without grumbling! Php 2:14-note)
return (486) (antiloidoreo
from anti = in turn, return, back + loidoreo = revile)
means to answer insults or slander with insulting or slanderous words.
Returning good for good is commendable
and even natural. Returning good for evil is Christ like and
supernatural. Christ is our Example. The Spirit of Christ is our
And why did
Christ not revile in return? As the perfect example of submission,
He had submitted His will to His Father in His time of agony in the
Garden of Gethsemane when He declared...
Father, if Thou art willing, remove
this cup from Me; yet not My will, but Thine be done. (Luke 22:42)
Remember that 1 Peter 2:13
through 1 Peter 3:9 deals repeatedly with submission, and in this
section we see Christ's submission as the highest
example of submission. And we are called to follow in His steps.
Note also that
the verb indicating Christ was entrusting Himself to His Father is
imperfect tense...this gives us the following picture of Jesus - each time He was attacked verbally with abusive insults, He
gave Himself over to His Father for vindication of the injustice and did
not seek to retaliate. This was His response again and again. Blessed
This is the example He left for
His disciples to follow when falsely accused or
maligned...this is not easy (in fact in our own strength it is
impossible!)...the temptation of the flesh will always
be to lash out at our adversaries...but we must master it. God
instructed Cain that
If you do well, will not your countenance be
lifted up? And if you do not do well, sin is crouching (waiting to
pounce like a lion, would fulfill its desire to overpower him) at
the door; and its desire is for you, but you must master (to rule,
reign, have dominion over) it. (Genesis 4:7)
So here we see
even in the OT that what God demanded in the way of righteous
behavior, He provided the power necessary to carry out (although we
can't state specifically how from this verse).
In the NT
we can be more specific, for Paul writes that
you are living according to the flesh, you must die; but if by the
Spirit you are putting to death the deeds of the body, you will
live. (Ro 8:13-note).
Paul is saying that the Spirit provides us with the energy and power
to continually and gradually be killing our sins (including
reviling in return!), and this is daily process (known as
sanctification) never to be completed in this life. One means the
Spirit uses to accomplish this process is our faithful obedience to
the simple commands of Scripture, giving us the desire to obey and the
power to obey.
So then, my beloved, just as you
have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in
my absence, work out your salvation with fear and trembling; for
it is God who is at work in you, both to will and to work for His good
pleasure. (Php 2:12, 13-See notes
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Right and Wronged -
Several years ago, a university student who took the gospel of Christ
to a rough London neighborhood encountered a group of hostile men.
"You rat!" said one of the men, seizing him. "I've half a mind to
break your jaw!"
"My friend," the young man replied, "if that is going to help you at
all and make me less of a rat, go ahead and break it."
The writer who described the incident concluded his account by saying,
"The jaw was not broken, and the group dispersed."
That student's calm response to a personal threat was powerful and
Christlike. The apostle Peter said that when our Lord Jesus Christ was
reviled, He "did not revile in return; when He suffered, He did not
threaten, but committed Himself to Him who judges righteously" (1Pe
Our profession of faith in a just, sovereign God meets the acid test
when we are opposed for taking a stand for the truth. If we strike
back, we stand in our own strength. If we follow Jesus' example, we
stand in the power of God.
When the heat is on and we put our confidence in the Lord, we will be
able to do what's right even when we're wronged. —RBC Ministries (Our
Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by
permission. All rights reserved)
Lord, help me not
When someone's mocking You;
Instead, give me the strength to stand
For what I know is true. --Sper
SUFFERING, HE UTTERED NO THREATS: paschon (PAPMSN) ouk epeilei (3SIAI):
(pascho) means to undergo an experience, usually
difficult, normally with the implication of physical or mental
suffering. Note the
present tense indicates this was the
"Suffering Servant's" continual lot in life!
Pascho - 42x in 41v - Matt
16:21; 17:12, 15; 27:19; Mark 5:26; 8:31; 9:12; Luke 9:22; 13:2;
17:25; 22:15; 24:26, 46; Acts 1:3; 3:18; 9:16; 17:3; 28:5; 1 Cor
12:26; 2 Cor 1:6; Gal 3:4; Phil 1:29; 1 Thess 2:14; 2 Thess 1:5; 2 Tim
1:12; Heb 2:18; 5:8; 9:26; 13:12; 1 Pet 2:19ff, 23; 3:14, 17f; 4:1,
15, 19; 5:10; Rev 2:10. NAS = endured(1), endured...sufferings(1),
suffer(22), suffered(10), suffering(4), suffers(2).
(apeileo) means to menace, to warn, to threaten and so to declare
that one will cause harm to someone, particularly if certain
conditions are not met. The word for "no" is the Greek particle "ouk"
which speaks not of relative but of absolute negation...Jesus
absolutely did not make threats of revenge.
BUT KEPT ENTRUSTING HIMSELF TO HIM WHO JUDGES
RIGHTEOUSLY: paredidou (3SIAI) de to krinonti (PAPMSD)
dikaios: (1Peter 4:19; Ps 10:14; 31:5; 37:5; Lk 23:46; Acts
7:59; 2Ti 1:12, Ge 18:25; Ps 7:11; 96:13; Acts 17:31; Ro 2:5; 2Th 1:5;
2Ti 4:8; Rev 19:11)
As always Jesus yielded His will to His Father leaving
us the same example of "yet not My will, but Thine be done." [Lk
from para = alongside, beside + didomi =
give) means to hand over to or to convey something to someone
particularly a right or an authority. Paradidomi was commonly used of delivering up a criminal
to police or court for punishment. It was included the idea of one
being given over into another's power and in this case means giving
one's self over to God the righteous Judge.
