The Millennium - Part 2

Updated February 1, 2016

Off Site Resources on the Millennium:

Table Comparing Present Age, the Millennium and Eternity Future (off site)

Excellent off site discussion of the Millennium

The Millennial Position of Spurgeon by Dennis Swanson

The Theocratic Kingdom - Volume 1-3

Although written in 1883, The Theocratic Kingdom stands as one of the single best expositions on the kingdom of God (including the Millennial Kingdom) ever written. In 1883 George Peters published his 3 volume magnum opus which is now available online. Links to Pdf's of each volume are listed below in addition to a link to Volume 1 (698 pages) in a rich text format (MS Word document). The Pdf downloads are huge, so be patient as the three volumes total more than 2000 pages.

In 1952, Dr. Wilbur Smith writing a preface to the Theocratic Kingdom work said in his opening remarks that...

No writer of a major work in the field of Biblical interpretation in modern times could have lived and died in greater oblivion, and experienced less recognition for a great piece of work, than the author of these three great volumes devoted to Biblical prophecy . . . Yet, this clergyman, never becoming nationally famous, never serving large churches, passing away in such comparative obscurity . . . wrote the most important single work on Biblical predictive prophecy to appear in this country at any time during the nineteenth century.

Lewis Sperry Chafer said that The Theocratic Kingdom was

The greatest work on prophetic interpretation ever written.

A C Gaebelein (In the Harmony of the Prophetic Word) (Published 1907)

Arnold Fruchtenbaum

Articles by Dr John Walvoord on the Millennium:

The Doctrine of the Millennium — Part I: The Righteous Government of the Millennium

The Doctrine of the Millennium — Part II: Spiritual Life in the Millennium

The Doctrine of the Millennium — Part III: Social and Economic Aspects of the Millennium

The Doctrine of the Millennium — Part IV: The Heavenly Jerusalem


The Millennial Kingdom — Part I: The Prophetic Context of the Millennium

The Prophetic Context of the Millennium — Part II: The Second Coming of Christ

The Prophetic Context of the Millennium — Part III: The Second Coming of Christ in the New Testament

The Prophetic Context of the Millennium — Part IV: The Resurrection at the Second Advent


The Reign of Christ - Revelation 20 (Includes Discussion of Millennial Kingdom)

The Future Work of Christ — The Millennial Kingdom and the Eternal State


Part 2

What are the events leading up to the "1000 years", the Millennium, the Messianic Age, when Christ reigns over the earth from His throne in Jerusalem?

This section will address this question and provide a temporal context by which one can better understand the doctrine of the Millennium. The diagram at the end of this page summarizes much of the following discussion in the form of a Timeline to help you quickly see the relationship of the complex array of end time events immediately preceding the Millennium.

For the purposes of this discussion, the last 7 years (click diagram) of Daniel's Seventy Weeks (Da 9:27-note) will be the main time period to which all the other events preceding the Millennium will be referenced. Daniel's Seventieth Week is often called "the Tribulation" by evangelical commentaries but is actually never specifically given that designation in Scripture, although the last 3.5 years of this 7 year period is specifically designated by Jesus as the Great Tribulation (Mt 24:21, Re 7:14-note).

Although we will not discuss the rapture, note that many evangelicals believe that the body of Christ composed of all genuine believers will be "raptured" before Daniel's Seventieth Week, the Pre-Tribulation Rapture (1Th 4:13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18-see notes 1Th 4:13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18; compare Jn 14:1,2, 3; 1Co 15:51, 52, Rev 3:10-note) and thus will not be present on earth during this time seven year period.


The Tribulation
Seventieth Week of Daniel



Antichrist Breaks
Covenant w/ Israel



3.5 Years
2 Witnesses
Prophesy 1260 days

3.5 Years

According to Daniel 9:24-27, Daniel's Seventieth Week is inaugurated by a peace treaty between the Anti-christ and Israel ("he will make a firm covenant with the many for one week" - Da 9:27-note). The Antichrist (little horn, man of sin, man of lawlessness, son of destruction, the beast - see complete list of his aliases) is characterized by boastful words and ascends to power out of a 10 nation/kingdom loose confederacy ("another will arise after them" Da 7:24) which most literal interpreters take to be a form of the "revived Roman Empire", possibly related to modern day Europe and/or the European Union (speculation). In Antichrist's rise to power, 3 of the 10 kingdoms are rooted up and destroyed ("he will be different from the previous ones and will subdue three kings." Da 7:24), leaving 8 "kingdoms" (the original 7 plus that of the antichrist's kingdom).

From Re 11:1, 2 (notes) we know that the Jewish Temple is rebuilt either before or during the first three and one half years of Daniel's Seventieth Week (the exact timing of the Temple rebuilding is not clear in Scripture but it is interesting that Jewish members of the Temple Mount Faithful Movement are actively preparing for such an event) thus allowing the Jews to reinstitute Temple sacrifices. At the time of this writing (July, 2008), such an event would appear to be an impossibility and could even initiate a "Jihad". Why? Because the Dome of the Rock, one of the Islam's holiest shrines, now occupies a major portion of the Temple Mount, where the future Jewish Temple will be rebuilt (although some believe the actual site of the previous Jewish Temple is in the northern section of Temple Mount, so that theoretically one would not have to destroy the Dome of the Rock to rebuild the Jewish Temple but this is speculation). Because of the "firm covenant" (Da 9:27-note) between Israel and the antichrist, the Jews will be living at peace in the land of Israel during the first half of Daniel's Seventieth Week for the first time over 2000 years! And they will owe their allegiance to the Antichrist who brokered this long sought Middle East peace accord.

During the 3.5 years of the Tribulation or Daniel's Seventieth Week, God grants "authority to two witnesses, and they will prophesy for 1260 days (42 months, 3.5 years, time, times, half a time) clothed in sackcloth" (Re 11:3, 4, 5, 6, 7 - see notes Re 11:3; 11:4; 11:5; 11:6; 11:7) until the antichrist, "the beast" kills them (see note Revelation 11:7). At this midpoint (of the 7 years) a critically important set of events transpire (Re 11:13,14, 15 - see notes Re 11:13;14; 15) John recording the worldwide "breaking news" documenting the literal resurrection of the 2 witnesses in Jerusalem...

