Daniel Commentaries & Sermons

EZEKIEL HOSEA


Daniel in the Lion's Den (Daniel 6)

RESOURCES ON DANIEL
Commentaries, Sermons, Illustrations, Devotionals


Click chart to enlarge
Charts from recommended resource Jensen's Survey of the OT - used by permission
Daniel Chart from Charles Swindoll
Another Daniel Chart

RESOURCES ON DANIEL
RELATED TO INTERPRETATION

BOOK OF DANIEL
Verse by Verse In Depth Commentary
Literal Interpretation
Bruce Hurt,MD


Tony Garland - Excellent Detailed Chronology of Events Related to Daniel (Reigns of various kings)

DANIEL
INDUCTIVE BIBLE STUDIES
Precept Ministries International

Note: Please consider doing your own inductive study before you go to the commentaries, so that you will be able to intelligently assess the comments in these resources. This recommendation holds for every book of the Bible, but is especially critical in the prophetic sections of Scripture (Daniel, Revelation, Matthew 24-25, 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18, 2 Thessalonians 2, etc).

Lesson One (1-6) Overview

Lesson Two (7-12) Overview II

Lesson Three Daniel Goes to Babylon

Lesson Four The King's Dream: Statue & Stone

Lesson 5: Will You Bow or Burn?

Lesson Six: God Humbles Nebuchadnezzar

Lesson Seven Handwriting on the Wall

Lesson Eight Daniel in Lion's Den


Daniel 7-12 - Pt 2 - Gaining Understanding of the Time of the End — Download Lesson 1

Lesson One Overview of Daniel The Statue, Four Beasts

Lesson Two Time, Little Horn, & God

Lesson Three Coming Kingdom of God

Lesson Four History is His-Story

Lesson Five Prayer & 70 Weeks

Lesson Six "Highly Esteemed" of God

Lesson Seven Angels - Warfare - Prayer

Lesson Eight Prophecy Fulfilled!

Lesson Nine Abomination of Desolation (Only 1 Resource Available)

Lesson Ten The End of This Age Resurrection & Rewards

ROBERT ANDERSON
The Coming Prince
(1841-1918)

Sir Robert Anderson was the chief inspector for Scotland Yard. He was greatly respected for his skill as an investigator. When Anderson wasn't writing on subjects related to crime, he wrote books on Christian prophecy. He helped establish the fact that 69 of Daniel's 70 weeks have now transpired, and that the tribulation will be the 70th week.

See also Anderson's related work - Daniel in the Critics Den

Rosscup's review - The premillennial author presents a detailed work on the 70 weeks of Daniel 9. In this popular treatment he reckons the chronology of the first sixty-nine weeks from the decree of Artaxerxes (Nehemiah 2) to rebuild Jerusalem to the triumphal entry of Christ (Luke 19). He figures the exact number of days involved in 483 prophetic years which he believes would contain 360 days each, not 365 as Julian years. In his reckoning, the sixty-nine weeks end in A. D. 32 which poses a problem in light of more accepted views today that Christ died in A. D. 30 or 33. (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors - excellent resource)
Here is the Pdf of the book (contents below)

PAUL APPLE
Daniel 1-3 Commentary

ART & MAPS RELATED
TO THE BOOK OF DANIEL

MAPS RELATED TO DANIEL - these maps are very high quality

KAY ARTHUR
Daniel Lectures

(Note: These are the older lectures not the new revised Daniel series).

WAYNE BARBER
Sermons
Book of Daniel

BRIAN BELL
Study Notes
Book of Daniel

BETHANY BIBLE
Greg Allen
Study Notes
Book of Daniel

ALAN CARR
Sermons
Book of Daniel

RICH CATHERS
Study Notes
Book of Daniel

Frequent illustrations

Study Series 1

Study Series 2

THOMAS CONSTABLE
Expository Notes
Book of Daniel

W A CRISWELL
Sermon Notes
Book of Daniel

RON DANIEL
Study Notes
Book of Daniel

BOB DEFFINBAUGH
Book of Daniel
Relating Prophecy to Piety

SAMUEL R DRIVER
Daniel Commentary Notes
1900

DAN DUNCAN
Sermon Notes
Book of Daniel
Mp3 Only

EXPLORE THE BIBLE
Study Notes
Book of Daniel

A C GAEBELEIN
The Prophet Daniel: Key to the Visions
and Prophecies of the Book of Daniel
1911

James Rosscup: Dividing the book of Daniel according to the languages in the original text, the writer gives a brief yet sometimes helpful survey of a dispensational interpretation. (Commentaries For Biblical Expositors - excellent resource)

TONY GARLAND
Verse by Verse Commentary
Book of Daniel

GOTQUESTIONS
Book of Daniel

DAVE GUZIK
Commentary Notes
Book of Daniel

JOE GUGLIELMO
Commentary Notes
Book of Daniel

For transcript click "Read"

2015 Series on Daniel

2007 Series on Daniel

FLOYD HITCHCOCK
Commentary on Book of Daniel
"March of the Empires"
(1944)

