Daniel 12 Commentary

 

 

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Daniel 12:1-13 Commentary

REFERENCES

Don Anderson
Paul Apple
Art Related
Kay Arthur
Wayne Barber
Brian Bell
Bethany Bible
Rich Cathers
Rich Cathers
Thomas Constable
W A Criswell
W A Criswell
W A Criswell
Ron Daniel
Ron Daniel
Bob Deffinbaugh
Easy English
Explore the Bible
Bob Fromm
Tony Garland
A C Gaebelein
Joe Guglielmo
Dave Guzik
Floyd Hitchcock
S Lewis Johnson
Keil & Delitzsch
William Kelly
Pastor Joonho
Clarence Larkin
John MacArthur
John MacArthur
John MacArthur
John MacArthur
Alexander Maclaren
Daniel Malick
J Vernon McGee
J Vernon McGee
F B Meyer
Net Bible Notes
Ray Pritchard
Grant Richison
Grant Richison
Grant Richison
Rob Salvato
Chuck Smith
Chuck Smith
Chuck Smith
Chuck Smith
Chuck Smith
J A Seiss
Speaker's Com
C H Spurgeon
C H Spurgeon
Claude Stauffer
Ray Stedman
John Walvoord
Steve Zeisler
Precept Study
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Daniel Study Guide
Daniel Commentary
Daniel 10-12; Daniel 12  
Daniel 12 Daniel 11-12
Daniel 12  The Legacy of an Obedient Servant

Daniel 12 Notes
Daniel 12:1-13 Sealed Till The Time of the End

Daniel 11-12
Daniel 11:44-12:1, Daniel 12:2-3, Daniel 12:4, Daniel 12:5-13

Daniel Expository Commentary Notes

Daniel 12 The Eternal Consummation Of The Age (Lecture)

Daniel 12:1-3 The Shining Saints Of God

Daniel 12:4-13 Final Mysteries

Daniel 12:1-4 A Time Of Distress
Daniel 12:5-13 Events At The End

Daniel 12:1-13 - The Hope of Heaven
Daniel: The Men who were Loyal to God

Daniel 9:1-12:13 Maintain Bible Study and Prayer
Daniel 12 Sermon Notes Handout

Book of Daniel - Chronological Structure of Daniel
The Prophet Daniel
Daniel 12 Notes
Daniel 12 Commentary

Daniel 12:1-13 The Great Tribulation & Michael’s Defense of Israel

Daniel 12:1-13 Tribulation, Resurrection, Testimony

Daniel Commentary - scroll down
Daniel Commentary

Daniel 12 Living in a privileged time

Book of Daniel In Schematic - Be a Berean

Daniel 12:1-3: The Great Tribulation--Part 1 

Daniel 12:1-3: The Great Tribulation--Part 1 - Study Guide
Daniel 12:4-13: The Great Tribulation--Part 2 

Daniel 12:4-13: The Great Tribulation--Part 2 - Study Guide

Daniel 12:13 A New Years Message

Summary of each chapter with excellent footnotes
Daniel 12: Intro Daniel 12:1 Daniel 12:2, 3 Mp3's

Daniel 12:4-9 Daniel 12:10-13 Mp3's

Daniel 12 Devotional
Daniel 12 Commentary Notes
Daniel 12: The Last Days According to Daniel
Daniel 12:1 Daniel 12:2
Daniel 12:3 Daniel 12:4
Daniel 12:5-6
Daniel12:7-13

Daniel 11:36-12-13 How Long Until..
Daniel 12 How Long Till the End?

Daniel 12:2,3 Shining as the Stars

Daniel 12-5

Daniel 12:6 How Long Till the End?
Daniel 11-12

Daniel 12:1-13 The Final Outcome; or, The Great Consummation
Daniel Commentary

Daniel 10:18 Our Lord's Humanity a Sweet Source of Comfort (Pdf)

Daniel 10:19 The Man Greatly Beloved (Pdf)

Daniel 10 God is My Strength
Daniel 12: The Last Word
Chapter 12 The Time Of The End
Daniel 11:2-12:13: Waiting And Watching    
Daniel 1-6 - Pt 1 - Living Out a Biblical Worldview
Daniel 7-12 - Pt 2 - Gaining Understanding of the Time of the End

Daniel 1-6 - You're A Brave Man, Daniel!
Daniel 7-12 - Fast Forward to the Future
Discovering What the Future Holds - 40 Minute Bible Study

Daniel 12:1 "NOW AT THAT TIME MICHAEL, THE GREAT PRINCE WHO STANDS GUARD OVER THE SONS OF YOUR PEOPLE, WILL ARISE. AND THERE WILL BE A TIME OF DISTRESS SUCH AS NEVER OCCURRED SINCE THERE WAS A NATION UNTIL THAT TIME; AND AT THAT TIME YOUR PEOPLE, EVERYONE WHO IS FOUND WRITTEN IN THE BOOK, WILL BE RESCUED. (at that: Da 11:45) (Michael : Da 10:13 Jude 1:9 Rev 12:7) (the great : Da 9:25 10:21 Isa 9:7 Eze 34:24 37:24 Eph 1:21 Rev 1:5 17:14 Rev 19:11-16) (there shall : Da 9:12,26 Isa 26:20,21 Jer 30:7 Mt 24:21 Mk 13:19 Lk 21:23,24 Rev 16:17-21) (thy people : Isa 11:11-16 27:12,13 Jer 30:7 Eze 37:21-28 39:25-29 Ho 3:4,5 Joe 3:16-21 Am 9:11-15 Ob 1:17-21 Zec 12:3-10 Ro 11:5,6,15,26) (written : Ex 32:32,33 Ps 56:8 69:28 Isa 4:3 Eze 13:9 Lk 10:20 Php 4:3 Rev 3:5 13:8 20:12,15)

ISRAEL:
GOD'S "TIMEPIECE"

Now at that time - What time? The time just discussed in Da 11:36-45, and specifically at the terminal point of that time, the last 3.5 years, the "time of great distress" that will come on the entire world but in specifically on the little nation of Israel. As the time of the end draws closer and closer, keep your eye on Israel, "God's timepiece"!

Recall that although there is a chapter break, this is not a new vision but a continuation and climax of the vision which began in Daniel 10.

The Jewish writer Judah J Slotki has an interesting comment on Daniel 12 noting that it...

is generally taken by Jewish authorities to refer to the remote future which will herald the advent of the Messianic era. (Daniel - Ezra - Nehemiah Hebrew Text & English Translation)

I agree with S R Miller who notes that...

In spite of the chapter division found in both the English and Hebrew Bibles, Daniel’s final vision continues from Da 11:45 through Da 12:3 without interruption. Archer points out that the closing verses of Dan 11 describe Antichrist’s military and political career, whereas his internal policy of “brutal oppression and persecution” toward God’s people is set forth in Da 12:1. Da 12:1 also relates the final deliverance of the saints, followed in Da 12:2, 3 with an account of their glorious condition in the messianic kingdom. Maccabean date adherents continue to apply this material to the reign of Antiochus (e.g., Goldingay, Daniel, 305–6; Driver, Daniel, 200; Anderson, Signs and Wonders, 145). According to these scholars, the author has once more erroneously predicted the end “as beginning immediately after the death of Antiochus” (Jeffery, “Daniel,” 541). (Miller, S. R. - Daniel - New American Commentary) (Logos version) (Wordsearch version).

Michael (note) the great prince - As used in Daniel 10-12, prince refers to an angelic being, in this case Michael (one of three named angels - others are Gabriel and Satan) the angel who is "assigned" to Israel.

Who stands guard over the sons of your people - Your people is not the church (see related study Israel of God) but Israel and thus as noted Michael is the "archangel" (Jude 1:9) over Israel and his role is to guard Israel.

Michael...will arise - Comparing Scripture with Scripture, this event would correlate well with the apostle John's description of the "last great invisible heavenly war" in Revelation 12...

And there was war in heaven, Michael and his angels waging war with the dragon. The dragon and his angels waged war, and they were not strong enough, and there was no longer a place found for them in heaven. And the great dragon was thrown down, the serpent of old who is called the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world; he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. (Re 12:7-note, Re 12:8-note, Re 12:9-note)

There will be - This identifies this as a future event. It is an event which has no historical counterpart.

A TIME OF
DISTRESS

A time of distress (See table of parallel descriptions) - This is another description of the Great Tribulation which was described by Jesus in similar terms stating that...

for then (When? "when you see the ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place" Mt 24:15) there will be a Great Tribulation (thlipsis), such as has not occurred since the beginning of the world until now, nor ever shall. (Mt 24:21)

This time of great distress is unique in the history of the world (such as never occurred since there was a nation until that time) and is especially directed toward Israel (although clearly anyone alive in this time will be impacted).

Wiersbe explains how the Gentiles will be affected during this time noting that...

While the Tribulation period is a time for punishing the Gentile nations for the way they have sinned against the Jews (Joel 3:2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8), it's also a time for sifting and purging Israel and preparing the Jews for the return of their Messiah (Amos 9:9, 10, 11, 12). (Wiersbe, W: Bible Exposition Commentary - Old Testament. Victor or Wordsearch)

Distress (06869) (tsarah) literally conveys the idea of something which is narrow, tight or confining and figuratively describes distress (great pain, anguish or suffering affecting the body or mind), trouble (Disturbance of mind; agitation; commotion of spirits; perplexity), affliction (a state of pain, distress, or grief), anguish (extreme pain or misery, mental or physical torture, agony)

Tsarah - 71x in 70v in the NAS - Ge 35:3; 42:21; Dt 31:17, 21; Jdg 10:14; 1Sa 10:19; 26:24; 2Sa 4:9; 1Kgs 1:29; 2Kgs 19:3; 2Chr 15:6; 20:9; Neh 9:27, 37; Job 5:19; 27:9; Ps 9:9; 10:1; 20:1; 22:11; 25:17, 22; 31:7; 34:6, 17; 37:39; 46:1; 50:15; 54:7; 71:20; 77:2; 78:49; 81:7; 86:7; 91:15; 116:3; 120:1; 138:7; 142:2; 143:11; Pr 1:27; 11:8; 12:13; 21:23; 24:10; 25:19; Isa 8:22; 30:6; 33:2; 37:3; 46:7; 63:9; 65:16; Jer 4:31; 6:24; 14:8; 15:11; 16:19; 30:7; 49:24; 50:43; Da 12:1; Obad 1:12, 14; Jonah 2:2; Nah 1:7, 9; Hab 3:16; Zeph 1:15; Zech 10:11. NAS = affliction(1), anguish(2), distress(34), distresses(1), trouble(22), troubles(11)

In the Septuagint (LXX), tsarah is translated with the Greek word thlipsis a term which originally expressed sheer, physical pressure, as when pressing grapes. It conveys the idea of being squeezed or placed under pressure or crushed beneath a weight. When, according to the ancient law of England, those who willfully refused to plead guilty, had heavy weights placed on their breasts, and were pressed and crushed to death, this was literally thlipsis.

Figuratively thlipsis pictures one being "crushed" by intense pressure, difficult circumstances, suffering or trouble pressing upon them from without. Thus persecution, affliction, distress, opposition or tribulation, all press hard on one's soul. Thlipsis does not refer to mild discomfort but to great difficulty. In Scripture thlipsis is most often used of outward difficulties, but it is also used of emotional stress and sorrows which "weighs down" a man’s spirit like the sorrows and burden his heart. Thlipsis then includes the disappointments which can "crush the life" out of the one who is afflicted. The English word "tribulation" is derived from the Latin word tribulum (literally a thing with teeth that tears), which was a heavy piece of timber with spikes in it, used for threshing the corn or grain. The tribulum was drawn over the grain and it separated the wheat from the chaff. As believers experience the "tribulum" of tribulations, and depend on God’s grace, the trials purify us and rid us of the chaff.

John MacArthur writes that...