And after the three and a half days the breath of life from God came into them, and they stood on their feet; and great fear fell upon those who were beholding them. And they heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, "Come up here." And they went up into heaven in the cloud, and their enemies beheld them. And in that hour there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city (Jerusalem) fell; and 7000 people were killed in the earthquake (these details will undoubtedly be reported widely reported by the news media so that the whole world recognizes the time of the "Great Tribulation" is at hand - see below), and the rest were terrified and gave glory to the God of heaven. (see notes Re 11:11; 11:12; 11:13)

Israel's peace will prove to be a false peace, as the subsequent events that occur at the middle of Daniel's Seventieth Week begin to transpire. John records that at this midpoint of the seven years Satan will be "thrown down to the earth" (Re 12:7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13-see notes Re 12:7; 12:8; 12:9; 10; 11; 13) and will give "his authority to the beast (the antichrist)" (Re 13:4-note), thus "energizing" him. Empowered by Satan, the antichrist breaks his covenant with Israel, causing her sacrifices to cease (Da 9:27-note) and

exalts himself above every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, displaying himself as being God. (2Th 2:4).


Jesus emphasizes the critical importance of recognizing these midpoint events declaring that...

Therefore when you see the ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION (the antichrist displaying himself as being God) which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (the holy of holies in the rebuilt Jewish Temple) (let the reader understand)...for then there will be a great tribulation, such as has not occurred since the beginning of the world until now, nor ever shall. And unless those days had been cut short, no life would have been saved; but for the sake of the elect those days shall be cut short. (Mt 24:15, 21-22)

The midpoint events inaugurate the Great Tribulation, the horrific last half of Daniel's Seventieth Week, a time period so important in God's prophetic timetable that it is described in multiple passages under various synonyms as outlined in the following table...


(Mt 24:15, 21, 22)
Deuteronomy 4:29, 30 when you are in distress
(ESV = tribulation)
Daniel 11:36 indignation
Daniel 12:1 a time of great distress
(ESV = time of trouble)
Is 26:20 indignation
(ESV = fury)
Jeremiah 30:7-note the time of Jacob's distress
Revelation 7:14 great tribulation

The false prophet actively promotes the antichrist during the last half of Daniel's Seventieth Week, deceiving

those who dwell on the earth because of the signs which it was given him to perform in the presence of the Beast (note) (another note on "beast"; the Antichrist = his aliases), telling those who dwell on the earth (see See Earth Dwellers) to make an image to the beast who had the wound of the sword and has come to life (a "counterfeit" resurrection). And there was given to him to give breath to the image of the beast, that the image of the beast might even speak and cause as many as do not worship the image of the beast to be killed. And he (the False Prophet who) causes all, the small and the great, and the rich and the poor, and the free men and the slaves, to be given a mark on their right hand, or on their forehead, and he provides that no one should be able to buy or to sell, except the one who has the mark, either the name of the beast or the number of his name. Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for the number is that of a man; and his number is six hundred and sixty-six (666). (see notes Revelation 13:14; 15; 16; 17; 18)

During this last 3.5 years (Click for synonymous time phrases), Jerusalem is "tread under foot...for forty-two months" (Re 11:2-note) by the Gentile nations, fulfilling Jesus' prophecy of "the times of the Gentiles" (Lu 21:24) during which "Jerusalem (would) be trampled under foot by the Gentiles", this trampling having begun with Babylon's defeat of Judah in 586BC.

Although this last 3.5 years will be a Great Tribulation for Israel, this horrific time will also be a time of one of the greatest harvests of souls the world has ever seen as the result of the powerful testimony of the "two witnesses" in the first 3.5 years (Re 11:3, 4, 5, 6, 7, -see notes Re 11:3; 11:4; 11:5; 11:6; 11:7), possibly the ministry of 144,000 Jews (Re 7:4-note -- many feel they will be witnesses, although Scripture is not clear) and finally as a result of the worldwide proclamation of the gospel (which appears to be right at the midpoint of the last 7 years), John recording that...

And I saw another angel flying in mid-heaven, having an eternal gospel to preach to those who live on the earth, and to every nation and tribe and tongue and people; and he said with a loud voice,

Fear God, and give Him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come; and worship Him who made the heaven and the earth and sea and springs of waters. (see notes Revelation 14:6; 14:7)

And so during the last 3.5 year reign of terror, John records the wonderful vision of...

a great multitude, which no one could count, from every nation and all tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed in white" those martyred for their faith in the Messiah, having "come out of the great tribulation, and they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. (see notes Revelation 7:9; 7:10; 7:11; 7:12; 7:13; 7:14)

Paul addressing the fate of Israel during this last 3.5 years records that...

and thus all Israel will be saved; just as it is written, "THE DELIVERER WILL COME FROM ZION, HE WILL REMOVE UNGODLINESS FROM JACOB." "AND THIS IS MY COVENANT WITH THEM, WHEN I TAKE AWAY THEIR SINS." (see notes Romans 11:26; 11:27)

This all Israel is all of those who have become believers in Messiah during the Great Tribulation, Zechariah explaining that..

it will come about in all the land," declares the LORD, "that two parts in it will be cut off and perish; but the third will be left in it. (the so-called faithful remnant) And I will bring the third part (corresponds to 'all Israel in Ro 11:26 {note}) through the fire (the time of Jacob's distress), refine them as silver is refined, and test them as gold is tested. They will call on My name, and I will answer them; I will say, 'They are My people,' and they will say, 'The LORD is my God.' (this is the oneness of covenant - see study on New Covenant in the Old Testament) (Zechariah 13:8-9)

As the "Great Tribulation" draws to a close, we see a rapid fire series of events occurring on a global scale.