THOMAS ICE
70 Weeks of Daniel
On Daniel 9:24-27

H A IRONSIDE
Commentary Notes
Book of Daniel

S LEWIS JOHNSON
Expository Messages
Book of Daniel

PASTOR JOONHO
Sermon Series
Book of Daniel

ILLUSTRATIONS
10,000 Illustrations @ Bible.org

STEVE KRELOFF
Sermons
Book of Daniel
Mp3 Only

CLARENCE LARKIN
Commentary on Daniel

ALEXANDER MACLAREN
Sermons on Daniel

JOHN MACARTHUR
Sermons
Book of Daniel

Highly Recommended

J VERNON MCGEE
Thru the Bible
Daniel Commentary
Mp3 Audio

ALVA J MCCLAIN

MISCELLANEOUS
Resources

ONSITE END TIMES ARTICLES

MARK ADAMS

DON ANDERSON

MARK COPELAND - executable outlines

DAVID COOPER - Book - "The 70 Weeks of Daniel" - all below on one Pdf

HOLMAN PUBLISHING

  • Holman Christian Standard Bible -Study Bible (HCSB Study Bible) - sample excerpts
    Daniel 2:31-45 Daniel interpreted the parts of the colossal statue to represent four empires in historical succession. The head represented the kingdom of Babylon (605-539 B.C.). The chest and arms symbolized the Medo-Persian Empire (539-331 B.C.). The stomach and thighs stood for the Greek Empire (331-146 B.C.). The legs referred to the Roman Empire (146 B.C.-A.D. 1476 in the West and 1453 in the East). The feet were mixed of iron and clay and represented a future continuation or revival of Rome. The material of each section of the statue decreased in value but increased in strength. The decreased value may symbolize the moral decline of each succeeding kingdom. The increased strength refers to the harsher domination each successive kingdom would impose on its subjects. Daniel also described a stone that would shatter the final kingdom and grow into a mountain that filled the whole earth. This "stone" is the kingdom of God. Primarily because they disbelieve in the possibility of predictive prophecy, critical scholars assume that Daniel was written in 165 B.C. and therefore is looking backward rather than forward at the rise of earthly kingdoms such as the Roman Empire. They divide the four kingdoms into Babylon, Media, Persia, and Greece. On the other hand, most interpreters who accept the reality of predictive prophecy in Scripture believe Daniel was written in the late sixth century and view the fourth kingdom as Rome. They hold different opinions about the meaning of the stone, however. Some view it as a spiritual kingdom, embodied in the church, which gradually conquered the Roman Empire. Others more accurately view it as a future kingdom, when Messiah Jesus will return and establish His physical rule that will govern the whole earth and never be destroyed.

    Daniel 7:1-28 This chapter of Daniel is one of the most important in the entire OT, an essential guide to biblical prophecy. Moreover, the vision of the Son of Man is the centerpiece of OT revelation concerning the Messiah. The Aramaic section of Daniel begins in chapter 2 with Nebuchadnezzar's dream of the colossus and ends at the end of chapter 7. One reason for repeating the similar information in chapters 2 and 8 is that chapter 2 presents the world kingdoms from a Gentile perspective, while chapter 8 views the Gentile empires from the perspective of the Jewish people. Another reason for the repetition is to confirm the certainty of the predictions. As Joseph said, Pharaoh's dreams were repeated because "the matter has been determined by God, and He will carry it out soon" (Gen 41:32). The vision was included to give hope to Israel in captivity, informing the nation that life in the times of the Gentiles would get worse for God's covenant people, but ultimately the messianic kingdom would be established.

    Daniel 7:3 The four huge beasts represent the four nations previously identified in the vision of the colossus in Daniel 2 (see note at Da 2:31-45). These four beasts are increasingly violent, perhaps indicating the growing moral degeneracy of the respective kingdoms they represent.

    Daniel 7:4 The lion with eagle's wings represents the Babylonian Empire. The winged lion was a fitting symbol because some biblical passages represent Nebuchadnezzar as a lion (Jer 4:7; 49:19; 50:17,44) and others as an eagle (Jer 49:22; Lam 4:19; Ezek 17:3; Hab 1:8). The Babylonian Empire used lions to represent itself, and statues with winged lions were common there. Perhaps the wings being torn off represents Nebuchadnezzar's madness, and the lion's being set on its feet like a man indicates his restoration.

    Daniel 7:5 The bear... with three ribs in its mouth represents the Medo-Persian Empire and its three main conquests: Babylon (539 B.C.), Lydia (546 B.C.), and Egypt (525 B.C.). Its lopsided nature expresses the Persian dominance in this joint empire.
    Daniel 7:6 The leopard represents the Greek Empire. Its four wings refer to the great speed of Alexander's conquests and its four heads represent the four principle sections of the empire: Greece and Macedonia, Thrace and Asia Minor, Syria and Babylon, and Egypt and Israel.

    Daniel 7:7 The terrifying fourth beast represents the Roman Empire. It was different from the previous three because it was more powerful and had longer dominion. Horns commonly represent kings or kingdoms in Scripture (Ps 132:17; Zech 1:18; Rev 13:1; 17:12), as the angel's later interpretation plainly indicates (Da 7:24).