Thlipsis (tribulation) has the underlying meaning of being under pressure and was used of squeezing olives in a press in order to extract the oil and of squeezing grapes to extract the juice...In Scripture the word thlipsis is perhaps most often used of outward difficulties, but it is also used of emotional stress." (MacArthur, J: Romans 1-8. Chicago: Moody Press)

Lawrence Richards adds that

thlipsis is used as a technical theological term for the Great Tribulation of the end times. (Richards, L O: Expository Dictionary of Bible Words: Regency)

In a parallel passage in the Revelation, John beheld

 

a great multitude, which no one could count, from every nation and all tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed in white robes, and palm branches were in their hands" (Rev 7:9-note), whom one of the elders explained were "the ones who come out of the Great Tribulation (thlipsis - see notes), and they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb." (Rev 7:14-note)

At that time - In the time of great distress and specifically after 3.5 years which will be "cut short" by Jesus' triumphal return, for as He declared...

unless those days had been cut short, no life would have been saved; but for the sake of the elect [in context refers directly to elect Jews but by application to all elect at that time] those days shall be cut short. (Mt 24:22)

Everyone who is found written in the book - This apparently refers to God's "Book of Life" in which there is a record of all the names of the saved.

Will be rescued - This refers not so much to physical rescue, but spiritual rescue. In other words, rescued in this context refers to salvation (by grace through faith). Observe also that not everyone will be rescued or saved (this is not a reference to universal salvation, clearly an evil heretical teaching), but only "everyone" whose name is written in the book.

Rescued (04422) (malat) means primarily to escape, to flee then to save, deliver or rescue.

Theodotion's version of the Greek Septuagint translates malat with the Greek verb sozo (word study) which has the basic meaning of rescuing one from great peril. Additional nuances include to protect, keep alive, preserve life, deliver, heal, be made whole. More often sozo refers to salvation in a spiritual sense as illustrated in the following passages: Matthew recorded the angel's conversation with Joseph declaring

"She (Mary) will bear a Son; and you shall call His name Jesus, for it is He who will save (sozo) His people from their sins." (Mt 1:21) (Here sozo is equated with deliverance from sins (guilt and power of) with Jesus' name being a transliteration of Joshua meaning "Jehovah is salvation".)

Malat - 93x in 85v in NAS - Gen 19:17, 19f, 22; Judg 3:26, 29; 1 Sam 19:10ff, 17f; 20:29; 22:1, 20; 23:13; 27:1; 30:17; 2 Sam 1:3; 4:6; 19:5, 9; 1 Kgs 1:12; 18:40; 19:17; 20:20; 2 Kgs 10:24; 19:37; 23:18; 2 Chr 16:7; Esth 4:13; Job 1:15ff, 19; 6:23; 19:20; 20:20; 22:30; 29:12; 41:19; Ps 22:5; 33:17; 41:1; 89:48; 107:20; 116:4; 124:7; Prov 11:21; 19:5; 28:26; Eccl 7:26; 8:8; 9:15; Isa 20:6; 31:5; 34:15; 37:38; 46:2, 4; 49:24f; 66:7; Jer 32:4; 34:3; 38:18, 23; 39:18; 41:15; 46:6; 48:6, 8, 19; 51:6, 45; Ezek 17:15, 18; 33:5; Dan 11:41; 12:1; Joel 2:32; Amos 2:14f; 9:1; Zech 2:7; Mal 3:15. NAS - certainly rescue(1), deliver(7), delivered(9), escape(26), escaped(25), escapes(3), gave birth(1), get away(1), lay(1), leap forth(1), left undisturbed(1), rescue(2), rescued(4), retain(1), save(8), saved(2).

Written in the book - See Dr Tony Garland's discussion of The Book of Life

Lehman Strauss emphasizes that...

Those to be delivered according to Daniel 12:1 are the elect of Israel. To read the Church into this passage is wrong. That there is a future salvation for the Jews is clear in such passages as Isaiah 11:11; 27:12, 13; Jeremiah 30:7; Ezekiel 37:21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 25, 27, 28; Hosea 3:4, 5; Amos 9:11, 12, 13, 14, 15; to mention but a few. But we must not fall into the evil that has ensnared those who teach that every Jew living on the earth at that time shall be saved. The prophecy in Daniel limits the deliverance to "every one that shall be found written in the book" (12:1). These are the godly Jews, the believing remnant on the earth at that time. Certainly the apostate Jews in that day are not included, but only the redeemed Israelites. (Lehman Strauss Commentary – The Prophecies of Daniel) (The Prophecies of Daniel - Wordsearch)

Daniel 12:2 MANY OF THOSE WHO SLEEP IN THE DUST OF THE GROUND WILL AWAKE, THESE TO EVERLASTING LIFE, BUT THE OTHERS TO DISGRACE AND EVERLASTING CONTEMPT. (many: Job 19:25-27 Isa 26:19 Eze 37:1-4,12 Ho 13:14 Mt 22:29-32 Jn 11:23-26 1Co 15:20-22,51-54 1Th 4:14 Rev 20:12) (everlasting life: Mt 25:46 Jn 5:28,29 Ac 24:15) (everlasting contempt: Isa 66:24 Jer 20:11 Ro 9:21)

FATE OF EVERY SOUL
EVER BORN SUMMARIZED

There’s a great day coming, a great day coming;
There’s a great day coming by and by,
When the saints and the sinners shall be parted right and left,
Are you ready for that day to come?

Are you ready? Are you ready?
Are you ready for the judgment day?
Are you ready? Are you ready?
For the judgment day?
(Play - There’s a Great Day Coming)

Notice that immediately after the description of the time of distress, we encounter the teaching on the resurrection.

Many - Why many and not "all"? Simply stated, not all mankind will sleep in the dust (die). Specifically the generation that experiences the Rapture (See also Table comparing Rapture vs Second Coming) will never experience death.

Sleep in the dust - Those who have died, whether believers or unbelievers. This is not a reference to the false teaching of "soul sleep" but only signifies physical death. Sleep is frequently used as a metaphor for death (see Jn 11:11, 12, 13,14; Acts 7:60; 1Co 15:51, 1Th 4:14-note, 1Th 4:15, 16-note).

S R Miller comments that...

Although the spirit of the believer does not sleep, the body is placed in a grave (“the dust of the earth”; cf. Ge 3:19) and becomes inactive (sleeps) until the Lord raises it, glorifies it, and reunites it with the spirit (cf. 1Co15:51, 52, 53, 54, 55). Deceased unbelievers also will be resurrected and spend eternity in bodily form according to this verse (cf. Mt 10:28).  (Miller, S. R. - Daniel - New American Commentary) (Logos version) (Wordsearch version).

Will awake - This speaks of the resurrection and implies a literal bodily resurrection. The Septuagint translates awake with the Greek verb anistemi (this verb is also used in Da 12:13 for "rise again") which is used in the NT of causing to stand and figuratively to bring back to life (Jn 6:39, 44, 54, Acts 3:34, 2:24, 30, 32, 3:26, 13:33, 17:31)

The NET Bible notes that...

This verse is the only undisputed reference to a literal resurrection found in the Hebrew Bible.

Henry Morris remarks that...

This is an explicit promise of the future bodily resurrection of the dead, as recorded in one of the key prophetic books on the Old Testament. This is not, as some claim, a strictly New Testament doctrine. At this point (as in John 5:29), however, the thousand-year time interval between the resurrection of the saved and lost is not mentioned, since it is not relevant to the context and also (in view of the following verse) inconsequential in relation to eternity (Revelation 20:4, 5, 6).

Those who now look with contempt on the Bible and Biblical Christianity will eventually experience “everlasting contempt” on themselves—as well as “everlasting fire” (Mt 25:41), and “everlasting destruction” (2Th 1:9). (Excellent Defender's Study Bible notes free online)

To everlasting life (olam chay - the only use of this combination in Scripture) - Those who believe in Messiah shall live forever in the presence of Christ Who is our life (Col 3:4-note) is also the Truth (Rev 19:11-note) about the (only) Way (Acts 4:12) to the (everlasting) Life (Jn 14:6).

The Septuagint (LXX) translates this phrase with the Greek phrase "Zoen aionion" (literally "life eternal"). This identical Greek phrase is also found in 31 NT verses! - Da 12:2; Mt 19:16, 29; 25:46; Mk 10:17, 30; Lk 10:25; 18:18, 30; John 3:15, 16, 36; 4:14, 36; 5:24, 39; 6:27, 40, 47, 54; 10:28; 12:25; 17:2; Acts 13:48; Ro 2:7; 5:21; 6:22; Gal 6:8; 1Ti 1:16; 1Jn 3:15; 5:11; Jude 1:21

In view of passages like Daniel 12:2, it should come as no surprise that the true believers in the days of Jesus (before the birth of the church) had at least some understanding of the future resurrection of the righteous. When Martha's brother Lazarus died, Jesus comforted her with the truth of the resurrection (which indeed has been a comforting truth to all believers throughout history - cf 1Th 4:18-note referring to the doctrine of the resurrection/rapture of those who compose the "Bride" of Christ - cf 1Th 4:13, 14-note, 1Th 4:15, 16-note, 1Th 4:17-note)

Jesus said to her, “Your brother will rise again.” Martha said to Him, “I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day.” Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life; he who believes in Me will live even if he dies,  and everyone who lives and believes in Me will never die. Do you believe this?” (Jn 11:23-26)

Constable writes: Jesus’ response was also typical of Him. His words had an obvious literal meaning, but they were truer than anyone present realized at the moment. Jesus offered Martha comfort based on the Old Testament assurance that God would resurrect believers (Isa. 26:19; Da 12:2; cf. Jn 5:28, 29). Martha, as the Pharisees, believed this Old Testament revelation, though the Sadducees did not (cf. Acts 23:7, 8). The “last day” refers to the end of the present age as the Jews viewed history, namely just before Messiah would inaugurate the new kingdom age (cf. Jn 6:39, 40, 44, 54; 12:48).

Wiersbe adds that: When we find ourselves confronted by disease, disappointment, delay, and even death, our only encouragement is the Word of God. (Commentary on John - see John 11:1-16)

But the others - One of the more dramatic adversative conjunctions in Scripture, for here we see the eternal fates of  every person ever born clearly contrasted. There is no "in between" eternal state of existence.

Disgrace (02781) (cherpah/herpah) means reproach, contempt, insult, scorn, taunt. The reproach can be part of God's judgment (Ps 79:4, Ezek 5:15, Micah 6:9-16) and was often brought on Israel because of her sin and idolatry (Ps 44:13, Ezek 5:5-17, Ezek 22:4).

Webster's dictionary says that disgrace is a state of being out of favor; disfavor; disesteem; as, the minister retired from court in disgrace. As state of ignominy; dishonor; shame. A cause of shame. Disgrace is the the state or condition of suffering loss of esteem and of enduring reproach and often implies humiliation and sometimes ostracism (banishment, expulsion, separation!).

Cherpah/herpah - 73x in 72v in NAS - Ge 30:23; 34:14; Josh 5:9; 1Sa 11:2; 17:26; 25:39; 2Sa 13:13; Neh 1:3; 2:17; 4:4; 5:9; Job 16:10; 19:5; Ps 15:3; 22:6; 31:11; 39:8; 44:13; 69:7, 9f, 19f; 71:13; 74:22; 78:66; 79:4, 12; 89:41, 50; 109:25; 119:22, 39; Pr 6:33; 18:3; Isa 4:1; 25:8; 30:5; 47:3; 51:7; 54:4; Jer 6:10; 15:15; 20:8; 23:40; 24:9; 29:18; 31:19; 42:18; 44:8, 12; 49:13; 51:51; Lam 3:30, 61; 5:1; Ezek 5:14f; 16:57; 21:28; 22:4; 36:15, 30; Dan 9:16; 11:18; 12:2; Hos 12:14; Joel 2:17, 19; Mic 6:16; Zeph 2:8; 3:18. NAS = contempt(1), disgrace(5), reproach(60), reproaches(2), scorn(3), shame(1), taunting(1).

Contempt (01860) is the Hebrew word dera'own which is used only twice in Scripture, here in Daniel 12:2 and in the last passage of the book of Isaiah, where Jehovah Himself decrees...