The Antichrist enters Palestine and defeats Egypt, Libya, and Ethiopia (Da 11:40, 41, 42, 43). At this same time the armies from the East and the North move toward Palestine (Da 11:44; Re 16:12 -note), which prompts the Antichrist to "go forth with great wrath to destroy and annihilate many." (Da 11:44).

John records that during the last part of the Great Tribulation - Demons inspire "the kings of the whole world, to gather...together for the war of the great day of God, the Almighty" and they "gathered them together to the place which in Hebrew is called Har-Magedon" (notice "Armageddon" {click here} is not the battle per se as is often taught but is the gather prior to the battle) (see notes Revelation 16:14; 16:16)

Jerusalem is ravaged, Zechariah recording this horrible time declaring - Behold, a day is coming for the LORD when the spoil taken from you will be divided among you. For I will gather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle, and the city will be captured, the houses plundered, the women ravished, and half of the city exiled, but the rest of the people will not be cut off from the city. Then the LORD will go forth and fight against those nations, as when He fights on a day of battle. And in that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, which is in front of Jerusalem on the east; and the Mount of Olives will be split in its middle from east to west by a very large valley, so that half of the mountain will move toward the north and the other half toward the south. And you will flee by the valley of My mountains (Zechariah 14:1-5a)

Tony Garland has the following summary of the Great Tribulation (A Testimony of Jesus Christ - Jacob’s Trouble and the Great Tribulation)...

Two other titles which are related to the coming Day of the Lord are the Time of Jacob’s Trouble and the Great Tribulation. (#1 - see notes below) Notice that all three involve the concept of an unparalleled time of trouble. Unparalleled implies two things concerning the time periods involved:

1 Since there cannot be more than one unparalleled time of trouble, their time periods must overlap. (#2)

2 These events have not transpired in the past. (#3)

Regarding the timing of the Great Tribulation, Jesus said

“Therefore when you see the ‘abomination of desolation,’ spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place” (whoever reads, let him understand), “then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains. Let him who is on the housetop not go down to take anything out of his house. And let him who is in the field not go back to get his clothes. But woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing babies in those days! And pray that your flight may not be in winter or on the Sabbath. For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be. And unless those days were shortened, no flesh would be saved; but for the elect’s sake those days will be shortened.” (Mt 24:15-22)

Jesus referred to this Daniel 9:27 “overspreading of abominations” in Matthew 24:15. Then He said, “then shall be Great Tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be” (Mt 24:21), thereby indicating that the Great Tribulation will begin when the overspreading of abominations of Daniel 9:27 occurs. Since the Great Tribulation will begin when the overspreading of abominations occurs in the middle of the 70th week, we can conclude that the Great Tribulation will begin in the middle of the 70th week of Daniel, or after the first three and one-half years of that seven-year period have transpired. (#4)

Notice Jesus says, “let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains” and “pray that your flight may not be . . . on the Sabbath.” There is an explicit Jewish element to this entire passage. This is because the events are related to the Time of Jacob’s Trouble described by Jeremiah:

‘For behold, the days are coming,’ says the LORD, ‘that I will bring back from captivity My people Israel and Judah,’ says the LORD. ‘And I will cause them to return to the land that I gave to their fathers, and they shall possess it.’ Now these are the words that the LORD spoke concerning Israel and Judah. For thus says the LORD: ‘We have heard a voice of trembling, of fear, and not of peace. Ask now, and see, whether a man is ever in labor with child? So why do I see every man with his hands on his loins like a woman in labor, and all faces turned pale? Alas! For that day is great, so that none is like it; and it is the time of Jacob’s trouble, but he shall be saved out of it.’ (Je 30:3-7)

Notice several important aspects within this passage:

1 Jacob is Israel - Jacob fathered the 12 tribes and was given the name Israel by God (Gen. 32:28). Thus, this is describing a time of trouble specifically for the Jews.

2 Gathering in the Land - This time of trouble occurs after Israel is gathered back in the Promised Land.

3 Birth Pangs - The passage refers to every man acting “like a woman in labor.” How similar this is to the words of Jesus, “All these are the beginning of sorrows” (Mt 24:8). Sorrows (ōdin) indicates “[A] pang or throe, especially of childbirth.” [emphasis added]5

4 A Unique Day - There is no other day like it.

5 Results in Salvation - “But he shall be saved out of it.” Although the Jews undergo an extremely troubling time, salvation comes at the end.6

The Jewish aspect of this period can also be seen in the wider context of Micah’s well-known prophecy concerning the birthplace of Messiah:

Now gather yourself in troops, O daughter of troops; He has laid siege against us; they will strike the judge of Israel with a rod on the cheek. But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Though you are little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of you shall come forth to Me The One to be Ruler in Israel, Whose goings forth are from of old, from everlasting. Therefore He shall give them up, until the time that she who is in labor has given birth; then the remnant of His brethren shall return to the children of Israel. And He shall stand and feed His flock In the strength of the LORD, in the majesty of the name of the LORD His God; and they shall abide, for now He shall be great to the ends of the earth. (Mic. 5:1-4) [bolding added]

Scripture record’s two pregnancies in relation to Messiah. The first labor terminates in the First Coming of Messiah (Re 12:2, 3, 4-note). The second labor terminates in the ushering in of the Millennial Kingdom. It is this second period of labor, subsequent to the going forth of Messiah from Bethlehem, which Micah sets forth. This second labor leads to the millennial age: “For now He shall be great to the ends of the earth.” The time of Jacob’s trouble describes the labor pains associated with the second pregnancy.