    Daniel 7:8 A little...horn represents a king who starts small in power but becomes dominant. The little horn's eyes... like a man's indicates its shrewdness and its mouth that spoke arrogantly points to its boasting blasphemously against God (cp. Da 7:25). This little horn is a future world ruler whom Scripture also calls "the coming prince" (Da 9:26); the king who "will do whatever he wants" (Da 11:36); "the man of lawlessness," "the son of destruction," (2 Th 2:3-note); "the beast," (Rev 13:1-10-note); and the "Antichrist" (1 Jn 2:18-note). (Ed: "-note" are additons to comments on this website)

    Daniel 7:18 The holy ones (saints) of the Most High is most likely a reference to Israel when the nation turns in faith to their Messiah Jesus (Zech 12:10; Ro 11:26-note). The literal covenant people will receive the kingdom, emphasizing that Messiah's final kingdom will be a literal kingdom on earth.

    Daniel 7:23-24a After a summary of the vision's meaning (Da 7:19-22), the angel explains that the fourth kingdom, in its future state, will devour the whole earth, indicating world domination. The 10 kings could be a metaphor for completeness. More likely, it refers to an empire with a literal confederation of 10 kings (cp. Rev 17:12-13).

    Daniel 7:24b-26 Another king, the Antichrist (cp.Da 7:7-8), described in the vision as the little horn, will arise and take control of this last human empire by subduing three kings. He will be characterized by blasphemy (words against the Most High), anti-Semitism (he will oppress the holy ones of the Most High), religious corruption (he will intend to change religious festivals and laws). He will oppress the Jewish people for time, times, and half a time, meaning three and one-half years, or the second half of the future tribulation (cp. Rev 7:14). Some conclude that this was fulfilled when Antiochus oppressed the Jewish people from 167-164 B.C. This is unlikely since that period was for only three years and not three and one-half years. It is better to view this oppression as yet future. When the heavenly court will convene, the Antichrist will be completely destroyed forever.

    Daniel 8:8:9-12 As opposed to the little horn that will come from the fourth kingdom (Rome) described in Dan 7:8, a different little horn emerged out of one of the four kingdoms that divided the Greek Empire. This one was Antiochus IV (175-163 B.C.), ruler of the Seleucid dynasty, who conquered surrounding areas to the south and to the east but especially dominated the beautiful land of Israel. He brutally trampled and persecuted the Jewish people from 170-164 B.C. Antiochus blasphemously presented himself as the Prince of the host, God Himself (called the Prince of princes in 8:25), stopping daily sacrifice and defiling the holy temple (His sanctuary) in Jerusalem (167 B.C.). He will be successful, but only temporarily.

    Daniel 9:24 Seventy weeks probably refers to 70 periods of seven years, or 490 years, during which six objectives would be accomplished. The first three pertain to bringing rebellion... sin, and iniquity to an end. The final three relate to consummating prophetic events by bringing in a kingdom of everlasting righteousness, fulfilling vision and prophecy and setting apart the most holy place (lit "the holy of holies"), referring to a yet future, literal, millennial temple (cp. Ezek 40-48).

    Daniel 9:25 Those who advocate a symbolic interpretation of this verse identify it with Cyrus's decree allowing the captives to return to their homeland (2Ch 36:22-23; Ezr 1:1-3) in 539-538 B.C. Others hold a literal view of this verse and suggest that the starting point is Artaxerxes' first decree in 457 B.C. (Ezr 7:11-26). Since neither of these decrees pertains to the restoration of Jerusalem, it is more likely that the decree that is the beginning point is Artaxerxes' second decree in 444 B.C., authorizing Nehemiah to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem (Neh 2:1-8). There will be a period of seven weeks of years (49 years) followed by 62 weeks of years (434 years), making a total of 69 weeks of years or 483 years from the decree until the coming of Messiah the Prince. The starting point of the prophecy would have begun on Nisan 1 (March 5), 444 B.C., followed by 69 weeks of 360-day biblical/prophetic years or 173,880 days, and culminated on Nisan 10 (March 30), A.D. 33, the date of Jesus the Messiah's triumphal entry into Jerusalem (Lk 19:28-40).

    Daniel 9:26 Several events are said to follow the seven weeks and the 62 weeks (or the 69 weeks). First, the Messiah would be cut off, a prediction of the death of the Messiah Jesus. Thus, the book of Daniel, written in the sixth century B.C., predicted not only the precise date of the Messiah's coming (Da 9:25) but also that the Messiah would be put to death some time before the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. This was fulfilled when Jesus was crucified in A.D. 33 (A.D. 30 according to some interpreters). Second, the people of the coming prince would destroy the city of Jerusalem and the second temple. The "coming prince" probably is a reference to the future ruler described as the little horn in Daniel 7, also known as the beast or the Antichrist. He is not said to be the one to destroy Jerusalem and the temple; rather it is his people who will do it. Since Daniel 7 clearly viewed this ruler as coming from the fourth major world power, or Rome, this prophecy predicts that the Romans would destroy Jerusalem, as they did in A.D. 70. Third, there appears to be a significant time gap from the end of the sixty-ninth week to the beginning of the seventieth week.