Then they (believers, those experiencing everlasting life) shall go forth and look on the corpses of the men who have transgressed against Me (Those who rejected God's free gift of salvation). For their worm shall not die, and their fire shall not be quenched; and they shall be an abhorrence to all mankind. (Isaiah 66:24)

Morris offers these interesting thoughts: The Lord Jesus used this terminology in describing the awful nature of eternal hell, the lake of fire (Mark 9:42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48), the ultimate fate of all who die without Christ (Rev 20:11, 12, 13, 14, 15-note). This verse intimates that redeemed men and women will somehow be able to view the sufferings of the lost in that distant corner of the universe (which certainly cannot be on the new earth) in order to contemplate the magnificence of salvation. This probably will only be a one-time viewing, for soon "the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind" (Isaiah 65:17).

THE TWO GENERAL
BODILY RESURRECTIONS

In order to better understand the meaning of the resurrection in Daniel 12:2,  it is necessary to briefly summarize the two categories of resurrection in Scripture.

In the gospel of John, Jesus taught there were two general categories of resurrection, one of believers and one of unbelievers...

Do not marvel at this; for an hour is coming, in which all who are in the tombs shall hear His voice, and shall come forth; those who did the good deeds (good deeds do not save but are evidence of genuine saving faith in Christ - faith is the "root" and "good deeds" are the "root" - cf Eph 2:8, 9-note = the "root" and Eph 2:10-note = the "fruit") to a resurrection of life, those who committed the evil deeds to a resurrection of judgment. (John 5:28, 29)

Comment: From the following schematic timeline you will notice that the resurrection of unbelievers follows the last identifiable resurrection of believers by 1000 years, assuming one interprets the 1000 years of Revelation 20 literally.

In 1Corinthians 15, the "Resurrection Chapter", Paul gives us the prototype for all subsequent resurrections of believers, explaining that...

now Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who are asleep. (1Cor 15:20)

Comment: In Leviticus 23:10, 11, 12, 13, 14, the First Fruits of grain harvested were offered by the priests to Jehovah as a sign and a promise of a greater harvest to come. In the same way, Christ's resurrection as the "first fruits" assures that all those who have placed their faith in Him will be part of the first resurrection, which is the greater harvest of all believers, both OT and NT. The exception is those believers who are alive when Christ returns to Rapture the Church for they will not experience physical death and will not require bodily resurrection.

In Revelation 20, John uses the term first resurrection writing...

Blessed and holy is the one who has a part in the first resurrection; over these the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ and will reign with Him for a thousand years. (Rev 20:6-note)

Study the schematic timeline below and note that there are two general categories of resurrections. Then read the explanatory notes that follow.

THE TWO
RESURRECTIONS

 

(3) 1st Resurrection
The Two Witnesses
Raised at Mid-Tribulation
|
V

 

(1) 1st
Resurrection

Christ the First Fruits
On the 3rd Day

(2)
1st Resurrection

Believers at Rapture
Pre-tribulation

(4) 1st
Resurrection

a) Believers
 Martyred in Tribulation
b) OT Saints
Preceding 1000 yr

(5) 2nd
Resurrection

Non Believers
End of 1000 yr

 

GAP
2010 + x Years

7 Years

1000 Years

Cross

The Church Age

Tribulation*

Millennium

       

*Note: The word "Tribulation" is never specifically used in Scripture to designate the last 7 years, Daniel's 70th week, but will be used in these notes because the term is so firmly entrenched in Christian jargon.

EXPLANATORY NOTES: The First Resurrection concerns only believers and is composed of several distinct "stages" at different times. Note that all believers (not just saints martyred during the Great Tribulation) will reign with Christ in His Millennial Kingdom. The Second Resurrection deals only with unbelievers and occurs in a single "stage" or as a one time event. Both the First and Second Resurrections refer to physical or bodily resurrection, not spiritual resurrection.

(1) The prototype resurrection forming the basis of the First Resurrection - Christ the first fruits of all subsequent resurrections of believers (1Co 15:20)

(2) The Second "stage" of the First Resurrection - Believers who have died during the Church Age will be resurrected at the time the Lord returns to Rapture His Bride, the Church. (1 Th 4:13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 1Co 15:50, 51, 52, 53, cp Jn 14:3)

(3) The Third "stage" of the First Resurrection - The two witnesses who are killed in Revelation 11 are raised and then went up to heaven (Re 11:11, 12-notes Re11:11; 12)

(4a) The Fourth "stage" of the First Resurrection - After the Great Tribulation, believers who have been martyred will be resurrected to immortality (See notes regarding those who come out of Great Tribulation, some of which are undoubtedly martyred - Re 7:9-note; Re 7:14-note; see notes regarding saints martyred during the Great Tribulation some - Re 20:4-note; Re 20:5-note; Re 20:6-note)

(4b) The Fourth "stage" of the First Resurrection - After the time of Jacob's Distress or Trouble (= the Great Tribulation), the Old Testament saints will also be resurrected (see OT descriptions of resurrection - Daniel 12:1, 2-note, Da 12:13-note, Isaiah 26:19, Job 19:26)

What Biblical basis is there for placing the resurrection of OT saints at the end of the Great Tribulation, the time of Jacob's distress? Jeremiah gives us a clue writing...

'Alas! for that day (not a literal day but a 3.5 year period that corresponds to the Great Tribulation) is great, there is none like it; and it is the time of Jacob's distress (at which time there is a horrible time of persecution of Jews by the Satanically inspired Antichrist, a "Jewish holocaust" the likes of which the world has never seen, but one that will be cut short by the return of the Messiah), But he (Israel, the believing remnant) will be saved from it. And it shall come about on that day (what day? the day of the Lord's return - see description beginning in Re 19:11-note),' declares the LORD of hosts, 'that I will break his yoke from off their neck, and will tear off their bonds; and strangers shall no longer make them their slaves. (To reiterate, this day corresponds to the return of the Lord, who defeats the Antichrist and all Gentile powers arrayed against God, His saints and Israel) But they (this refers to those Jews who come to saving faith in the time of Jacob's distress - see Ro 11:25, 26, 27-note) shall serve the LORD their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up for them. (Jeremiah 30:7, 8, 9)

Comment: Note that these passages {also Ezekiel 37:24} indicate that David himself will be resurrected and will actually reign over the earthly Israel during the millennial age. David's resurrection follows the defeat of the Gentiles at the end of the Great Tribulation which supports the premise that this period is the time when OT saints are resurrected.

(5) The Second Resurrection - After the 1000 year Millennial Kingdom all of the unbelieving dead will be resurrected to stand before the Great White Throne judgment and since their names are not found written in the Book of Life, they will be cast into the Lake of fire, which constitutes the Second Death, eternal separation away from the glory of God. (Re 20:11-note; Re 20:12-note; Re 20:13-note; Re 20:14-note; Re 20:15-note)

THE SEVEN BODILY
RESURRECTIONS IN SCRIPTURE

Order Which Timing Who Description Scriptures
1 First The Third Day Jesus Christ The resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ, the “firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep.” Mt. 28:1-7
Mk 16:1-11
Lk 24:1-12
Jn 20:1-18
1Co 15:20
2 First Shortly after Christ’s Resurrection A Few Old Testament Saints At the earthquake attending the crucifixion, graves were opened. Shortly after the resurrection of Christ, these saints were raised.6 Mt 27:50, 51, 52, 53
3 First Before the Tribulation Church The resurrection of Church-age believers at the Rapture. Jn 14:3
1Th 4:13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18
1Co 15:50, 51, 52, 53
4 First Middle of the Tribulation Two Witnesses God’s two witnesses will be raised after being killed by The Beast. Rev 11:11,12
5 First After Jacob’s Trouble
(After the
Great Tribulation)
OT Saints Old Testament saints will be resurrected to enter the Millennial Kingdom Da 12:1,2
Da 12:13
Isa 26:19 Eze 37:13,14
6 First Beginning of Millennial Kingdom Tribulation Martyrs The Tribulation martyrs will be resurrected so that they can rule and reign with Christ. Rev 20:4; 20:5; 20:6
7 Second After 1000 Years of the Messianic Kingdom Unbelieving Dead
(not found recorded in the
Book of Life)
End of the millennial reign of Christ, the final resurrection will consist of all unbelieving wicked dead who will be found guilty at the Great White Throne Judgment and cast into the Lake of Fire Rev 20:11; 20:12; 20:13; 20:14 20:15

Modified from Tony Garland's The Testimony of Jesus
See related topic
The Two Resurrections

Daniel 12:3 "THOSE WHO HAVE INSIGHT WILL SHINE BRIGHTLY LIKE THE BRIGHTNESS OF THE EXPANSE OF HEAVEN, AND THOSE WHO LEAD THE MANY TO RIGHTEOUSNESS, LIKE THE STARS FOREVER AND EVER. (Those that have insight: Da 11:33,35 Pr 11:30 Mt 24:45 1Co 3:10 2Pe 3:15) (wise:  Ac 13:1 Eph 4:11 Heb 5:12) (shine: Pr 4:18 Mt 13:43 19:28 1Co 15:40, 41, 42 1Th 2:19,20 Rev 1:20) (Lead: Jer 23:22 Lk 1:16, Lk 1:17 Jn 4:36 Php 2:16,17 Jas 5:19,20)

Those that have insight - In the context, the direct reference is to believing Jews, but the principle is applicable to all believers of all ages who have insight and lead the many to righteousness. Those living when the events described in Daniel, begin to unfold and who have ears to hear (Dt 29:4, Is 6:9, 10, Ezek 12:2, Mt 11:15, Mk 4:9, 23, Lk 8:8, 14:35, Ro 11:8), will understand the significance of these events and they will surely be impelled and empowered by the Spirit (cf Acts 1:8) to speak truth to those whose eyes are blinded to the truth. Those who shine as lights during this difficult time (cf Mt 5:14-note, Mt 5:16-note, Ep 5:8-note, Php 2:14, 15-note, 15, 2Co 4:6) will shine brightly throughout eternity (cf Mt 13:43).

Strauss adds that...

The tribulation will be one of the darkest periods in human history. However, during that time God will have his luminaries on the earth who, through their wise behavior and clear testimony, will teach others the way of righteousness... No matter how troublous the times have been, or will become, the darkest hours afford the largest opportunity for letting the gospel light shine. Daniel and John were speaking of those who will defy the decree of the Antichrist that all worship him, and courageously teach others the pure gospel of the kingdom (Matthew 24:14). (Lehman Strauss Commentary – The Prophecies of Daniel) (The Prophecies of Daniel - Wordsearch)

Will shine brightly like the brightness of the expanse of heaven (Like A Diamond In The Sky - Devotional) - This simile is striking, for it unveils the promise and hope that believers who are but dust (Ge 2:7) and who deserve damnation (outside of Christ) will be rewarded with an almost indescribable appearance similar to that of the glorious creation. And what is the logical association? First, let us recall the purpose of the created heavens in Psalm 19:1 (Spurgeon's note)...

The heavens are telling of the glory of God;
And their expanse is declaring the work of His hands.

It follows, that the comparison of believers to the heavens and the stars would support the premise that like those created entities, each individual believer would also be a divine masterpiece (Eph 2:10-note) to forever declare the glory of God! Does this not motivate each of us to seek diligently to redeem the time (Eph 5:16-note)?

W A Criswell comments on this verse noting that...

The beauty, the poetic flow of those words is magnificent. The reason that I notice it so much is because of the context where the verse is found. It is found in one of the darkest visions in the Bible. Shining in that darkness is this glorious, diamond-like beautiful promise. Is that not an unusual thing? But the Scriptures always present the promises against the darkest backgrounds.

The many - While I cannot be dogmatic, the specific phrase "the many" is used in Daniel at least two other times to describe Jews (Da 9:27-note, Da 11:33-note). However, by way of application, those who lead any (Jew or Gentile) to a saving knowledge of the Messiah will shine brightly!