“She who travaileth” does not refer to Israel bringing forth (giving birth to) Messiah, but to her last-day Tribulation travail (Jer. 30:5-7) in bringing forth a believing remnant, . . . Israel’s greatest and most anguishing sufferings of all her long and checkered history of woe will take place during the coming Great Tribulation (Rev. 8:1-note- Re 20:3-note). Her terrible travail pains that in God’s plan precede the joy of birth (cf. Mic. 4:9; cf. John 16:21), will bring forth a regenerated nation to enter the joy of the Kingdom, which will be as unparalleled as the agony that introduces it.7

This period is mentioned in the book of Revelation and also Daniel which provides additional details as to its duration:8

Revelation 12-note states the length of time this persecution and hiding of the Jews in the wilderness will last . . . it will last 1,260 days (Rev. 12:6-note) . . . Revelation 12:14-note states that Israel will hide in the wilderness from Satan for “a time, and times, and half a time.” Daniel 7:25 uses this identical time designation for the length of time that the Antichrist will persecute the saints of the 70th week. . . . Revelation 13:5-7-note, when referring to this same persecution of 70th-week saints by the Antichrist, declares that it will last for 42 months, which equal three and one-half years. . . . The Jews will be persecuted and will hide in a wilderness area for three and one-half years, exactly one-half of the seven-year 70th week. . . . the Great Tribulation will be finished when God has completely shattered the obstinate rebellion of the nation of Israel against Him [Dan. 9:24; 12:7]. In other words, the Great Tribulation will end when Israel’s rebellion against God’s rule ends.9

Scofield summarizes the character of this unique period:

The elements of the tribulation are: (1) The cruel reign of the “beast out of the sea” (Rev. 13:1-note), who, at the beginning of the three and a half years, will break his covenant with the Jews (by virtue of which they will have re-established the temple worship, Dan. 9:27), and show himself in the temple, demanding that he be worshipped as God (Mt 24:15; 2Th. 2:4). (2) The active interposition of Satan “having great wrath” (Rev. 12:12-note), who gives his power to the Beast (Rev. 13:4-note, Re 13:5-note). (3) The unprecedented activity of demons (Rev. 9:2-note, Re 9:11-note); and (4) the terrible “bowl” judgments of Rev. 16-note

Although the book of Revelation indicates that all those living on the earth immediately prior to the return of Jesus will be involved in troublesome times, this is especially true for the Jews. This is because God applies judgment first and more fully to those who have greater revelation and responsibility (Amos 3:2; Luke 12:48).11

While it is true that all will suffer during that time, Israel will suffer more so. The basic reason for this lies in Israel’s relationship to God as God’s first born (Ex. 4:22) and, therefore, Israel receives double, both in blessing and cursing. The principle that Israel receives double for all her sins is stated in Isaiah 40:1-2 . . . It is also found in Jeremiah 16:16-18. The principle of Israel’s receiving double for all her sins is the reason why the Tribulation is uniquely the Time of Jacob’s Trouble.12

Stanton shows the Jewish character of the period by saying: “The tribulation is primarily Jewish. This fact is borne out by Old Testament Scriptures (Dt 4:30; Jer. 30:7-note; Eze. 20:37; Dan. 12:1; Zec. 13:8-9), by the Olivet Discourse of Christ (Mt 24:9-26), and by the book of Revelation itself (Rev. 7:4-8-note; Re 12:1-2-note, Re 12:17-note etc.). It concerns ‘Daniel’s people,’ the coming of ‘false Messiah,’ the preaching of the ‘gospel of the kingdom,’ flight on the ‘sabbath,’ the temple and the ‘holy place,’ the land of Judea, the city of Jerusalem, the twelve ‘tribes of the children of Israel,’ the ‘son of Moses,’ ‘signs’ in the heavens, the ‘covenant’ with the Beast, the ‘sanctuary,’ the ‘sacrifice and the oblation’ of the temple ritual—these all speak of Israel and prove that the tribulation is largely a time when God deals with His ancient people prior to their entrance into the promised kingdom.”13

Our study of the book of Revelation will greatly benefit by keeping in mind the purposes God has for this period of time:

The first purpose is to make an end of wickedness and wicked ones (Isa. 13:9; Isa. 24:19-20) . . . The second purpose of the Tribulation is to bring about a worldwide revival (Rev. 7:1-7-note) . . . The Third purpose of the Tribulation is to break the power of the stubborn will of the Jewish nation (Dan. 12:5-7; Eze. 20:33-38).14

The Old Testament presents at least five purposes for the Tribulation. 1 . The Tribulation will complete the decreed period of national Israel’s judicial hardening as punishment for its rejection of the messianic program, which the partial return from exile did not remove and which culminated in the national rejection of Jesus (Isa. 6:9-13; 24:1-6; cf. John 12:37-41; Rom. 11:7-10). 2 . It will produce a messianic revival among Jewish people scattered throughout the world (Dt 4:27-30; cf. Rev. 7:1-4-note; Mt 24:14). 3 . The Tribulation will convince the Jewish nation of their need for the Messiah in order to produce a national regeneration (Dan. 12:5-7; Jer. 31:31-34; Eze. 20:34-38; 36:25-27; 37:1-14; Zec. 12:9-13:2; Isa. 59:20-21). This will result in a massive return of Jews to the land of Israel (Zec. 8:7-8; Eze. 36:24; 37:21). 4 . It will end the time of the Gentiles and effect the deliverance of the Jewish people from Gentile dominion (Isa. 24:21-23; 59:16-20; cf. Mt 24:29-31; Mark 13:24-27; Rom. 11:25). 5 . The Tribulation will purge the earth of wicked people in order to establish the Messianic Kingdom in righteousness (Isa. 13:9; 24:19-20; Eze. 37:23; Zec. 13:2; 14:9; Isa. 11:9). This violent reduction of the world’s unbelieving population will result from the divine judgments unleashed throughout the Tribulation (Rev. 6-18), climaxing with the Battle of Armageddon under King Messiah (Rev. 19) and His purge of rebel Jews and oppressive Gentiles at the end of the Tribulation (Eze. 20:33-38; Mt 25:31-46).15

Notes and reference annotations (#'s 1-15)

1 “The Scriptures indicate that the Day of the Lord, the Time of Jacob’s Trouble, and the Great Tribulation have several things in common. First, the concept of trouble or tribulation are associated with all three . . . Second, the concept of an unparalleled time of trouble is identified with all three [Joel 2:1-2; Jer. 30:7-note; Dan. 12:1 cf. Mt 24:21] . . . Third, the term ‘great’ is used for all three . . . Fourth, the concept of birth pangs is associated with all three . . . Fifth, the expression ‘that day’ is used for all three . . . Sixth, Israel’s future repentance or spiritual restoration to God is associated with all three . . . These comparisons demonstrate that several of the same concepts and terms are associated with the Day of the Lord, the Time of Jacob’s Trouble, and the Great Tribulation . . . they indicate that the Day of the Lord will cover or at least include the same time period as the Time of Jacob’s Trouble and the Great Tribulation.”—Renald E. Showers, Maranatha, Our Lord Come (Bellmawr, NJ: The Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry, 1995), 41-42.