    Daniel 9:27 The final seven-year period, or the seventieth week, will begin when he (the coming prince) will make a firm covenant of peace with many in the leadership of Israel. Although some consider the prince to be Messiah, he is more accurately identified as the antichrist, who will desecrate the future temple and put a stop to worship there. This covenant is yet future and will mark the beginning of a time of oppression of the Jewish people called "a time of trouble for Jacob" (Jer 30:7) or the tribulation period (Mt 24:29; Mk 13:24). In the middle of the week, or after the first three and one-half years, the antichrist will break his covenant with Israel, leading to a time of unprecedented persecution of the Jewish people (Mt 24:21; Mk 13:19) and followers of Jesus (Rev 7:14) that will last for another three and one-half years (Dan 7:25; Rev 11:2-3; 12:14; 13:5). When the antichrist breaks his covenant, he will also put a stop to sacrifice in the rebuilt temple (7:25) and will commit the abomination of desolation (Mt 24:15), desecrating the temple and declaring himself to be God (2Th 2:4; Rev 13:5-7). The antichrist's oppression and abominations will continue until God's decreed destruction is poured out on the desolator (11:45; Rev 19:20).

    Daniel 11:36-45 At this point, the predictions shift away from Antiochus IV and focus on the end of days. The king mentioned in this section is the future Antichrist, already identified as "the little horn" (Da 7:8,20,24-25) and "the coming prince" (Da 9:26).

    Daniel 11:36-39 These verses provide a clear description of the future Antichrist. The god longed for by women (lit "the desire of women") may be a reference to the longing of Jewish women to give birth to the Messiah

    Daniel 11:40-44 During the great tribulation, the Antichrist will be attacked in a pincer movement from both the north and the south. Yet he will be successful, sweeping through like a flood. He will also invade Israel, the beautiful land, ignoring some nations that are in alliance with him but conquering others, including Egypt, Libya, and Sudan (the Cushites). Reports of nations from the east and the north coming to attack will both terrify and infuriate him, leading him to pursue a course of genocidal warfare against his enemies, especially many of the Jewish people (cp. Zech 13:8-9).

    Daniel 11:45 The Antichrist will establish his military capital in Israel, pitching his royal tents between the Mediterranean Sea and the city of Jerusalem, situated on the beautiful holy mountain. There the nations of the earth will gather (Zech 14:2) at Mount Megiddo to begin the campaign of Armageddon (Rev 16:13-16). At that time, when the nation of Israel calls on the Messiah Jesus, He will return (Mt 23:37-39) to deliver them, and the Antichrist will meet his end with no one to help him.

    Daniel 12:1 At that time refers to the events predicted in the previous paragraph (11:36-45), which details the Antichrist's furious attempt to destroy and annihilate the Jewish people (Da 11:44). Then the archangel Michael... who stands watch over the Jewish people will rise to their defense to preserve them (see note at Da 10:12-13; cp. Rev 12:7). This will be necessary because the great tribulation (the second half of Daniel's seventieth week; Dan 9:27) will be a time of unprecedented distress. Despite the horrific nature of the persecution of Israel, the result will be that the surviving remnant of the Jewish nation will turn in faith to their Messiah Jesus (Zech 12:10; Ro 11:25-27-note) and He will deliver them. The book refers to the heavenly Book of Life in which the names of the elect are listed (Ps 69:28; Php 4:3; Rev 13:8; 17:8; 20:15).

    Daniel 12:2 Following the deliverance of Israel, there will be a resurrection of those who sleep in the dust. This verse does not imply any kind of soul sleep before the resurrection since the faithful go to be with God instantly upon dying (2Co 5:8; Php 1:21-23) and the faithless go to a place of suffering also immediately upon dying (Lk 16:22-23). The word "sleep" is used as a metaphor to emphasize the temporary state of bodily death before being physically raised at the resurrection (cp. Jn 11:11-15). Although telescoped together here (as is common in prophecy), the resurrection of the faithful and the unfaithful are two distinct events separated by the one-thousand-year messianic kingdom (Rev 20:4-6). Daniel 12:2 contains the clearest statement of resurrection in the OT, but by no means is it the only one (cp. Job 19:25-27; Isa 26:19).

    Daniel 12:3 The phrase those who are wise refers to those with the wisdom to turn in faith to the Messiah Jesus. As a result, they will lead many others to faith and righteousness.