Lead many to righteousness - I like that phrase. He does not say "talk many into becoming righteous" but lead many, implying that these men and women are "preaching the gospel" by the way they live, which in turn opens a wide door of opportunity to proclaim the gospel with their words! As Peter exhorts his readers who are suffering for doing right, they (and we today) should not become fearful, but instead should...

sanctify (aorist imperative = command to do this now and do it effectively!) Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you, yet with gentleness and reverence. (1Pe 3:15-note)

To righteousness - This speaks of salvation by grace through faith. Those who shine brightly like stars forever and ever are those who are not ashamed of the gospel (Ro 1:16), but instead who choose to speak forth the gospel boldly and with power (cf Acts 1:8, cf Peter who denied Christ 3x in Mt 26:34, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, with Acts 4:8, 31), knowing that only in the gospel is "the righteousness of God...revealed" (Ro 1:17). As Paul explained...

Now we know that whatever the Law says, it speaks to those who are under the Law, that every mouth may be closed, and all the world may become accountable to God; because by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified (declared righteous) in His sight; for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin. But now apart from the Law the righteousness of God has been manifested, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets (in other words this God required, God given righteousness was proclaimed even in the Old Testament - thus salvation has always been by grace through faith, never by works, cf Abraham's salvation in Ge 15:6!), even the righteousness of God through faith (faith is the "effecting" action/agent by which men dead in sin become men alive in Christ) in Jesus Christ for all those who believe; for there is no distinction for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, being justified (declared righteous) as a gift by His grace (unmerited favor = we deserve eternal death but God gives us the opportunity for eternal life) through the redemption (payment of a price [His precious blood] to set the captives free from bondage to sin and death) which is in Christ Jesus; Whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation (satisfactory offering) in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed (I.e., OT believers were saved by looking forward to the death of Christ. Their sins were not paid for in full until the Lamb of God died on Calvary); for the demonstration, I say, of His righteousness at the present time, that He might be just (in bringing death for sin upon our Substitute, Christ Jesus, Who died in or place) and the justifier (declaring righteous) of the one who has faith in Jesus. Ro 3:19-26-see notes)

Daniel 12:4 "BUT AS FOR YOU, DANIEL, CONCEAL THESE WORDS AND SEAL UP THE BOOK UNTIL THE END OF TIME; MANY WILL GO BACK AND FORTH, AND KNOWLEDGE WILL INCREASE." (Conceal : Da 8:26 Rev 10:4 22:10) (to the : Da 12:9 8:17 10:1 11:40) (Many: Da 11:33 Isa 11:9 29:18,19 30:26 32:3 Zec 14:6-10 Mt 24:14 Ro 10:18 Rev 14:6,7)

But as for you Daniel - Now that the vision is finished, the angel gives Daniel instructions on what he is to do with these words.

Conceal...and seal up (both are commands) (cf Da 12:9-note = "until the end of time") - The idea is not make the Book of Daniel unavailable for study and edification but to preserve it so that it will be available through the ages and especially to those who are living in the last 3.5 years of, the last half of Daniel's Seventieth Week (Da 9:27-note), the Great Tribulation (Mt 24:21), the time of distress (Da 12:1-note)

Ryrie comments that conceal...seal up does not me the book...

was to be left unexplained but that the book was to be kept intact so as to help those living in the future tribulation days.

Conceal (05640) (satham) means to stop, stop up, block off, seal, obstruct (fountains 2Ki 3:19, 25, 2Chr 32:3, 4)

Satham - 13x in 13v - Gen 26:15, 18; 2 Kgs 3:19, 25; 2 Chr 32:3f, 30; Neh 4:7; Ps 51:6; Ezek 28:3; Da 8:26; 12:4, 9. NAS -  closed(1), conceal(1), concealed(1), cut off(1), hidden part(1), keep the secret(1), secret(1), stop(1), stopped(5).

Seal up (02856) (chatham/hatam) means to seal as when one places a mark or impression on clay or wax for the purpose of authentication, marking ownership, origin, or content. Many things were sealed in the OT including letters (1Ki21:8), decrees of kings usually with his signet ring (Es 3:12; 8:8,10; Da 6:17), covenants (Neh10:1), and land purchase deeds (Jer 32:10,11,44).

Chatham - 26x in 24v in NAS - Lev 15:3; Deut 32:34; 1Kgs 21:8; Neh 9:38; 10:1; Esth 3:12; 8:8, 10; Job 9:7; 14:17; 24:16; 33:16; 37:7; Song 4:12; Isa 8:16; 29:11; Jer 32:10f, 14, 44; Ezek 28:12; Da 9:24; 12:4, 9. NAS - obstructs(1), seal(6), sealed(15), seals(2), sets a seal(1), shut(1).

Miller comments that...

In the ancient Near East the custom was to “seal” an important document by impressing upon it the identifying marks of the parties involved and the recording scribe. A sealed text was not to be tampered with or changed. Then the original document was duplicated and placed (“closed up”) in a safe place where it could be preserved. An excellent illustration of this process is recorded in the Book of Jeremiah (Jer 32:9, 10, 11, 12). The sealing of Jeremiah’s property deed was not done to “hide” the contents or to keep them “secret” but to preserve the document. As a matter of fact, Jeremiah performed this transaction in the presence of his cousin “and of the witnesses who had signed the deed and of all the Jews sitting in the courtyard of the guard” (Jer 32:12). There also was an “unsealed copy” of the deed that presumably was open for inspection. (Miller, S. R. - Daniel - New American Commentary) (Logos version) (Wordsearch version).

Until the end of time - This vision and the entire book of Daniel for that matter was to be preserved for those alive during this tumultuous future time when these God's truth would be needed and would be eagerly sought (many will go back and forth).

There are a number of relatively similar time phrases in the eschatological section of Daniel

Da 8:17-note = the time of the end

Da 8:19-note = the appointed time of the end

Da 8:26-note = pertains to many days in the future

Da 9:26-note = even to the end there will be war

Da 10:14-note = in the latter days...pertains to the days yet future

Da 11:27-note = the end is still to come at the appointed time

Da 11:35-note = until the end time; because it is still to come at the appointed time

Da 11:40-note = at the end time

Da 12:4-note = until the end of time

Da 12:6-note = until the end of these wonders

Da 12:9-note = until the end time

Many - In Da 12:3 many will be led to righteousness.

Many will go back and forth - Some writers interpret this as a reference to literal travel which is obviously greatly accelerated in modern times compared to Daniel's time. The discerning reader needs to remember that some paraphrases like the Living Bible function essentially as "mini-commentaries" (which is why one needs to use the more literal versions)...

travel and education shall be vastly increased! (The Living Bible)

Wiersbe comments that this verse...

is not a reference to automobiles and jet planes or the advancement of education. It has reference to the study of God's Word in the last days, especially the study of prophecy. Amos 8:11, 12 warns us that the day will come when there will be a famine of God's Word and people will run here and there seeking for truth but won't find it. But God's promise to Daniel is that, in the last days, His people can increase in their knowledge of prophetic Scripture as they apply themselves to the Word of God. Some interpret "to and fro" to mean running one's eyes to and fro over the pages of Scripture. (Wiersbe, W: Bible Exposition Commentary - Old Testament. Victor or Wordsearch)

The generally excellent commentator Henry Morris favors a literal explanation writing that

The word “run” (NAS = "go") actually means “race.” That is, at the time of the end, the world will see “many”—evidently all over the world—racing back and forth, and this phenomenon would help students of God’s promises begin to “unseal the book,” and see that His return is near. It is significant that until the past two centuries, riding on a swift horse was the fastest way to travel. Today we have moved from horses to railroads to autos to airplanes to space ships. (Excellent Defender's Study Bible notes free online) (I do not favor this interpretation but present it only as an example)

In keeping with the context, however, the more plausible interpretation is that this phrase does not speak of a literal increase in travel per se but describes individuals going back and forth in search of knowledge (cf 2Chr 16:9; Jer 5:1; Am 8:12; Zec 4:10). What would motivate people such a frenetic search? Clearly such a search would be stimulated by the cataclysmic events that will occur in the years leading up to and culminating in the time of distress. Note that this same time period immediately preceding Christ's Second Coming is described in much greater detail in Revelation 6 through 19.

The Amplified Version (which also functions as a "mini-commentary - but one I generally find useful) says...

But you, O Daniel, shut up the words and seal the Book until the time of the end. [Then] many shall run to and fro and search anxiously [through the Book], and knowledge [of God’s purposes as revealed by His prophets] shall be increased and become great. (Amplified)

Here are some other versions that favor the interpretation of going to and fro searching for knowledge...

Many shall diligently investigate, and knowledge shall increase." (Darby)

Many people will go here and there to find true knowledge." (International Children's Bible)

Many shall scrutinize it, running through every page. (Fausset)

Here is an example of what I think is a horrible translation from the TEV (The English Version)...

Meanwhile, many people will waste their efforts trying to understand what is happening.

And knowledge will increase - While some see this phrase as a general reference to the exponential explosion in human knowledge in the 21st Century, if one keeps the context of the the end of time in mind (Da 11:36-45, Da 12:1-13 = prophecy of the end times, especially the time of distress), the interpretation would more reasonably describe a general increase in the knowledge of end times events as those events begin to unfold. In other words, God indicated that an increased understanding of what Daniel had written would come. Of course, only those who have "insight" (Da 12:3) and have their spiritual eyes opened by the Holy Spirit (cf Jn 16:13, 1Cor 2:12, 13, 14), will experience this increase in knowledge, and be enabled to understand that these ancient prophecies are beginning to unfold in their lifetime.

Dr Walvoord agrees writing that...

Those who will profit most by the prophecies of Daniel will be those who will be living in the end time.

What will be the result of the fact that knowledge will increase? It certainly will not be just to make them smarter sinners! And while the immediate context does not state with certainty, I think an increased knowledge of the writing of truth (Da 10:21, cf true = Da 10:1,  truth = Da 11:2) about the end times will produce a conviction in the hearts of many Jews and play a role in contributing to the salvation of the one third of Israel (Zech 13:8, 9) who will be rescued out of the time of distress (Da 12:1-note). And while the book of Daniel speaks primarily to the Jews, the principles are clearly applicable to the Gentiles, many of whom will have their eyes opened to the fact that these awesome end time events portend the imminent Second Coming of the Messiah and they will by grace through faith bow to Him as their King while today is still called today (He 3:13-note).

Wiersbe adds that...

In the ancient world, official transactions were ratified with two documents, one that was sealed and kept in a safe place and one that was kept available (Je 32:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,12). God looked upon Daniel's book as the "deed" that guaranteed that He would faithfully keep His promises to the people of Israel. To close up the book and seal it didn't mean to hide it away, because God's message was given so His people would know the future. The book was to be treasured and protected and shared with the Jewish people. However, the book was "sealed" in this sense: the full meaning of what Daniel wrote would not be understood until "the time of the end" (see Mt 24:15). Even Daniel didn't fully understand all that he saw, heard, and wrote! (Da 12:8-note) (Wiersbe, W: Bible Exposition Commentary - Old Testament. Victor or Wordsearch)

Dear reader, are you a prophecy buff who like to talk about end time events and yet you have failed to bow your knee to the King of kings? If so, today could be the day of salvation for you (2Co 6:2) to the praise of the glory of His matchless mercy and grace. As testimony to the fact that many Gentiles will recognize the signs of the times in prophecies such as Daniel and Revelation, the apostle John records...

After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude, which no one could count, from every nation and all tribes and peoples and tongues (this clearly includes Gentiles), standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed in white robes, and palm branches were in their hands and they cry out with a loud voice, saying,

"Salvation to our God who sits on the throne,
and to the Lamb."...

(Play "Salvation Belongs To Our God")

And all the angels were standing around the throne and around the elders and the four living creatures; and they fell on their faces before the throne and worshiped God, and one of the elders answered, saying to me, "These who are clothed in the white robes, who are they, and from where have they come?" And I said to him, "My lord, you know." And he said to me, "These are the ones who come out of the great tribulation, and they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. (Re 7:9-note, Re 7:10-note, Re 7:11-note, Re 7:12-note, Re 7:13-note, Re 7:14-note)

Comment: From this passage in Revelation 7, it is clear that they will be an incredible harvest of souls in the last 3.5 year period of tribulation, and undoubtedly God's sure word of prophecy coming to pass before their very eyes will play a pivotal role in their coming to salvation.