2 “Both the Time of Jacob’s Trouble (Jer. 30:6-7) and the Great Tribulation (Mt 24:21) are described as the unparalleled time of trouble. Since there can only be one such time, both will cover the same time period. The Great Tribulation will begin in the middle of the seven-year 70th week. We know this because Jesus indicated that the Great Tribulation will begin with the abomination of desolation (Mt 24:15-21), which will take place in the middle of the 70th week (Dan. 9:27). . . . Since the Great Tribulation will begin in the middle and terminate at the end of the 70th week and will cover the same time period as the Time of Jacob’s Trouble, the Time of Jacob’s Trouble will also cover the entire second half of the 70th week.”—Showers, Maranatha, Our Lord Come, 23-24.

3 They must necessarily eclipse all the world wars and the horrors of the holocaust unless God be accused of exaggeration.

4 Showers, Maranatha, Our Lord Come, 43.

5 James Strong, The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible (Ontario: Woodside Bible Fellowship, 1996), G5604.

6 How different this is from the interpretation which preterists force upon Matthew 24! The destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 involved no intervention by God on behalf of the Jews.

7 Merrill F. Unger, Unger’s Commentary on the Old Testament (Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 2002), Mic. 5:3.

8 See Prophetic Year.

9 Showers, Maranatha, Our Lord Come, 44-46.

10 C. I. Scofield, The Scofield Study Bible (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2002, 1909), Rev. 7:14.

11 “It has been denied that God‘s people were actually worse than the pagans about them, but reckoning must be in proportion to spiritual knowledge and privileges enjoyed. The judgments of God are always relative to light and privilege granted. . . The Latins have a pointed saying: Corruptio optimi pessima (’The corruption of the best issues in the worst.’)”—Charles Feinberg, The Prophecy of Ezekiel: The Glory of the Lord (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1969), 37.

12 Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, The Footsteps of Messiah, rev ed. (Tustin, CA: Ariel Ministries, 2003), 282-283.

13 J. Dwight Pentecost, Things to Come: A Study in Biblical Eschatology (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1958), 237.

14 Fruchtenbaum, The Footsteps of Messiah, 177-181.

15 Randall Price, “Old Testament References to The Great Tribulation,” in Mal Couch, ed., Dictionary of Premillennial Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 1996), 415.

Zechariah assures that in Jerusalem's darkest hour the Second Coming of Messiah will bring about a liberation of the city, accompanied by incredible changes in the topography, some of which allow the Jews to escape.

As the united armies of the antichrist and the kings of the world come together for one final attempt to defeat God and His people, Messiah returns, an epic event recorded in several passages of Scripture. Joel writes that...

Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision. The sun and moon grow dark, and the stars lose their brightness. And the LORD roars from Zion and utters His voice from Jerusalem, and the heavens and the earth tremble, but the LORD is a refuge for His people and a stronghold to the sons of Israel. Then (when He returns, when He defeats all those arrayed against Him and against Israel) you will know that I am the LORD your God, Dwelling in Zion My holy mountain. So Jerusalem will be holy, And strangers will pass through it no more. (Joel 3:14-17)

Matthew corroborates this great day recording Jesus' prophecy that...

just as the lightning comes from the east, and flashes even to the west, so shall the coming of the Son of Man be. Wherever the corpse is, there the vultures will gather. But immediately after the tribulation of those days THE SUN WILL BE DARKENED, AND THE MOON WILL NOT GIVE ITS LIGHT, AND THE STARS WILL FALL from the sky, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken, and then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky (the interpretation is clear, the Son is the "sign"!), and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the SON OF MAN COMING ON THE CLOUDS OF THE SKY with power and great glory. And He will send forth His angels with A GREAT TRUMPET and THEY WILL GATHER TOGETHER His elect from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other. (Mt 24:27-31)

John records that...

I saw heaven opened; and behold, a white horse, and He who sat upon it is called Faithful and True; and in righteousness He judges and wages war. And His eyes are a flame of fire, and upon His head are many diadems; and He has a name written upon Him which no one knows except Himself. And He is clothed with a robe dipped in blood; and His name is called The Word of God. And the armies which are in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, were following Him on white horses. And from His mouth comes a sharp sword, so that with it He may smite the nations; and He will rule them with a rod of iron; and He treads the wine press of the fierce wrath of God, the Almighty. And on His robe and on His thigh He has a name written, "KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS." (see notes Revelation 19:11; 19:12;19:13; 19:14; 19:15;19:16; 19:17; 19:18)

Recording the defeat of the forces arrayed against Messiah, John writes...

And I saw the beast (the antichrist) and the kings of the earth and their armies, assembled to make war against Him who sat upon the horse, and against His army. And the beast was seized, and with him the false prophet who performed the signs in his presence, by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image; these two were thrown alive into the Lake of Fire which burns with brimstone. And the rest were killed with the sword which came from the mouth of Him who sat upon the horse, and all the birds were filled with their flesh. (see notes Revelation 19:19; 20; 21)

Contemporaneous with these incredible events we also see that the great city of Babylon is destroyed (the city of Babylon was never completely destroyed and has been partially rebuilt by Saddam Hussein and will be rebuilt to become a center of world commerce during Daniel's Seventieth Week, which is interesting in light of the fact that Iraq is on the path toward a democratic government and has some of the richest oil reserves in the world! One wonders if President Bush knew these prophecies foretelling of ancient Babylon's revival?). John records that...