Peter's use of the
imperfect tense pictures Jesus surrendering Himself to His Father's righteous
judgment again and again, as one unfounded injustice after another was
hurled at Him.
MacArthur explains the idea conveyed by use of the
With each new wave of abuse, as it
came again and again, Jesus was always “handing Himself over” to God
for safekeeping. Luke records how that pattern continued until the
‘Father, into Your hands I commit
but similar idea) My spirit.’
Having said this, He breathed His last” (Lk 23:46).
Undergirding Jesus’ peaceful,
resolute acceptance of suffering was an unshakeable confidence in the
perfectly righteous plan of Him who judges righteously (cf. Jn
4:34; 15:10; 17:25). He knew God would vindicate Him according to His
perfect, holy justice.
(MacArthur, J. 1 Peter. Chicago:
Moody Press or
(krino) primarily signifies to distinguish, separate or
discriminate and then, to distinguish between good and evil, right and
wrong, without necessarily passing an adverse sentence, though this is
from díke = right, just) means
God judges equitably, justly and in a manner that always conforms to
His perfect justice. Why? Because God's judgments are an outcome of
His character. He judges righteously in full conformity to His
standard of truth and holiness. Christ could therefore with full
assurance commit His vindication into God's hands.
Let us (in the power of the
Spirit of Christ) follow His beautiful example and walk in His steps
to the glory of God and not revile in return, utter threats or speak
deceitfully when we suffer.
explains that there...
is a double sense in which He
(Jesus) may have acknowledged God as the righteous Judge. On the one
hand, because voluntarily, and in fulfillment of God’s will, He was
taking the sinner’s place and bearing sin, He did not protest at what
He had to suffer. Rather He consciously recognized that it was the
penalty righteously due to sin. So He handed Himself over to be
punished. He recognized that in letting such shame, pain and curse
fall upon Him, the righteous God was judging righteously. On the other
hand, because He Himself was sinless, He also believed that in due
time God, as the righteous Judge, would vindicate Him as righteous,
and exalt Him from the grave, and reward Him for what He had willingly
endured for others’ sake by giving Him the right completely to save
them from the penalty and power of their own wrongdoing. (The Tyndale
New Testament Commentaries, The First Epistle of Peter. Grand Rapids:
><> ><> ><>
In God's Hands-
READ: 2 Samuel 16:5-14
It may be that the Lord will look on my affliction, and that the Lord
will repay me with good. —2Sa 16:12
In 2 Samuel 16:5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 we read of King David being cursed by Shimei. This
happened while David was fleeing from his son Absalom, who wanted to
Unlike David, we often want to silence our critics, insist on
fairness, and defend ourselves. But as we grow in our awareness of
God's protective love, we become less concerned with what others say
about us and more willing to entrust ourselves to our Father. Like
David, we can say of each critic, "Let him alone, and let him curse"
(2Sa 16:11). This is humble submission to God's will.
We may ask our opponents to justify their charges, or we may counter
them with steadfast denial. Or, like David (2Sa 16:12), we can wait
patiently until God vindicates us.
It is good to look beyond those who oppose us and look to the One who
loves us with infinite love. It is good to be able to believe that
whatever God permits is for our ultimate good—good, though we're
exposed to the curses of a Shimei; good, though our hearts break and
we shed bitter tears.
You are in God's hands, no matter what others are saying about you. He
has seen your distress, and in time He'll repay you for the cursing
you have received. So trust Him and abide in His love.
—David H. Roper (Our
Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by
permission. All rights reserved)
THINKING IT OVER - Read 1Pe 2:20, 21, 22, 23. How did Jesus respond to
words spoken against Him? What did He do and not do? In what
situations can you follow His example?
We can endure life's wrongs because we know that God will make all
Reviling and reproaching
Of rulers specially forbidden -Exodus 22:28; Acts 23:4,5
THE WICKED UTTER, AGAINST
God -Psalms 74:22; 79:12
God, by opposing the poor -Proverbs 14:31
Christ -Matthew 27:39; Luke 7:34
Saints -Psalms 102:8; Zephaniah 2:8
Rulers -2 Peter 2:10,11; Jude 1:8,9
Of Christ, predicted -Psalms 69:9; Romans 15:3; Psalms 89:51
The conduct of Christ under -1 Peter 2:23
Endure -1 Timothy 4:10; Hebrews 10:33
Endure for God’s sake -Psalms 69:7
Endure for Christ’s sake -Luke 6:22
Should expect Matthew 10:25
Should not fear -Isaiah 51:7
Sometimes depressed by -Psalms 42:10,11; 44:16; 69:20
May take pleasure in -2 Corinthians 12:10
Supported under -2 Corinthians 12:10
Trust in God under -Psalms 57:3; 119:42
Pray under -2 Kings 19:4,16; Psalms 89:50
Return blessings for -1 Corinthians 4:12; 1 Peter 3:9
Ministers should not fear -Ezekiel 2:6
Happiness of enduring, for Christ’s sake -1 Peter 4:14
Blessedness of enduring, for Christ’s sake -Matthew 5:11; Luke 6:22
Excludes from heaven -1 Corinthians 6:10
Punishment for -Zephaniah 2:8,9; Matthew 5:22
Joseph’s brethren -Genesis 37:19
Goliath -1 Samuel 17:43
Michal -2 Samuel 6:20
Shimei -2 Samuel 16:7,8
Sennacherib -Isaiah 37:17,23,24
Moabites and Ammonites -Zephaniah 2:8
Pharisees -Matthew 12:24
Jews -Matthew 27:39,40; John 8:48
Malefactor -Luke 23:39
Athenian philosophers -Acts 17:18
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