Daniel 12:5 THEN I, DANIEL, LOOKED AND BEHOLD, TWO OTHERS WERE STANDING, ONE ON THIS BANK OF THE RIVER AND THE OTHER ON THAT BANK OF THE RIVER. (Two: Da 10:5,6,10,16) (Of the river: Da 10:4)

Two others - Apparently two angelic beings. Some have suggested this refers to the number of witnesses called for in the Mosaic law (cf Dt 19:15), but that is speculation for the present events have nothing to do with criminal activity. In addition two angels appeared in Daniel 8:13ff-note in the absence of an oath.

The river - The Tigris the same river as in Da 10:4-note remembering that this chapter is still describing what was initially communicated in Daniel 10 when the prophet received his fourth vision.

Daniel 12:6 AND ONE SAID TO THE MAN DRESSED IN LINEN, WHO WAS ABOVE THE WATERS OF THE RIVER, "HOW LONG WILL IT BE UNTIL THE END OF THESE WONDERS?" (One said: Da 8:16 Zec 1:12,13 Eph 3:10 1Pe 1:12) (Man: Da 10:5,6 Eze 9:2 Rev 15:6 19:14) (Above, Rev 10:2-5) (How long: Da 8:13 Ps 74:9 Rev 6:10)


Digital Art by Ted Larson

One said - One of the "two others" who again are presumably angelic beings.

The man dressed in linen - A question from the one (presumably an angel) to the man dressed in linen, who some feel is a pre-incarnate manifestation of Christ. Others interpret him as an angelic being. I think we cannot be dogmatic.

How long - Not how long until they begin but how long they will last once they begin (cf similar question in Da 8:13-note). As 1Pe 1:12-note explains even the angels despite their sinless state are not omniscient and desire to know about the great future events that will radically impact the present world.

Until the end of these wonders - The end of the time of distress which includes many "wonders" including the reign of terror of the Antichrist, the great conflict, etc. This phrase teaches of course that it will come to an end!

Daniel 12:7 I HEARD THE MAN DRESSED IN LINEN, WHO WAS ABOVE THE WATERS OF THE RIVER, AS HE RAISED HIS RIGHT HAND AND HIS LEFT TOWARD HEAVEN, AND SWORE BY HIM WHO LIVES FOREVER THAT IT WOULD BE FOR A TIME, TIMES, AND HALF A TIME; AND AS SOON AS THEY FINISH SHATTERING THE POWER OF THE HOLY PEOPLE, ALL THESE EVENTS WILL BE COMPLETED. (Raised: Dt 32:40 Rev 10:5,7) (lives : Da 4:34 Job 27:2 Jer 4:2) (that it : Da 12:11,12 7:25 8:14 11:13 Rev 11:2,3,15 12:6,14 13:5) (when : Lk 21:14 Rev 10:7 11:7-15) (the holy: Da 8:24 Dt 7:6 26:19 Isa 62:12 1Pe 2:9)

Raised his right hand - Scripture records other situations in which one would raise his hand when uttering an oath (Ge 14:22; Dt 32:40; Rev 10:5,6-note). The fact that he raises both hands suggests this symbolizes the highest degree of assurance one could provide.

Time, times and half a time (See table below for of parallel time phrases) - Comparison with the events described in Rev 12:6-note and Rev 12:14-note, time, times and half a time equates with 1,260 years, the period to be reckoned from the time the "saints were delivered into the hand" of "the little horn." (Da 7:25-note).

Shattering the power - This describes the effect/purpose of the "Great Tribulation" (Mt 24:21), the "time of Jacob's Trouble" (Je 30:7), the finish of "the indignation" (Da 11:36). This indicates that Israel will be utterly defeated by her enemies. This phrase may have a double meaning, in that the breaking of Israel's power will predispose individuals to be broken of their hard hearts and rebellion against God (cf Zech 12:10, 11, 12, 13, 14).

Strauss notes that...

Israel's extremity will be God's opportunity, for then Messiah shall come and the nation will be led to acknowledge Him...

There are those who tell us that the great tribulation spoken of by our Lord was that time of suffering that came upon the Jewish people at the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. But both Daniel and John, and also the Lord Jesus, relate the great tribulation to a judgment that is to come upon the whole world immediately preceding the coming of the Son of Man to earth in power and great glory (Mt 24:29). Our world has witnessed distress of serious magnitude, but the coming last distress will be unequalled. The world today gives little heed to this solemn prophecy, but the present indifference to it will in no wise lessen its fierceness when it comes. (Lehman Strauss Commentary – The Prophecies of Daniel) (The Prophecies of Daniel - Wordsearch)

The holy people (cf Da 12:1-note "your people", Da 9:24-note "your people and your holy city") - In context this phrase refers to Israel, the Jewish people. The nation of Israel will be shattered by the anti-Semitic forces in the last half of the Great Tribulation (Mt 24:21), the time of distress (Da 12:1-note), the time of Jacob's distress (Jer 30:7).

PARALLEL SCRIPTURES
TIME, TIMES AND HALF A TIME
LAST HALF OF DANIEL'S 70TH WEEK
(Click Summary Chart on Daniel's 70th Week)

SCRIPTURE TIME
PHRASE
WHAT THIS TIME
IS ASSOCIATED WITH
Da 9:27 Middle of the week

The prince (Antichrist) who is to come breaks the covenant with Israel and commits the abomination of desolation (see notes)

Da 7:25 Time, times
and half a time

Last 3.5 years - The time during which the saints (Jews) will be given into Little Horn's (Antichrist's) hand (power). (see notes)

Da 12:7 Time, times
and half a time

Last 3.5 years - The time required to shatter the power of the holy people (the Jews) and the completion of the future events described in Daniel 11:36-45.

Rev 11:2 42 months

Last 3.5 years - The time period during which the Gentile nations will be given the outside court of the Temple and will trample down Jerusalem. (see notes)

Rev 12:6 1260 days

Last 3.5 years - The time period when Israel flees into the wilderness to a place prepared by God so that she might be nourished. (see notes)

Rev 12:14 Time and times
and half a time

Last 3.5 years - The time during which Israel is nourished in the wilderness from the presence of the serpent (see notes)

Rev 13:5 42 Months

Last 3.5 years - The time which Antichrist will be given authority to act. (see notes)

Daniel 12:8 AS FOR ME, I HEARD BUT COULD NOT UNDERSTAND; SO I SAID, "MY LORD, WHAT WILL BE THE OUTCOME OF THESE EVENTS? (But : Lk 18:34 Jn 12:16 Ac 1:7 1Pe 1:11) (what : Da 12:6 10:14)

I heard but could not understand - The OT prophets often did not understand the prophecies which the Spirit gave them to record. Peter affirms this truth in the NT writing...

As to this salvation, the prophets who prophesied of the grace that would come to you made careful search and inquiry, seeking to know what person or time the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating as He predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories to follow. It was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves, but you, in these things which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven-- things into which angels long to look. (1Pe 1:10, 11, 12)

Outcome (0319) (acharith) means the "after part", the end of a period of time, the last time, the latter time.

 

In the introductory section of this vision (spanning chapters 10 through 12) we read...

 

Now I have come to give you an understanding of what will happen to your people (Israel) in the latter (acharith) days, for the vision pertains to the days yet future." (Da 10:14-note) (Note that this noun is repeatedly utilized in the prophetic section of Daniel (Da 8:19, 23-note; Da 12:8).

 

Acharith - 60v in the NAS - Gen 49:1; Num 23:10; 24:14, 20; Deut 4:30; 8:16; 11:12; 31:29; 32:20, 29; Job 8:7; 42:12; Ps 37:37f; 73:17; 109:13; 139:9; Prov 5:4, 11; 14:12f; 16:25; 19:20; 20:21; 23:18, 32; 24:14, 20; 25:8; 29:21; Eccl 7:8; 10:13; Isa 2:2; 41:22; 46:10; 47:7; Jer 5:31; 12:4; 17:11; 23:20; 29:11; 30:24; 31:17; 48:47; 49:39; 50:12; Lam 1:9; Ezek 23:25; 38:8, 16; Da 8:19, 23; 10:14; 11:4; 12:8; Hos 3:5; Amos 4:2; 8:10; 9:1; Mic 4:1. NAS = come(2), descendants(1), end(20), final end(1), final period(1), future(7), last(8), latter(7), latter ending(1), latter period(1), least(1), outcome(3), posterity(3), remotest part(1), rest(2), survivors(2).

 

Below are some other uses of acharith that clearly speak of end times events that impact Israel.

 

Acharith is used by Moses in his prophecy of what will happen to rebellious Israel at the end of time (during Daniel's Seventieth Week and specifically the last 3.5 years of the time of the Great Tribulation) declaring...

 

When you are in distress (Dt 4:30KJV = tribulation) and all these things have come upon you, in the latter (acharith) days you will return to the Lord your God and listen to His voice. (Dt 4:30)

 

Comment: Israel will "return" and "listen to His voice" because a Spirit of grace and supplication has been poured out on them, softening their rebellious hearts (cf Zech 12:10). Compare Isa 2:2-note [Micah 4:1 acharith = "last"] where acharith is translated "last" and as in Dt 4:30 clearly refers to the termination of the Great Tribulation and the inauguration of the Messianic Kingdom when the King of kings returns and one third of the Jews repent and return and call out to their Messiah [cf Zech 13:8, 9] - what a happy day it will be! See a parallel description of "the last (acharith) days" (the Millennium) in Hosea 3:5.

 

Here are some other uses of acharith in a distinctly futuristic, end times context...

 

The anger of the LORD will not turn back until He has performed and carried out the purposes of His heart; In the last (acharith) days you will clearly understand it. (Jer 23:20, cp similar uses of acharith in Jer 30:24, Jer 48:47, 49:39, and the related Aramaic word "'acharith" in Da 2:28-note)

 

Comment: Here last refers to the final act of this present age during the Great Tribulation with the inauguration of the New Age of the Messiah when the terms of the New Covenant will be fully and finally fulfilled for the believing Jews who God had promised through Jeremiah 31:31, 32, 33, 34 - note especially the phrase in verse 34 "they shall all know me", cp Hebrews 8:11. Zech 12:10 also alludes to the eyes of the Jews being opened by grace so that they come to understand what their forefathers had done to the Messiah - compare "in the last days you [Jews] will clearly understand it".

Daniel 12:9 HE SAID, "GO YOUR WAY, DANIEL, FOR THESE WORDS ARE CONCEALED AND SEALED UP UNTIL THE END TIME. (Go: Da 12:13) (concealed : Da 12:4 8:26 Isa 8:16 29:11 Rev 10:4)

Go your way, Daniel - Even though Daniel is advanced in age (80+ years), he is not told to go and rest but is commanded to keep pressing on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call.

For these words - He has just said "Go" and now explains why Daniel does not have to worry about the integrity of these prophecies relating to Israel. 

These words are concealed and sealed up until the end of time - This indicates that the words of the vision are preserved intact and secure (cf Da 12:4-note = "until the end of time") and will be available to those who search to and fro in the end time. And as stated in the next verse many Jews as a result of searching the writing of truth will turn and look upon Him Who they pierced (Zech 12:10), recognize Jesus as their Redeemer and be spiritually purged, purified and refined!

Strauss adds that...