And the great city (what does John call it? A city. So Babylon need not be interpreted symbolically like so many have done but as a literal city that will exist - see Babylon Photo Tour) was split into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. And Babylon the great was remembered before God, to give her the cup of the wine of His fierce wrath. (see note Revelation 16:19)

"And a strong angel took up a stone like a great millstone and threw it into the sea, saying, "Thus will Babylon, the great city, (Beloved, if John calls it a city, it is a city and you do not have to interpret it symbolically as is so commonly done. After all, how could you even know whose "symbolic" interpretation was correct? What God states plainly men sometimes make obtuse!) be thrown down with violence, and will not be found any longer." (see note Revelation 18:21)

There are many other Biblical details describing this cataclysmic time in world history, but for our purposes this overview gives the context for the subsequent golden Millennial age foretold by the Old Testament prophets of and longed for deeply by every Jew ever born (and especially those "born twice"!). In light of the absolute certainty of the rule of Messiah over His earthly Kingdom the question is "Who will be His subjects? Who enters into the 1000 year reign of Christ?" The short answer is that only Jewish and Gentile believers will enter the Millennial Kingdom. There are two judgments preceding the Millennium, one for Jews and the other for Gentiles.

Ezekiel foretells the future judgment of the Jews, who are still alive at the termination of the Great Tribulation, recording

"As I live," declares the Lord GOD, "surely with a mighty hand and with an outstretched arm and with wrath poured out (refers to the Great Tribulation, a time of purifying when 2/3's of Israel will not come through the fire), I shall be king over you. And I shall bring you out from the peoples and gather you from the lands where you are scattered (predicts a worldwide regathering of Israel, a regathering we have been witnessing since the birth of the nation of Israel in May, 1948), with a mighty hand and with an outstretched arm and with wrath poured out; and I shall bring you into the wilderness of the peoples, and there I shall enter into judgment with you face to face. As I entered into judgment with your fathers in the wilderness of the land of Egypt (alluding to the judgment in which most of the Jews who came out of Egypt were not allowed to enter into the Promised Land of Canaan because of unbelief), so I will enter into judgment with you," declares the Lord GOD.

"And I shall make you pass under the rod (the so-called faithful remnant), and I shall bring you (God Himself engineers this spiritual transaction, which speaks of His grace and mercy) into the bond of the covenant (an allusion to the New Covenant not the Old Covenant of Law - cf Jer 31:31, 32, 33, 34 see study of New Covenant in the Old Testament) and I shall purge from you the rebels and those who transgress against Me; I shall bring them out of the land where they sojourn, but they will not enter the land of Israel (part of the 2/3's who are purged. Walvoord states "This is to be interpreted as a judgment of physical death, and they will be raised from the dead at the judgment of the great white throne after the millennium to participate in the destiny of all the wicked."). Thus you will know that I am the LORD. (The Jews who are regenerated will turn away from seeking to establish their own righteousness and will seek the righteousness of God through Jesus the Messiah and that will bring about their national regeneration. It is going to be a new nation, a regenerate nation that will enter the Millennial Israel under King Messiah. Notice that the description given does not mention any resurrection from the dead and it may be assumed in view of the fact that regathering is a prerequisite to the judgment that this applies only to the living Israelites in the world at the time of the second coming.)

"As for you, O house of Israel," thus says the Lord GOD, "Go, serve everyone his idols; but later, you will surely listen to Me, and My holy name you will profane no longer with your gifts and with your idols. For on My holy mountain, on the high mountain of Israel (Mt Zion, the Temple Mount, site of the rebuilt Millennial Temple)," declares the Lord GOD, "there the whole house of Israel, all of them, will serve Me in the land; there I shall accept them, and there I shall seek your contributions and the choicest of your gifts, with all your holy things. (Ezekiel 20:33-40)

Thus we see that the Chief Shepherd will examine His flock (pass under the rod), and will purge...the rebels, and bring the faithful remnant into the blessings of the New Covenant in the 1000 year Messianic Kingdom.

In an closely contemporaneous event, the Gentile survivors of the Great Tribulation will also be judged, at what is often called the judgment of the sheep and the goats. Matthew records that

"when the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the angels with Him, then He will sit on His glorious throne. (So clearly Christ returns visibly to earth and sits visibly on His throne as King of kings) And all the nations (Gentiles) will be gathered before Him; and He will separate them from one another, as the shepherd separates the sheep from the goats; and He will put the sheep on His right, and the goats on the left.

Then the King will say to those on His right, 'Come, you who are blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. 'For I was hungry, and you gave Me something to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave Me drink; I was a stranger, and you invited Me in; naked, and you clothed Me; I was sick, and you visited Me; I was in prison, and you came to Me.' (Their works did not save them but demonstrated that their hearts were regenerated. They brought forth fruit in keeping with genuine repentance).

Then the righteous will answer Him, saying, 'Lord, when did we see You hungry, and feed You, or thirsty, and give You drink? And when did we see You a stranger, and invite You in, or naked, and clothe You? And when did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?'

"And the King will answer and say to them, 'Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did it to one of these brothers of Mine, even the least of them, you did it to Me.'

"Then He will also say to those on His left, 'Depart from Me, accursed ones, into the eternal fire which has been prepared for the devil and his angels; for I was hungry, and you gave Me nothing to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave Me nothing to drink; I was a stranger, and you did not invite Me in; naked, and you did not clothe Me; sick, and in prison, and you did not visit Me.' (Their works did not condemn them but demonstrated that their hearts were not regenerated).

"Then they themselves also will answer, saying, 'Lord, when did we see You hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not take care of You?'