RBC - DISCOVERY HOUSE MINISTRIES

BOB FOSTER

CLARENCE LARKIN CHARTS

ART WORK

JOHN ANKERBERG - interviews of Jimmy DeYoung and Reginald Showers

    J HAMPTON KEATHLEY

    ALAN MACRAE

    KENNETH L. BARKER

    A W PINK

    EDWIN M. YAMAUCHI

    ROBERT L THOMAS

    KENNETH BOA

    BETHANY BIBLE

    ROBERT ANDERSON

    CASE FOR CHRIST DEVOTIONAL

    G CAMPBELL MORGAN

    A C GAEBELEIN

    GENE GETZ - brief videos discussing principles from the Book of Daniel

    • Daniel 1:1-2; God's Sovereignty and Human Freedom: Though God is sovereign and in control of the universe, we are responsible to obey His directives in the Word of God. Video
    • Daniel 1:3-8; Total Commitment: To make deliberate and wise decisions to live in God's will day by day, we must make a heart decision to honor God in all we do. Video
    • Daniel 1:9-21; Walking in Wisdom: We are to do all we can to win the trust and respect of non-Christians without compromising our biblical convictions. Video
    • Daniel 2:1-18;The Power of Prayer: When we encounter challenges that seem insurmountable, we are to pray and ask God for His power to do what is right. Video
    • Daniel 2:19-49; Honoring God: Though we are to make full use of our earthly talents and abilities to live in God's will, we?re always to honor and glorify Him for what He has accomplished through us. Video
    • Daniel 3:1-4:3;  Facing Persecution: We are to trust God to empower us to avoid any form of idolatry, regardless of the persecution we may experience. Video
    • Daniel 4:4-37; Prideful Tendencies: Even as believers, we must constantly be on guard against our human tendencies to be prideful and take inappropriate credit for our accomplishments. Video
    • Daniel 5:1-31;Learning from the Past: We are to learn from those who have gone before us, avoiding their mistakes and emulating their positive attitudes and actions. Video
    • Daniel 6:1-24;Living without Compromise: We are to practice our faith boldly, but with wisdom, discretion, and humility. Video
    • Daniel 7:1-28; Fulfilled Prophecy: We should become aware of those prophetic details that have not been fulfilled so we can be alert to how they may correlate with what is happening in the world today. Video
    • Daniel 8:26-27; Our Holy God: In view of the way direct encounters with God impacted biblical personalities physically, psychologically, and spiritually, we should be very cautious in claiming to have similar experiences. Video
    • Daniel 9:1-19; A Model Prayer: To pray effectively, we should acknowledge God's greatness, remind Him of His glorious promises, confess our sins, and be specific in our requests. Video
    • Daniel 9:20-23;Eternal Rewards: We are to walk in God's will so He will be pleased with our attitudes and actions and reward us at the judgment seat of Christ. Video
    • Daniel  9:24-27; Being Prepared: Though we don't know when Jesus Christ will return, we should always be prepared spiritually for this event. Video
    • Daniel 10:1-11; Strength in Weakness: When we feel the most inadequate we should consider it an opportunity to experience God's supernatural enablement. Video
    • Daniel 10:12-21; The Armor of God: We are to clothe ourselves with God's armor consistently so we can defeat Satan and his emissaries when they attack us in various ways. Video
    • Daniel 11:1-35; Prophetic History: We must understand that the Holy Spirit at times inspired prophets to record prophetic history that has been fulfilled before our time so that we will take seriously future events that are still to be fulfilled. Video
    • Daniel 11:36-12:13; The Great Tribulation: As members of the body of Jesus Christ (the church), we are to encourage one another with the great truth that we will not experience God?s wrath. Video

    DANNY HODGES - brief sermon notes

    HERBERT LOCKYER - devotional

    LOUISIANA PRECEPTS - student helps

    EDWARD PAYSON

    PRECEPT MINISTRIES - download lesson 1

    MEN OF THE BIBLE - devotional

    TOMMY NELSON - audio messages on Daniel

      DANIEL F WALLACE

      EASY ENGLISH

      JAMES VAN DINE

      OUR DAILY BREAD

      HOMER HEATER

      WILLIAM KELLY

      BILL MCRAE

      DON ROBINSON

      HAMILTON SMITH

      CHRISTIAN FRIEND MAGAZINE

      RAY STEDMAN

      DAVID MALICK

      WIL POUNDS

      JOHN WHITCOMB

      DANIEL WALLACE

      JOHN WELDON

      DAVID WILKERSON

      DANIEL RESOURCES
      ARRANGED BY CHAPTER

      WAYNE BARBER - see also

      DAVE ROPER

      CHIP DEAN

      RICK WARREN - devotional

      GREG BREAZEALE

      • Daniel 1 - Exiled and Holy - excerpt

        Application: Suffering reveals our functional hope and trust. We see clearly how we often run to the wrong things to find security, refuge, and comfort. What have you relied on as your hope apart from God? What experience, dream, or possession is often your source of strength? Will you resolve to remain holy to God in all things? Will you run to Him?

        Conclusion idea - Hebrews reminds us to glance at the example of men like Daniel (11:33). But we must not stop there. We must turn our eyes on the greater Daniel and gaze upon Him (Heb. 12:1-3). We must fix our eyes on Jesus who, though righteous, experienced the ultimate exile on the cross. He was forsaken to bring us in, and abandoned so God might welcome us. Only by trusting and treasuring him can we be holy in our times of suffering and exile.

      HYMNS RELATED TO THE BOOK OF DANIEL

      NIV WOMEN'S DEVOTIONAL

      WAYNE BARBER - see also

      DANIEL WALLACE

      ADRIAN ROGERS - devotional

      SERMON ON DANIEL 3

      DAVID WILKERSON

      WOMEN'S DEVOTIONAL BIBLE

      MIKE ANDRUS

      WAYNE BARBER - see also

      JOHN PIPER

      DAVID LEGGE

      WAYNE BARBER - see also

      JAMES HASTINGS

      WOODROW KROLL

      JOHN PIPER

      WAYNE BARBER - see also

      BIBLEGATEWAY DEVOTIONAL

      CHRIS BENEFELD

      TABLETALK - devotional

      KENNETH GANGEL

      RICHARD PATTERSON

      F B HOLE

      JAMES E. ROSSCUP

      CYBERHYMNAL

      JOHN PIPER

      HAROLD HOEHNER

      PRECEPTAUSTIN

      THOMAS ICE

      HAROLD HOEHNER

      RANDALL PRICE

      DAVID LEGGE

      THOMAS ICE

      CHARLES RAY- includes over 200 footnotes! Recommended!