It was not needful that Daniel have all the answers at that time. The vision would come to pass at God's appointed time, and that was all Daniel needed to know for the present. The Lord told Daniel that there was no further need to probe deeper into these matters. At the appointed time God will bring all to pass as revealed in the vision. Daniel was not to sit by idly and wait for the fulfillment of the prophecies, but he was told, "Go thy way, Daniel," that is, follow on in the way of obedient service as in the past. (Lehman Strauss Commentary – The Prophecies of Daniel) (The Prophecies of Daniel - Wordsearch)

Daniel 12:10 MANY WILL BE PURGED, PURIFIED AND REFINED, BUT THE WICKED WILL ACT WICKEDLY; AND NONE OF THE WICKED WILL UNDERSTAND, BUT THOSE WHO HAVE INSIGHT WILL UNDERSTAND. (Will be: Da 11:35 Ps 51:7 Isa 1:18 Eze 36:25 Zec 13:9 1Co 6:11 2Co 7:1 Titus 2:14 Heb 12:10 1Pe 1:7,22 Rev 3:18 7:13,14 19:8,14) (but the wicked: 1Sa 24:13 Isa 32:6,7 Eze 47:11 Ho 14:9 Ro 11:8, 9, 10 2Th 2:10-12 Rev 9:20,21 16:11 22:11) (but those who have insight: Da 11:33,35 Ps 107:43 Pr 1:5 2:1-5 Mk 4:11 Lk 24:25 Jn 7:17 Jn 8:47 18:37 1Co 2:10-16 1Jn 5:20)

Some non-literal (see literal interpretation) interpreters such as Edward J Young (Ref) incorrectly associate this verse with the tribulations of God's people throughout history, but such a genre of interpretation completely "jettisons" the Jewishness of this passage and its clear eschatological context!

Many - In context (the end time Da 12:9) this refers to one third of the Jews who will experience the time of the Great Tribulation and cry out to their Messiah to rescue (save) them (Da 12:1-note, Zech 12:10, Zech 13:8, 9, Ro 11:25, 26, 27-note). As discussed above, multitudes of Gentiles will also be saved during this time of distress and tribulation (compare Rev 7:9-note, Rev 7:14-note), but that is not the intended interpretation of this verse.

One might invert the order of Charles Dickens' famous saying (Tale of Two Cities), saying that for Israel the worst of times are yet to come, but they will be followed by the best of times for the Jews who recognize, respond, repent and are refined by the end time three and one half year fires of affliction.

Purged (01305) (barar) means to purify (as one's lips Zeph 3:9), purge out (Ezek 20:38 - which describes the future judgment of Jews at the end of the Great Tribulation to determine who enters the Millennial Kingdom of the Messiah = only saved will enter [read Ezek 20:34, 35, 36, 37, 38]), test (Ec 3:18) or select (1Chr 7:40). This verb can describe a sifting or sorting out, which is exactly what the time of Jacob's distress (Heb = tsarah = tightness, trouble, root deals with harassment and torment engendered by an enemy, intense inner turmoil; same word used in Da 12:1 "time of distress") (Jer 30:7) will accomplish among the Jews. This pressure filled time of distress will produce a separation of the repentant and regenerate from the unrepentant, unregenerate.

Barar - 18x in 16v in the NAS - 2Sa 22:27; 1 Chr 7:40; 9:22; 16:41; Neh 5:18; Job 33:3; Ps 18:26; Eccl 3:18; Isa 49:2; 52:11; Jer 4:11; 51:11; Ezek 20:38; Dan 11:35; 12:10; Zeph 3:9. NAS = choice(2), chosen(2), cleanse(1), pure you show(2), purge(2), purged(1), purified(1), purify(1), select(1), sharpen(1), show yourself pure(2), sincerely(1), tested(1).

SCARLET SINNERS
MADE WHITE
AS SNOW!

Purified (03835) (laban) means to be made white or to come white and is a figurative description of "filthy" sinners made morally pure. Purified is in the Hithpael and thus has been translated both reflexively (RSV = "make themselves white" and passively KJV = "made white"). While either translation is grammatically defensible, the latter translation avoids the misleading suggestion that such moral cleansing comes by self reformation, for only God can make sinners "white as snow" (see below), dressing them in Christ's righteousness (1Co 1:30, 2Co 5:21, Ro 3:21, 22, 23-note, Ro 3:24-note, Php 3:8, 9-note, Isa 61:10) in contrast to man in "his" own righteousness (Ec l7:15, Ezek 33:13, Isa 64:6)

Laban - 5x in 5v in the NAS - Ps 51:7; Isa 1:18; Da 11:35; 12:10; Joel 1:7. NAS = become white(1), make them pure(1), purified(1), white(1), whiter(1).

Daniel used this infrequently used Hebrew word laban earlier in his description of the Jews suffering under the "time of distress" wrought by the "Antichrist of the Old Testament", Antiochus IV Epiphanes...

And some of those who have insight will fall, in order to refine (see tsaraph below), purge (see barar above), and make them pure (laban - KJV has "make them white"), until the end time; because it is still to come at the appointed time. (Da 11:35-note)

In Isaiah, Jehovah calls out to unrepentant sinners in Israel (and by application to sinners of all "genre") with this gracious offer...

Come (command) now, and let us reason together," Says the LORD, "Though your sins are as scarlet, they will be as white (laban) as snow. Though they are red like crimson, they will be like wool. (Isa 1:18-note)

David a man after God's own heart (1Sa 13:14, Acts 13:22) cried out for "washing" of his soul and conscience after his great sin against God which he committed with Bathsheba...

Purify me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; Wash me, and I shall be whiter (laban) than snow. (Ps 51:7-Surgeon's note)

The Lxx (Theodotion)  of Daniel 12:10 uses the verb ekleukaino (to translate the Hebrew laban) which means to make or become quite white. The picture of white garments as symbolic of those who are cleansed from their sin (and are now holy and pure) is frequently alluded to in the Revelation of Jesus Christ (remember that Revelation 6 through 19 gives the details of the horrible time of distress of Da 12:1 which will purge, purify and refine many Jews). The apostle John writes that...

(Jesus speaking) He who overcomes (not a "special" or "elite" group for all believers are "overcomers"! cf 1Jn 5:4, 5) shall thus be clothed in white (leukos - brilliant, bright, shining, glittering, dazzling white as were the garments of the transfigured Jesus Mt 17:2; cf the everlasting state of the saints in Da 12:3, Mt 13:43) garments (cf Rev 3:4-note); and I will not erase his name from the Book of Life (cf Da 12:1 = "everyone who is found written in the book, will be rescued"), and I will confess his name before My Father, and before His angels.  (Rev 3:5-note, cf the spiritually "naked" in Re 3:17-note with those who "purchase" white garments in Re 3:18-note)

And around the throne were twenty-four thrones; and upon the thrones I saw twenty-four elders sitting, clothed in white garments, and golden crowns on their heads. (Rev 4:4-note)

And there was given to each of them (Those who had been slain because of the word of God - Re 6:9-note, Re 6:10-note) a white robe (cf the first garment for sinners Ge 3:21); and they were told that they should rest for a little while longer, until the number of their fellow servants and their brethren who were to be killed even as they had been, should be completed also. (Re 6:11-note)

After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude, which no one could count, from every nation and all tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed in white robes, and palm branches were in their hands...And one of the elders answered, saying to me, "These who are clothed in the white robes, who are they, and from where have they come?" And I said to him, "My lord, you know." And he said to me, "These are the ones who come out of the Great Tribulation, and they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. (Re 7:9-note, Re 7:13-note, Re 7:14-note)

And the armies which are in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean (cf Re 19:7-note), were following Him (Rev 19:11, 12, 13-note) on white horses. (Rev 19:14-note)

If one refuses and rejects God's "whitening" of their soul, they will be forced to stand before a "white" throne for judgment of their wickedness...

And I saw a great white throne and Him who sat upon it, from whose presence earth and heaven fled away, and no place was found for them. (Rev 20:11-note)

Refined (06884) (tsaraph) describes the process by which the refiner purifies metal, first by heating it to separate the dross to leave pure ore (Pr 25:4). Scripture uses tsaraph to describe God's Word as that which is refined and thus is pure (2Sa 22:31, Ps 12:6-note, Ps 18:30-note, Pr 30:5). God uses trials to refine people (Ps 17:3-note, Ps 66:10-note, Ps 119:140-note [pure = tested]; Is 48:10) and in Ps 105:18-note Jehovah used His Word to test Joseph.  David beseeched God to "test" his mind (Ps 26:2-note), which have something to do with why David was called a man after God's own heart (1Sa 13:14, Acts 13:22)!

Tsaraph is used in the present passage to describe God's spiritual refining of Israel (cf Is 1:25 = "smelt"; used in  Zech 13:9, Mal 3:3).

Tsaraph - 32x in 29v in the NAS - Jdg 7:4; 17:4; 2Sa 22:31; Neh 3:8, 32; Ps 12:6; 17:3; 18:30; 26:2; 66:10; 105:19; 119:140; Pr 25:4; 30:5; Isa 1:25; 40:19; 41:7; 46:6; 48:10; Jer 6:29; 9:7; 10:9, 14; 51:17; Da 11:35; 12:10; Zec 13:9; Mal 3:2, 3. NAS = goldsmith(5), goldsmiths(2), pure(1), refine(3), refined(5), refiner's(1), refining goes(1), silversmith(2), smelt(1), smelter(2), smith(1), test(2), tested(4), tried(2).

In a passage that prefigures God's final refining fire, the Great Tribulation, Jeremiah writes...

Therefore thus says the LORD of hosts, "Behold, I will refine (tsaraph)  them and assay (bachan) - in context this speaks of the "crucible" of affliction in the 70 year Babylonian exile) them (Judea), for what else can I do, because of the daughter of My people?" (Je 9:7)

Will be purged, purified and refined (KJV = purified, and made white, and tried) - This a vivid figurative description of the spiritual purification and regeneration of the many (Jews), which the prophet Zechariah identifies as one-third of the nation of Israel using a virtually identical "metallurgical metaphor"...

It will come about in all the land," Declares the LORD, "That two parts in it will be cut off and perish; but the third will be left in it. And I will bring the third part through the fire, refine (tsaraph) them as silver is refined (tsaraph), And test (bachan) them as gold is tested (bachan). They will call on My name, and I will answer them; I will say, 'They are My people,' And they will say, 'The LORD is my God.'" (Zechariah 13:8, 9)

Comment: The last three chapters of Zechariah (12-14) actually present a single unified message which Henry Morris says represents "one the most remarkable prophetic sections in the Bible. Its climax is the great victory of God over all His enemies and the fulfillment of all His promises to Israel. As such, it appropriately begins with a reminder that the God of Israel is none other than the mighty Creator of the universe and of every human being." These last 3 chapters of Zechariah are introduced as the "the burden (for Israel's enemies) of the word of the LORD concerning Israel" (Zech 12:1)

THE REFINER'S
FIRE

The prophet Malachi also alludes to the "Refiner's fire", drawing his readers attention to the "day of His coming" which cuts short the days of the Great Tribulation...

But who can endure the day of His coming (Second Coming brings an end to the Great Tribulation)? And who can stand when He appears? For He is like a refiner's (tsaraph - see discussion of this word above) fire and like fullers' soap. And He will sit as a smelter (tsaraph) and purifier of silver, and He will purify (Heb = taher = make clean, cf Je 33:8 where "cleanse" = taher) the sons of Levi and refine them like gold and silver, so that they may present to the LORD offerings in righteousness (Since the only righteousness acceptable to God is by faith, these are Levitical priests who have come to believe in the Messiah). (Malachi 3:2, 3)

John MacArthur explains: Instead of bringing rewards, His coming is likened to two purifying agents—fire to burn off dross and alkali to whiten—an indication of the true condition of their hearts. The fire will burn off the dross of iniquity; the soap will wash out the stain of sin. His coming will be one in which He removes all impurities. No one will escape this cleansing. Importantly, He will come purifying and cleansing, but not necessarily destroying (cf Is 1:25; 48:10). Since the Levitical priests were instrumental in leading the nation astray and a new group of pure priests was required for the work of the millennial temple (cf. Ezek 44-45:8), the cleansing of the nation would begin with them (cf. Ezek 9:6). Then they can “offer to the Lord” what is righteous as called for in the millennial sacrifices (cf. Ezek 45:9-46:24). offering in righteousness. Given from cleansed hearts in a right condition before God, their offerings will be “in righteousness.” These millennial sacrifices will be a memorial for the redeemed nation of Israel, commemorating Christ’s sacrifice at Calvary. (MacArthur, J.: The MacArthur Study Bible Nashville: Word or Logos)

The prophet Isaiah also alludes to this future end time refining of Israel...