"Then He will answer them, saying, 'Truly I say to you, to the extent that you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to Me.'

And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life." (Mt 25:31-46)

From these passages dealing with the judgment of Jews and Gentiles, one can readily see that at the beginning of the Millennium, all who enter in earthly (not glorified) bodies will have been shown through these judgments that they are redeemed by the blood of the Lamb. Dear reader, have you believed the gospel of Christ, that He died, was buried, was resurrected, that He ascended into Heaven and that He will return again to judge the living and the dead? Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ and you shall be saved. (See also offsite resource The Great Tribulation)

Summary of Scriptures
Associated with the Millennium

A. Physical characteristics

1. Topography and geography of the earth changed- Is 2:2; Ezek 47:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12; 48:8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20; Zec 14:4, 8, 10

2. Wild animals tamed- Is 11:6, 7, 8, 9; 35:9; Ezek 34:25

3. Crops abundant- Is 27:6; 35:1, 2, 6, 7; Amos 9:13; Zech. 14:8

4. Human longevity increased- Is 65:20, 21, 22, 23

B. Spiritual and religious characteristics and events

1. Satan confined in the abyss - Re 20:1, 2, 3 (notes)

2. Millennial temple built - Ezek. 40:5-43:27

3. Animal sacrifices offered as memorials to Christ’s death - Is 56:7; 66:20, 21, 22, 23; Jer. 33:17,18; Ezek 43:18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27; 45:13-46:24; Mal. 3:3, 4

4. Feasts of the New Year, Passover, and Tabernacles reinstituted - Ezek 45:18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25; Zech 14:16, 17, 19, 19, 20, 21

5. Nations worship in Jerusalem - Is 2:2-4; Mic 4:2; 7:12; Zech. 8:20, 21, 22, 23; 14:16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21

6. Worldwide knowledge of God - Is 11:9; Je 31:34; Mic 4:5; Hab 2:14 (cp Ps 22:27, 67:1,2, 72:19, 86:9, 98:1, 2, 3 Zec 14:8,9 Rev 11:15; 15:4

7. Unparalleled filling of and empowerment by the Holy Spirit on Israel - Is 32:15; 44:3; Ezek. 36:24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29; 39:29; Joel 2:28, 29

8. New Covenant with Israel fulfilled - Jer. 31:31, 32, 33, 34; Ezek 11:19, 20; 36:25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32

9. Righteousness and justice prevails - Is 9:7; 11:4; 42:1, 2, 3, 4; Jer. 23:5

C. Political characteristics and events

1. Israel reunited as a nation -Je 3:18; Ezek 37:15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23

2. Israel at peace in the land - Deut. 30:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; Is 32:18; Ho 14:5, 7; Am 9:15; Mic 4:4; 5:4, 5a; Zec 3:10; 14:11

3. Abrahamic Covenant land-grant boundaries established - Ge 15:18, 19, 20, 21; Ezek 47:13-48:8, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27

4. Christ in Jerusalem rules over Israel - Is 40:11; Mic 4:7; 5:2b

5. Davidic Covenant fulfilled with Christ on the throne of David - 2Sa 7:11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16; Is 9:6, 7; Je 33:17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26; Am 9:11,12, Lk 1:32, 33

6. Christ rules over and judges the nations - Is 11:3, 4, 5; Mic 4:2,3a; Zec 14:9; Re 19:15 (note)

7. Resurrected saints reign with Christ - Mt 19:28; 2Ti 2:12; Re 5:10 (note); Re 20:4 (note)

8. Universal peace prevails - Is 2:4; 32:17,18; 60:18; Ho 2:18; Mic 4:2, 3, 4; 5:4; Zec 9:10

9. Jerusalem made the world’s capital - Je 3:17; Ezek 48:30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35; Joel 3:16, 17; Mic 4:1, 6, 7, 8; Zec 8:2, 3

10. Israel exalted above the Gentiles - Is 14:1, 2; 49:22, 23; 60:14, 15, 16, 17; 61:5, 6, 7, 8, 9

11. The world blessed through Israel - Mic 5:7

D. Events following the Millennium

1. Satan released from the abyss - Re 20:7 (note)

2. Satan deceives the nations - Re 20:8 (note)

3. Global armies besiege Jerusalem (Re 20:9a) (note)

4. Global armies destroyed by fire (Re 20:9b) (note)

5. Satan cast into the lake of fire (Re 20:10) (note)

6. Evil angels judged (1Co 6:3)

7. The wicked dead resurrected (Da 12:2b; Jn 5:29b)

8. The wicked judged at the Great White Throne - Re 20:11, 12, 13, 14 (note)

9. The wicked cast into the lake of fire - Re 20:14, 15; 21:8 (note)

(Adapted from Walvoord, J. F., Zuck, R. B., et al: The Bible Knowledge Commentary. 1985. Victor or Logos)


(Click explanatory notes)




1000 YEARS


Da 9:27-N
Puts stop to sacrifice


2Th 2:3, 2:4
Man of lawlessness
Son of destruction
Exalts self over every god
Takes seat in
Displays self as "God"

2Th 2:8
Lawless one revealed
Mt 24:15
Abomination of Desolation
Stands in the Holy Place initiating the Great Tribulation

Da 11:36-N
King exalts self above every god Speaks monstrosities against God




1000 YEARS

Marks the beginning of Daniel's last 7 years

Da 9:27a-N Antichrist ("he" = Prince who is to come" in Da 9:26 -N) makes a firm covenant with the many (Israel) for a 7 year time period

Da 9:27-N
In the middle of the week (7 years) Antichrist will put a stop to sacrifice and grain offering (in rebuilt temple)

Re 12:7,8, 9,10, 11,12,13 -
N War in heaven... dragon [devil, Satan] thrown down Woe to the earth... b/c the devil (knows) that he has only short time. He persecuted woman (Israel) who gave birth to male (Jesus)