      JOHN PIPER

      RICK WARREN - devotional

      BIBLEGATEWAY DEVOTIONAL

      DAVID LEGGE

      MARK MERCER

      GEORGE HARTON

      ADRIAN ROGERS

      F B MEYER
      Devotional Comments

      HENRY MORRIS
      DEFENDER'S STUDY BIBLE NOTES
      BOOK OF DANIEL

       

      Conservative notes from Dr Morris who approaches the text seeking it's literal meaning in the context. Millennial. Click the words or phrases after the Scripture for the Study Notes and note that they are from the KJV translation.

      Daniel 1 Defender's Study Bible Notes

      Daniel 2 Defender's Study Bible Notes

      Daniel 3 Defender's Study Bible Notes

      Daniel 4 Defender's Study Bible Notes

      Daniel 5 Defender's Study Bible Notes

      Daniel 6 Defender's Study Bible Notes

      Daniel 7 Defender's Study Bible Notes

      Daniel 8 Defender's Study Bible Notes

      Daniel 9 Defender's Study Bible Notes

      Daniel 10 Defender's Study Bible Notes

      Daniel 11 Defender's Study Bible Notes

      Daniel 12 Defender's Study Bible Notes

      NET BIBLE NOTES
      Bible.org

      These notes tend to be somewhat more technical but often yield very helpful insights. Below are some samples. For all the notes on each verse click the associated link.

      • Daniel 1
        Da 1:1 The third year of the reign of Jehoiakim would be ca. 605 B.C. At this time Daniel would have been a teenager. The reference to Jehoiakim’s third year poses a serious crux interpretum, since elsewhere these events are linked to his fourth year (Jer 25:1; cf. 2 Kgs 24:1; 2 Chr 36:5–8). Apparently Daniel is following an accession year chronology, whereby the first partial year of a king’s reign was reckoned as the accession year rather than as the first year of his reign. Jeremiah, on the other hand, is following a nonaccession year chronology, whereby the accession year is reckoned as the first year of the king’s reign. In that case, the conflict is only superficial. Most modern scholars, however, have concluded that Daniel is historically inaccurate here.

        Da 1:1 King Nebuchadnezzar ruled Babylon from ca. 605–562 B.C

        Da 1:1 This attack culminated in the first of three major deportations of Jews to Babylon. The second one occurred in 597 B.C. and included among many other Jewish captives the prophet Ezekiel. The third deportation occurred in 586 B.C., at which time the temple and the city of Jerusalem were thoroughly destroyed.

        Da 1:2 The land of Babylonia (Heb “the land of Shinar”) is another name for Sumer and Akkad, where Babylon was located (cf. Gen 10:10; 11:2; 14:1, 9; Josh 7:21; Isa 11:11; Zech 5:11).

        Da 1:3 The word court official (Hebrew saris) need not mean “eunuch” in a technical sense (see Gen 37:36, where the term refers to Potiphar, who had a wife), although in the case of the book of Daniel there was in Jewish literature a common tradition to that effect. On the OT usage of this word see HALOT 769–70 s.v. סָרֹיס.

        Da 1:4 The language of the Chaldeans referred to here is Akkadian, an East Semitic cuneiform language.

        Da 1:6 The names reflect a Jewish heritage. In Hebrew Daniel means “God is my judge”; Hananiah means “the Lord is gracious”; Mishael means “who is what God is?”; Azariah means “the Lord has helped.”

        Da 1:7 The meanings of the Babylonian names are more conjectural than is the case with the Hebrew names. The probable etymologies are as follows: Belteshazzar means “protect his life,” although the MT vocalization may suggest “Belti, protect the king” (cf. Dan 4:8); Shadrach perhaps means “command of Aku”; Meshach is of uncertain meaning; Abednego means “servant of Nego.” Assigning Babylonian names to the Hebrew youths may have been an attempt to erase from their memory their Israelite heritage.

        Da 1:14 The number ten is sometimes used in the OT as an ideal number of completeness. Cf. v. 20; Zech 8:23; Rev 2:10.

        Da 1:21 The Persian king Cyrus’ first year in control of Babylon was 539 B.C. Daniel actually lived beyond the first year of Cyrus, as is clear from 10:1. The purpose of the statement in 1:21 is merely to say that Daniel’s life spanned the entire period of the neo-Babylonian empire. His life span also included the early years of the Persian control of Babylon. However, by that time his age was quite advanced; he probably died sometime in the 530’s B.C.
         
      • Daniel 2
        Da 2:4 Contrary to common belief, the point here is not that the wise men (Chaldeans) replied to the king in the Aramaic language, or that this language was uniquely the language of the Chaldeans. It was this view that led in the past to Aramaic being referred to as “Chaldee.” Aramaic was used as a lingua franca during this period; its origins and usage were not restricted to the Babylonians. Rather, this phrase is better understood as an editorial note (cf. NAB) marking the fact that from 2:4b through 7:28 the language of the book shifts from Hebrew to Aramaic. In 8:1, and for the remainder of the book, the language returns to Hebrew. Various views have been advanced to account for this change of language, most of which are unconvincing. Most likely the change in language is a reflection of stages in the transmission history of the book of Daniel.