I (Jehovah speaking) will also turn My hand against you, and will smelt away (Heb = tsaraph - smelt, refine, test, try, purge away) your dross (the waste and impurity which is turned away or skimmed off in the refining process) as with lye, and will remove all your alloy. Then I will restore your judges as at the first, and your counselors as at the beginning. After that you will be called the city of righteousness, a faithful city (Referring to Jerusalem)." (Isaiah 1:25, 26-see notes)

The wicked (rasha - evil, ungodly, guilty of crime/sin) will act wickedly - How do you know they are wicked? Look at their actions. Their "rotten fruit" underscores their "rotten root". The bring forth fruit in keeping with an unrepentant heart. The wicked are those who willfully reject the truth, but the those who have insight are those who seek to know it. Even in the face of the clear evidence of God's righteous wrath, two thirds of the Jews will refuse to repent (Zech 13:8), and in their willful unbelief will only be further hardened by their tribulation "fires". (cf the repetitive refrain of the rebels in Revelation of a refusal to repent - Re 2:21-note, Re 9:20-note, Re 9:21-note, Re 16:9-note, Re 16:11-note; Rev 22:11-note cf Mt 13:11, 12; see similar principle in the command to Isaiah to "Render the hearts of this people insensitive..." - Isa 6:9, 10-note)

Paul warned Timothy (and all believers) that...

Indeed, all who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus will be persecuted. But evil men and impostors will proceed from bad to worse, deceiving and being deceived. (2Ti 3:12, 13-note)

Paul solemnly describes the grave danger of rejecting God's truth, explaining that the coming of the Antichrist...

is in accord with the activity of Satan, with all power and signs and false wonders, and with all the deception of wickedness for those who perish, because they did not receive the love of the truth so as to be saved. And for this reason (What reason? They did not "put the welcome mat" out for truth - see study of the verb for "receive" = dechomai) God will send upon them a deluding influence so that they might believe what is false, in order that they all may be judged who did not believe the truth (Note the order - They heard the truth but did not receive it or believe it. Their frightening fate --- divinely dealt delusion!), but took pleasure in wickedness. (2Th 2:9, 10, 11, 12)

The apostle John summarizes these same two contrasting responses (gospel reception and gospel rejection) in the book of the Revelation...

Let the one who does wrong, still do wrong; and the one who is filthy, still be filthy; and let the one who is righteous, still practice righteousness; and the one who is holy, still keep himself holy.  (Revelation 22:11-note)

Monty Mills comments: God is saying that men choose to sin because they want to, not because they know no better; and the inference is that even this book, which reveals the ultimate, stark, destiny of sin, will not deter sinners from pursuing their fancy.

Tony Garland comments: In view of this reality, the marching orders of the Church are similar to those of the prophet Ezekiel:

But when I speak with you, I will open your mouth, and you shall say to them, “Thus says the Lord GOD.” He who hears, let him hear; and he who refuses, let him refuse; for they are a rebellious house. (Ezek 3:27)

It was not Ezekiel’s responsibility to make the rebellious turn. His responsibility was to accurately preserve and convey the message of God. Those who would respond did so. Those who would not did not. He did not own the results!

(Quoting John MacArthur) Preaching Revelation draws the line. Its truths will melt the hearts of the repentant and harden the hearts of the unrepentant. Those same truths thus become either an instrument of salvation, or an instrument of damnation (cf. 1Co 1:18; 2Co 2:15, 16).

Those who have insight will understand (cf foreshadowing of this future event in Da 11:33, 35-note in time of Antiochus Epiphanes) - Who are "those"? In context this refers to believing Jews (those who were spiritually purged, purified and refined) but by application to all believers in these end times. They will understand because God gives them insight (cp Da 2:21,22-note), for the ability to discern or perceive God's work comes only from the wisdom which He imparts. In short, only believers will have supernatural insight into these spiritual events (1Cor 2:10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, cf 1Jn 5:20 = "given us understanding") and therefore they will understand what is happening when the difficult, rapid paced fulfillments begin to transpire in the Seventieth Week of Daniel and especially in the last half, the time of distress.

Daniel 12:11 FROM THE TIME THAT THE REGULAR SACRIFICE IS ABOLISHED AND THE ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION IS SET UP, THERE WILL BE 1,290 DAYS.

From the time - This time phrase clearly begins the countdown which will end in 1290 days. While the beginning is clearly identified as discussed below, there is no specific event associated with the ending.

The regular sacrifice is abolished - This refers to the Jewish sacrifices in the rebuilt Temple in Jerusalem. Daniel 9:26-note explains that the "prince who is to come", who in context is the "little horn" or the Antichrist, will "put a stop to sacrifice and grain offering" (Da 9:27-note)

The abomination of desolation (See word studies) is set up - This is the pivotal event about which Jesus had prophesied in Mt 24:15 (Mk 13:14) and Daniel had described in Da 9:27-note, the abomination occurring at the midpoint of Daniel's Seventieth Week.

This event was prefigured by actions of Antiochus IV Epiphanes as described in Daniel 8 and Daniel 11...

It even magnified itself to be equal with the Commander of the host; and it removed the regular sacrifice from Him, and the place of His sanctuary was thrown down. And on account of transgression the host will be given over to the horn along with the regular sacrifice; and it will fling truth to the ground and perform its will and prosper.  (Da 8:11, 12-note)

And forces from him will arise, desecrate the sanctuary fortress, and do away with the regular sacrifice. And they will set up the abomination of desolation. (Da 11:31-note)

The abomination of desolation describes the future desecration of the rebuilt Jewish Temple by an abomination presumably in the Holy of holies. The Hebrew word for abomination often refers to an idol, something/someone in the place of God, and when compared with other related passages, the abomination is best explained as either an abominable person (the Antichrist) or his idolatrous image as recorded by Paul and John respectively...

(Paul writes about the "abominable" person, the Antichrist) Let no one in any way deceive you, for it will not come unless the apostasy comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction, who opposes and exalts himself above every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, displaying himself as being God. (2Thes 2:3, 4)

(John writes about the "abominable" image of the person, the Antichrist) And he (the False Prophet, aka the second beast, the "front man" for the Antichrist) deceives those who dwell on the earth (earth dwellers = a "technical term" in Revelation that equates with unbelievers) because of the signs which it was given him to perform in the presence of the beast, telling those who dwell on the earth to make an image to the beast who had^ the wound of the sword and has come to life. And there was given to him to give breath to the image of the beast (An abominable idol of the Antichrist!), that the image of the beast might even speak and cause as many as do not worship the image of the beast to be killed. And he causes all, the small and the great, and the rich and the poor, and the free men and the slaves, to be given a mark on their right hand, or on their forehead, and he provides that no one should be able to buy or to sell, except the one who has the mark, either the name of the beast or the number of his name. Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for the number is that of a man; and his number is six hundred and sixty-six. (Rev 13:14-18-note)

Those who do not accept the literal futuristic interpretation of prophecy, are forced to contrive speculative interpretations of the text. Here is an example from the respected theologian R A Torrey who compiled the incredibly useful resource, The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge (from which this quote is derived)...

(Ed note: Explaining the "abomination of desolation Torrey writes that this is) Probably Mohammedanism, which sprang up in power the same year as the papal, A.D. 606; and 1,290 years from that time will be A.D. 1896, and 1,335 years A.D. 1941.

There will be 1290 days - There are 1260 days from the setting of the image in the temple until the Beast is destroyed by the returning Christ (Rev 19:19,20-note). One can only speculate to what this extra 30 days (1260 + 30) refers. Most conservative commentators feel this probably refers to the time it will take to judge the Gentiles and Jews who physically survive the Great Tribulation to determine who is allowed to enter into the 1000 year Kingdom of Christ.

It is surprising that the highly respected commentator Gleason Archer feels that the last 3.5 years is only an approximation and that the 1,290 days is a more accurate description of the Antichrist’s persecution of Israel! To the contrary, God seems to go to great lengths to identify exactly the beginning and end of this most horrible time period in the history of Israel (and the world) (See table listing God's very specific parallel time phrases).

Be on the alert for non-literalist interpreters like Joyce Baldwin who writes that...

All attempts to find an exact application of the literal numbers break down. We turn next to the symbolic interpretation, keeping in mind that there have already been indications of symbolic numbers in the book, notably the seventy sevens of years in 9:24-27

Comment: I do not agree with Baldwin (and would advise an Acts 17:11 mindset when reading anything by this author!), but present this quote as an example of the dangerous practice of invoking non-literal interpretation in passages where the text does not obviously warrant such an approach. Just because we do not know the event(s) associated with 1290 days and 1335 days does not justify a non-literal interpretation. What these specific time phrase do warrant is a measured, non-dogmatic interpretative approach. Remember Dt 29:29 is still relevant! Cf Jn 16:12!

This verse of course presupposes that the Jewish Temple will be rebuilt in Jerusalem. Mark Hitchcock writes that...

The main impediment to the rebuilding of a temple in Jerusalem is the presence of the Muslim Dome of the Rock, or the Mosque of Omar, on the place where the temple must be rebuilt. Also on the Temple Mount is the AL-Aqsa Mosque, which was completed in A.D. 715 and which is regarded as the third holiest place in Islam (after Mecca and Medina). However, Muslims consider the Dome of the Rock to be the crown of the Temple Mount. How will the Jews ever be able to rebuild their temple, with the Dome of the Rock on the same piece of real estate, without triggering World War III? To me this is one of the thorniest problems in all of Bible prophecy.

However, there are several possible solutions that are commonly put forth.

Here are three of the more common solutions to this problem:

1. Some believe that the temple could be rebuilt without disturbing the Dome of the Rock. The Jewish temple and Muslim Dome of the Rock could stand side by side on the Temple Mount. This is very unlikely for two reasons. First, the best archaeologists, including Israeli scholars, concur that the Dome of the Rock stands on the site where the first and second Jewish temples once stood. Second, even if the temple could be rebuilt next to the Dome of the Rock, this would be anathema to both the Jews and the Muslims. Neither of them would accept this solution.

2. It is also possible that God will send some great disaster, such as an earthquake, that will destroy the Muslim structures on the Temple Mount.

3. A third possible solution is that the annihilation of Russia and her Muslim allies, as detailed in Ezekiel 38-39, will eliminate the Muslim threat to the Jews, thus allowing them to tear down the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque and rebuild their temple without fear of reprisal.

I believe that the simplest one is for the Antichrist, when he comes to power, to impose a peace treaty on Israel and the Islamic/Arab nations. A key element in that plan would have to include Israeli sovereignty over the Temple Mount area. The Antichrist will then do what no one has been able to do up to that point. He will bring a comprehensive peace plan to the Middle East. If he is able to somehow compel Muslims to give up control of the Temple Mount and return it to the Jews, he certainly would be hailed as the greatest diplomat in human history. This may be the event that catapults him onto the international political scene as the world's messiah. (Mark Hitchcock - Is the Antichrist Alive Today?)

Daniel 12:12 HOW BLESSED IS HE WHO KEEPS WAITING AND ATTAINS TO THE 1,335 DAYS! (Ro 11:15 Rev 20:4)

Blessed is he who keeps waiting and attains - While the specific event that ends in 1335 days is uncertain, the reaction called for is clear -- this time is marked by blessing in the Millennial age and the age to come.

Compare the seven uses of "blessed" in the Revelation - Rev 1:3-note Rev 14:13-note Rev 16:15-note Rev 19:9-note Rev 20:6-note Rev 22:7-note Rev 22:14-note. My favorite is...

Blessed (makarios) are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb (in His Messianic Kingdom). (Rev 19:9-note, see also Lk 22:18, 29, 30, Mt 8:11)

Blessed (0835) ('esher related to the verb 'ashar = in its root means to be straight, to be right) conveys a deep sense of well-being. 'Esher speaks of the inner contentment in the life of the man or woman who is right or “straight” with God. The man who practices righteousness will be a blessed man.