Da 7:21-N Horn waging war w saints > overpower

Da 7:25 Saints given>his hand X's, X, 1/2X

Da 11:36 King prospers until theIIndignation is finished

Re 13:5,6,7-N Authority given to beast to act for 42mo> wars w/ saints & overpowers them

Re 13:8 all who dwell on the earth will worship the beast

Re 13:16, 17,18 False prophet causes all to take mark on R hand or forehead = to buy or sell = number 666

Mt 24:21 Great Tribulation such as has not occurred since the beginning of the world until now nor ever shall

Re 12:6,14 -N Woman (Israel) flees to wilderness to place prepared by God to be nourished 1260days ...for a time and times and half a time ( X's, X, 1/2X ) from the serpent (Satan)

Two Judgments
To Determine Who Enters the 1000 Year Kingdom

(1) Judgment of Gentiles:
Sheep & Goats

Mt 25:31, 32, 33, 34 "Son of Man comes in His glory &... will sit on His glorious throne & all nations (Gentiles) will be gathered... & He will separate them fr one another as shepherd separates sheep fr goats & He will put sheep on His right & goats on left. Then the King will say to those on His right 'Come... inherit the kingdom prepared for you fr the foundation of the world.'

Gentile believers (their works give evidence of faith) will enter the 1000 year kingdom. Parallel truth in parable of tares (Mt 13:37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43 ), Net with fish (Mt 13:47, 48, 49, 5 ), both describe "end of the age" (click to study this phrase)


Rev 11:3-N Two witnesses prophesy for 1260 days NB: Some place this event in 2nd half

Rev 11:7-N When finish their testimony

the beast (Antichrist out of the abyss) makes war with them, overcomes them and kills the two witnesses

Rev 11:12-N The two witnesses "went up into heaven in the cloud & their enemies beheld them" (pix credit)

Rev 11:13-N
At that hour a great earthquake, 1/10 of city fell, 7000 killed and rest were terrified...

Rev 11:2-N Leave out court which is outside the Temple & do not measure it, for it has been given to the nations (Gentiles) and they tread under foot holy city 42 months


Dt 4:29, 30: (first synonym) "But from there you (Israel) will seek the LORD your God & you will find Him if you search for Him with all your heart & all your soul. When you are in distress ("tribulation" KJV) & all these things have come upon you in the latter days you will return to the LORD your God & listen to His voice."

Jer 30:7-N (Je 30:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11) 'Alas! for that day is great, there is none like it (= is distinct) & it is the time of Jacob's distress but he (Israel) will be saved from it.

Da 12:1-N there will be a time of distress such as never occurred since there was a nation until that time & at that time your people (Israel) everyone who is found written in the book will be rescued.

Is 26:20 (Read context Isa 24-27:13 = prophesy of end time & coming 1000 yr) Come my people (Israel) enter into your rooms & close your doors behind you. Hide for a little while until indignation (see Da 11:36) runs its course.

Re 7:14-N "These are the ones who come out of the great tribulation & have washed their robes & made them white in the blood of the Lamb"

(2) Judgment
of the Jews
(Click here for discussion of Jewish "Remnant")

Ezek 20:33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44 God declares "with a mighty hand & an outstretched arm & with wrath poured out (corresponds to the outpouring of God's wrath in the "great tribulation"), I shall be KING over you & bring you out from the peoples & ...I shall bring you into the wilderness of the peoples & there I shall enter into judgment with you face to face....I shall make you pass under the rod & shall bring you into the bond of the covenant (cf Dt 30:6, Jer 31:31, 32, 33, 34, 32:39, 40, Ezek 11:19,20, 16:60,61, 62,63, 36:26, 27 ) & purge... the rebels... they will not enter the land of Israel. Thus you will know that I am the LORD."

The godly remnant of Israel that survives the Great Tribulation will be brought into covenant with their King (Yeshua) and will enter His Millennial kingdom.

See Hosea 2:14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 which is a beautiful amplification of the truth of God making Israel "pass under the rod" and bringing them into "the bond of covenant"


Jewish Temple will be rebuilt (when? can't be dogmatic - either preceding 70th wk or in first 3.5 year period)

Re 11:1-N John told to "Rise and measure the temple of God & the altar & those who worship in it & leave out the court which is outside the temple" (affirming rebuilding)

Rev 11:15-N
7th angel sounded - kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord & of His Christ


Da 7:21, 22 Little horn would wage war & overpower saints until the Ancient of Days came & judgment was passed in favor of the saints of the Highest One, and the time arrived when the saints took possession of the kingdom.

Da 7:26 The court will sit for judgment & AC's dominion will be taken away, annihilated & destroyed forever

Da 9:27b (NIV) AC "will set up an abomination that causes desolation until the end that is decreed is poured out on him"

Da 11:45 He will come to his end & no one will help 2Th 2:8 The lawless one will be slain by the Lord with the breath of His mouth. Jesus will bring an end (AC & great tribulation) by the appearance of His coming

Rev 19:11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 (Same event described in Mt 24:29, 30, 31) Heaven opens & behold, a white horse, and He who sat upon it called Faithful & True & in righteousness judges & wages war. Beast & False prophet seized & thrown alive into the lake of fire which burns with brimstone.

Parallel Events in

(Click Revelation

7 Seals

6 Trumpets


2 Woes

7th Trumpet
3rd Woe

the Revelation


7 Bowl's





1000 YEARS



Rev 19:20 Beast (Antichrist) & false prophet thrown alive into the lake of fire

Mt 25:41 Then He will also say to those on His left, 'Depart from Me, accursed ones, into the eternal fire which has been prepared for the devil and his angels"


Green = Time phrases. Take note of these for they are critical if you would have a confident understanding of this critical time period in Israel's and mankind's history.

Red = Christ or Antichrist

Blue = Israel, Jews

Bright Blue = Scripture links all of which have popups. You are strongly encouraged to click and read the verses in context, which is critical for accurate interpretation.

**Art used by permission by Pat Marvenko Smith, copyright 1992.To order prints visit "Revelation Illustrated".