        Da 2:5 It seems clear from what follows that Nebuchadnezzar clearly recalls the content of the dream, although obviously he does not know what to make of it. By not divulging the dream itself to the would-be interpreters, he intends to find out whether they are simply leading him on. If they can tell him the dream’s content, which he is able to verify, he then can have confidence in their interpretation, which is what eludes him.

        Da 2:25 Arioch’s claim is self-serving and exaggerated. It is Daniel who came to him, and not the other way around. By claiming to have found one capable of solving the king’s dilemma, Arioch probably hoped to ingratiate himself to the king.

        Da 2:33 Clay refers to baked clay, which—though hard—was also fragile. Cf. the reference in Da 2:41 to “wet clay.”

        Da 2:36 Various suggestions have been made concerning the plural “we.” It is probably the editorial plural and could be translated here as “I.”

        Da 2:39 The identity of the first kingdom is clearly Babylon. The identification of the following three kingdoms is disputed. The common view is that they represent Media, Persia, and Greece. Most conservative scholars identify them as Media-Persia, Greece, and Rome.

        Da 2:43 The reference to people being mixed is usually understood to refer to intermarriage.
         
      • Daniel 3
        Da 3:1 There is no need to think of Nebuchadnezzar’s image as being solid gold. No doubt the sense is that it was overlaid with gold (cf. Isa 40:19; Jer 10:3–4), with the result that it presented a dazzling self-compliment to the greatness of Nebuchadnezzar’s achievements. According to a number of patristic authors, the image represented a deification of Nebuchadnezzar himself. This is not clear from the biblical text, however. Aram “sixty cubits.” Assuming a length of 18 inches for the standard cubit, the image would be 90 feet (27.4 m) high. Aram “six cubits.” Assuming a length of 18 inches for the standard cubit, the image would be 9 feet (2.74 m) wide. The dimensions of the image (ninety feet high and nine feet wide) imply that it did not possess normal human proportions, unless a base for the image is included in the height dimension. The ancient world knew of other tall statues. For example, the Colossus of Rhodes—the huge statue of Helios which stood (ca. 280–224 B.C.) at the entrance to the harbor at Rhodes and was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world—was said to be seventy cubits (105 ft or 32 m) in height, which would make it even taller than Nebuchadnezzar’s image.

        Da 3:2 The specific duties of the seven types of officials listed here (cf. vv. 3, 27) are unclear. The Aramaic words that are used are transliterations of Akkadian or Persian technical terms whose exact meanings are uncertain. The translations given here follow suggestions set forth in BDB.

        Da 3:5 The word zither (Aramaic קִיתָרוֹס [qitaros]), and the words for harp (Aramaic פְּסַנְתֵּרִין [pésanterin]) and pipes (Aramaic סוּמְפֹּנְיָה [sumponéyah]), are of Greek derivation. Though much has been made of this in terms of suggesting a date in the Hellenistic period for the writing of the book, it is not surprising that a few Greek cultural terms, all of them the names of musical instruments, should appear in this book. As a number of scholars have pointed out, the bigger surprise (if, in fact, the book is to be dated to the Hellenistic period) may be that there are so few Greek loanwords in Daniel.

        Da 3:9 O king, live forever! is a comment of typical court courtesy that is not necessarily indicative of the real sentiments of the speaker. Ancient oriental court protocol could sometimes require a certain amount of hypocrisy.

        Da 3:12 Daniel’s absence from this scene has sparked the imagination of commentators, some of whom have suggested that perhaps he was unable to attend the dedication due to sickness or due to being away on business. Hippolytus supposed that Daniel may have been watching from a distance.

        Da 3:23 The deuterocanonical writings known as The Prayer of Azariah and The Song of the Three present at this point a confession and petition for God’s forgiveness and a celebration of God’s grace for the three Jewish youths in the fiery furnace. Though not found in the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel, these compositions do appear in the ancient Greek versions.

        Da 3:25 The phrase like that of a god is in Aramaic “like that of a son of the gods.” Many patristic writers understood this phrase in a christological sense (i.e., “the Son of God”). But it should be remembered that these are words spoken by a pagan who is seeking to explain things from his own polytheistic frame of reference; for him the phrase “like a son of the gods” is equivalent to “like a divine being.”

        Da 3:28 The king identifies the “son of the gods” (v. 25) as an angel. Comparable Hebrew expressions are used elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible for the members of God’s angelic assembly (see Gen 6:2, 4; Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:7; Ps 29:1; 89:6). An angel later comes to rescue Daniel from the lions (Da 6:22). (Ed Comment: While this may be a created angel, the alternative view is that this was in fact the Angel of the LORD, a pre-incarnate Christophany. We will have to wait until heaven to know for sure - 1 Cor 13:12).
         
      • Daniel 4
        Da 4:15 The function of the band of iron and bronze is not entirely clear, but it may have had to do with preventing the splitting or further deterioration of the portion of the tree that was left after being chopped down. By application it would then refer to the preservation of Nebuchadnezzar’s life during the time of his insanity.

        Da 4:16 Aramaic “its heart.” The metaphor of the tree begins to fade here and the reality behind the symbol (the king) begins to emerge. The seven periods of time probably refer to seven years.

        Da 4:25 Nebuchadnezzar’s insanity has features that are associated with the mental disorder known as boanthropy, in which the person so afflicted imagines himself to be an ox or a similar animal and behaves accordingly.