'Esher - 42 OT uses - Dt. 33:29; 1Ki. 10:8; 2Chr. 9:7; Job 5:17; Ps 1:1; 2:12; 32:1,2; 33:12; 34:8; 40:4; 41:1; 65:4; 84:4,5, 12; 89:15; 94:12; 106:3; 112:1; 119:1,2; 127:5; 128:1,2; 137:8,9; 144:15; 146:5; Pr 3:13; 8:32, 34; 14:21; 16:20; 20:7; 28:14; 29:18; Ec 10:17; Isa. 30:18; 32:20; 56:2; Da 12:12

One person has written...

The word happy is a good rendition of blessed ('esher), provided one keeps in mind that the condition of "bliss" is not merely a feeling. Even when the righteous do not feel happy, they are still considered "blessed" from God's perspective. He bestows this gift on them. Neither negative feelings nor adverse conditions can take his blessing away

John Piper adds that the Hebrew word 'esher...

means happy in the rich, full sense of happiness rooted in moral and mental and physical well being.

The Septuagint (LXX) translates blessed with the Greek word makarios (see word study) which can be summed up as describing the man who is fully satisfied especially in the spiritual sense, surely the state of the righteous who enter the Millennial Kingdom. The blessed man knows that he is safe in "the Ark" of Jehovah, the One Who declares I Am... I Am anything and everything you will ever need (not want but need! cf Php 4:19, Ps 23:1, Ps 84:11,  Mt 6:33, Lk 12:30, 31, 32, Ro 8:32, 2Co 9:8, He 13:5, 6 2Sa 22:7 Da 3:28, 6:22 Ps 116:4 ; Ps 120:1)

Gleason Archer comments that...

The believers who survive to that day and share in the glory of Jesus’ coronation on earth are here acclaimed as “blessed.” They are about to become citizens of the most wonderful society governed by the most wonderful ruler in all human history—the Millennial Kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ! (Gaebelein, F, Editor: Expositor's Bible Commentary OT 7 Volume Set: Books: Zondervan Publishing or  computer version)

Keeps waiting - This verb (hakah/chakah) can convey the sense of waiting accompanied by a sense of longing or hoping for something to occur (Ps 33:20; Isa. 8:17; Hab 2:3; Zeph 3:8). The idea is reminiscent of Paul's last words of encouragement to believers to remember that ...

in the future there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day; and not only to me, but also to all who have loved His appearing. (2Ti 4:8-note)

Henry Morris remarks that at the Christ's Judgment of the Gentiles after the Great Tribulation and prior to the Millennium Jesus will say to the "sheep"...

“Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world” (Mt 25:34), and they will be enabled to enter, still in their natural bodies, the great millennial kingdom of Christ, where they will serve as the initial generations inhabiting the earth during that glorious period. The resurrected saints will also be there, in teaching and governing capacities (Rev 20:4, 6). Daniel himself will be there and “stand in thy lot at the end of the days” (Da 12:13).(Excellent Defender's Study Bible notes free online)

Daniel 12:13 BUT AS FOR YOU, GO YOUR WAY TO THE END; THEN YOU WILL ENTER INTO REST AND RISE AGAIN FOR YOUR ALLOTTED PORTION AT THE END OF THE AGE." (go: Da 12:9) (rest: Da 12:3 Isa 57:1 Zec 3:7 Mt 19:28 Lk 2:29,30 2Co 5:1 2Th 1:7 2Ti 4:7,8 Rev 14:13) (Rise again: Ps 1:5 Lk 21:36 Jude 1:14,15)

REST
RESURRECTION
REWARD

But as for you - God has not forgotten His servant Daniel.

Go your way to the end - Not the end of this age but the end of his life. Keep on keeping on Daniel. Daniel may have been in his 80's but as long he had breath, he had time he could redeem. One has little doubt that he complied with this command.

Enter into your rest  - This is a reference to the end of Daniel's physical life on earth, which is not the end of his existence, but is the beginning of his promised rest. Immediately upon death, all those of the faith obtain rest (Is 57:1,2; Da 12:13; Lk 23:43, cf "rest" in Rev 14:13-note). What a glorious, blessed hope this sure word of prophecy (2Pe 1:19-note) is for Daniel and by way of application to all believers (Beginning to see signs of "spiritual burnout"? - Study the concept of "Rest" in the Bible) Note that this verse is not teaching the false doctrine of "soul sleep (note)"!

Rise again (KJV = "dost stand") - God promises the highly esteemed Daniel that he will be resurrected and enter into the next age on God's calendar (the Millennial Age).

I agree wholeheartedly with Leon Wood who observes that...

If Daniel is to be resurrected at this time, then other Old Testament saints will likely be resurrected at the same time, thus giving evidence regarding the probable time for the resurrection of Old Testament saints (Leon Wood -Daniel commentary).

McGee agrees writing that...

"In thy lot" (Da 12:13KJV) means that Daniel will be raised with the Old Testament saints at the beginning of the Millennium.

David's affirmation is that of Daniel and every genuine believer...

As for me, I shall behold Your face in righteousness; I will be satisfied with Your likeness when I awake. (Ps 17:15-note)

Your allotted portion (Da 12:13NIV "allotted inheritance" cf Jdg 1:3, Col 1:12-note) - This describes Daniel's reward at the end of this age, when he is resurrected (along with Moses and David and all the OT saints) when he will surely hear "Well done, My good and faithful servant". (cf Mt 25:21, 23, Lk 19:17)

Miller writes...

This “consolation of hope” belongs to all who have received Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. May every person who reads these words be part of that great host of the redeemed who “will shine like the brightness of the heavens” and “like the stars for ever and ever!” (Amen and Amen!) (Miller, S. R. - Daniel - New American Commentary) (Logos version) (Wordsearch version).

THE END OF
THE AGE:
THE BEST IS
YET TO COME!

End of the age - "The age" is a specific phrase in Scripture and in this context describes the end of this present age in which we live today, which comes to an end in the last 3.5 years, the Great Tribulation, when Christ, the Stone of Daniel 2 returns (Da 2:34, 35-note, Da 2:45-note) (Christ's Second Coming). "The age" Daniel and we today live in will be followed by another age, the the Messianic Age. This phrase gives us a "clue" as to when the resurrection of the OT righteous (saints) will occur - at the end of the age. When Jesus returns in triumph to reign as King of kings at the end of the age, all the OT saints will experience a bodily resurrection. This is simply one "phase" of the blessed "First Resurrection" (see notes above)

Jews divided all time into two ages this present age which they felt was wholly bad and beyond all hope of human reformation. It could only be mended by the direct intervention of the Messiah. The other division was "the age to come" when Messiah intervenes in the history of the world and establishes the golden age. At that time, the age to come, will have arrived.

Jesus spoke about the age in his parable on the tares...

The enemy who sowed them (tares) is the devil, and the harvest is the end of the age; and the reapers are angels. Therefore just as the tares are gathered up and burned with fire, so shall it be at the end of the age...So it will be at the end of the age; the angels shall come forth, and take out the wicked from among the righteous, (Mt 13:39, 40, 49) (See other NT uses referring to the age -  Lk 20:34, 35 Mt 12:32 Mk 10:30)

Comment: Louis Barbieri notes that "“The end of the Age” represents the conclusion of the present Age before Christ establishes the messianic kingdom.

The disciple's question about the age was followed by Jesus' famous Olivet Discourse...

And as He was sitting on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to Him privately, saying, "Tell us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign of Your coming, and of the end of the age?"

Comment: Henry Morris writes that this age refers to "the "age" of time and space in which people now live and have lived since the world was drastically changed by the Flood in the days of Noah." (Morris, Henry: Defenders Study Bible. Hard bound) (Free Online Version - For notes on a chapter type eg, Daniel 12 in box = "With all of these words")

John MacArthur adds that "End translates sunteleia, a compound word that refers to completion, as in the final culmination of a planned series of events. In the disciples’ minds the end of the age would accompany Jesus’ full manifestation of His messianic power and glory, bringing to a close the era of man’s sin and rebellion against God and ushering in the divine kingdom of righteousness and justice. (Matthew 8-15, Matthew 16-23, Matthew 24-28 or Logos or Wordsearch)

In His so-called "Great Commission" Jesus said...

All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. Go therefore and make disciples (aorist imperative = the only command in this section - Do this now! Do it effectively!) of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age."

John MacArthur: Always literally means “all the days.” For the individual believer that means all the days of his life. But in its fullest meaning for the church at large it means even to the end of the age, that is, until the Lord returns bodily to judge the world and to rule His earthly kingdom. (See Mt 13:37- 50, where Christ uses the phrase “end of the age” three times to designate His second coming.) Jesus will not visibly return to earth and display Himself before the whole world in His majestic glory and power until the end of the age.  (Matthew 8-15, Matthew 16-23, Matthew 24-28 or Logos or Wordsearch)

F B Meyer has a devotional on Daniel 12:13...

Man becomes mystified with the great circle of God’s Providence. He tries to follow it, but his eyesight fails; his heart and head grow weary. And God says, It is enough—go thy way till the end be: learn thy lesson; do thy work; tread the predetermined path: it is enough that thou shouldst fulfill thy little day; evening will be here presently, and then thou shalt rest; leave the evolution of my vast schemes to Me; I will bring all right; and “thou shalt stand in thy lot at the end of the days.”

Thy way. — For every one that way is prepared; identical in the main outlines, but special for the footsteps that are destined to tread it. There are three elements, which are almost certainly present—Suffering, the strain of Toil, and Temptation. So long as the blight of the curse lingers on our earth, these will be the ingredients in our cup. But let us go on our way. It is graduated to our steps. God’s grace will be sufficient for us.

Our lot. — What will it be? As Canaan was allotted, so will heaven be. Where shall we stand? Among the overcomers, or the martyrs, or the virgin souls that follow the Lamb whithersoever He goeth, or those that get the victory over the Beast? Or shall our lot be amongst those who have buried their talents, forgotten their oil, and proved disobedient and self-indulgent? “Make us to be numbered with thy saints in glory everlasting.”

Thou shalt Rest. — Heaven will be to each soul what it most desires, and has missed on earth. To the lonely, Love: to those that hunger and thirst for righteousness, Holiness: to those who have dwelt amid perpetual warring and strife, Peace: to the weary, Rest—and to all the vision of God in Christ.  (Our Daily Homily)

In light of the great future and hope promised in the prophecies of Daniel not only to Israel but to all who by grace through faith believe in the Messiah...

Therefore, gird your minds for action, keep sober in spirit, fix your hope (aorist imperative = Do this now! Do it effectively! Do it with a sense of urgency!) completely on the grace to be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ. (1Pe 1:13-note)

Therefore, my beloved brethren, be (present imperative = Command to let each of the following be our daily/habitual practice! What God commands, He always enables!) steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your toil is not in vain in the Lord. (1Co 15:58)

DANIEL'S...
AND EVERY BELIEVER'S
...BLESSED HOPE

For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all men, instructing us to deny ungodliness and worldly desires and to live sensibly, righteously and godly in the present age,

LOOKING FOR (note)
the Blessed Hope
and the Appearing of the Glory
of our Great God and Savior,
Christ Jesus

Who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from every lawless deed and purify for Himself a people for His own possession, zealous for good deeds. (Titus 2:11-note, Titus 2:12-note, Titus 2:13-note, Titus 2:14-note, cf 1Jn 3:2-note, 1Jn 3:3-note)

Beloved, in view of the fact that every word of Daniel is the writing of truth (Da 10:21) and is true (Da 10:1, cf Da 11:2), what are you "looking for"? Are you looking for the temporal pleasures of this world which is passing away (and even its lusts - 1Jn 2:17-note) or are you longingly, anxiously looking for and anticipating the appearance of our glorious "Blessed Hope" (Titus 2:13-note)? Remember, what you are looking for will (should) radically impact what you are living for!

 


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