        Da 4:26 The reference to heaven here is a circumlocution for God. There was a tendency in Jewish contexts to avoid direct reference to God. Cf. the expression “kingdom of heaven” in the NT and such statements as “I have sinned against heaven and in your sight” (Luke 15:21)
         
      • Daniel 5
        Da 5:1 As is clear from the extra-biblical records, it was actually Nabonidus (ca. 556–539 B.C.) who was king of Babylon at this time. However, Nabonidus spent long periods of time at Teima, and during those times Belshazzar his son was de facto king of Babylon. This arrangement may help to explain why later in this chapter Belshazzar promises that the successful interpreter of the handwriting on the wall will be made third ruler in the kingdom. If Belshazzar was in effect second ruler in the kingdom, this would be the highest honor he could grant. This scene of a Babylonian banquet calls to mind a similar grandiose event recorded in Esther 1:3–8. Persian kings were also renowned in the ancient Near Eastern world for their lavish banquets. The king probably sat at an elevated head table.

        Da 5:2 Making use of sacred temple vessels for an occasion of reveling and drunkenness such as this would have been a religious affront of shocking proportions to the Jewish captives.

        Da 5:5 The mention of the lampstand in this context is of interest because it suggests that the writing was in clear view.

        Da 5:10 Aram “the queen” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV). In the following discourse this woman is able to recall things about Daniel that go back to the days of Nebuchadnezzar, things that Belshazzar does not seem to recollect. It is likely that she was the wife not of Belshazzar but of Nabonidus or perhaps even Nebuchadnezzar. In that case, “queen” here means “queen mother” (cf. NCV “the king’s mother”).

        Da 5:20 The point of describing Nebuchadnezzar as arrogant is that he had usurped divine prerogatives, and because of his immense arrogance God had dealt decisively with him.

        Da 5:30 The year was 539 B.C. At this time Daniel would have been approximately eighty-one years old. The relevant extra-biblical records describing the fall of Babylon include portions of Herodotus, Xenophon, Berossus (cited in Josephus), the Cyrus Cylinder, and the Babylonian Chronicle.
         
      • Daniel 6
        Da 6:10  In later rabbinic thought this verse was sometimes cited as a proof text for the notion that one should pray only in a house with windows. See b. Berakhot 34b....This is apparently the only specific mention in the OT of prayer being regularly offered three times a day. The practice was probably not unique to Daniel, however....No specific posture for offering prayers is prescribed in the OT. Kneeling, as here, and standing were both practiced.

        Da 6:24 Aram “had eaten the pieces of.” The Aramaic expression is ironic, in that the accusers who had figuratively “eaten the pieces of Daniel” are themselves literally devoured by the lions.

        Da 6:28 Or perhaps “in the reign of Darius, even in the reign of Cyrus.” The identity of this Darius is disputed. Some take the name to be referring to Cyrus, understanding the following vav (ו, “and”) in an epexegetical sense (“even”). Others identify Darius with a governor of Babylon known from extra-biblical records as Gubaru, or with Cambyses, son of Cyrus. Many scholars maintain that the reference is historically inaccurate.
         
      • Daniel 7
        Da 7:1 The first year of Belshazzar’s reign would have been ca. 553 B.C. Daniel would have been approximately 67 years old at the time of this vision.

        Da 7:4 The identity of the first animal, derived from v. 17 and the parallels in chap. 2, is Babylon. The reference to the plucking of its wings is probably a reference to the time of Nebuchadnezzar’s insanity (cf. chap. 4). The latter part of v. 4 then describes the restoration of Nebuchadnezzar. The other animals have traditionally been understood to represent respectively Media-Persia, Greece, and Rome, although most of modern scholarship identifies them as Media, Persia, and Greece. For a biblical parallel to the mention of lion, bear, and leopard together, see Hos 13:7–8.

        Da 7:5 The three ribs held securely in the mouth of the bear, perhaps representing Media-Persia, apparently symbolize military conquest, but the exact identity of the “ribs” is not clear. Possibly it is a reference to the Persian conquest of Lydia, Egypt, and Babylonia.

        Da 7:6  If the third animal is Greece, the most likely identification of these four heads is the four-fold division of the empire of Alexander the Great following his death. See note on Dan 8:8.

        Da 7:7  The fourth animal differs from the others in that it is nondescript. Apparently it was so fearsome that Daniel could find nothing with which to compare it. Attempts to identify this animal as an elephant or other known creature are conjectural.....tn The Aramaic word for “teeth” is dual rather than plural, suggesting two rows of teeth.

        Da 7:13 This text is probably the main OT background for Jesus’ use of the term “son of man.” In both Jewish and Christian circles the reference in the book of Daniel has traditionally been understood to refer to an individual, usually in a messianic sense. Many modern scholars, however, understand the reference to have a corporate identity. In this view, the “son of man” is to be equated with the “holy ones” (Da 7:18, 21, 22, 25) or the “people of the holy ones” (Da 7:27) and understood as a reference to the Jewish people. Others understand Daniel’s reference to be to the angel Michael.
         
      • Daniel 8
        Da 8:1  Dan 8:1 marks the switch from Aramaic (= 2:4b–7:28) back to Hebrew as the language in which the book is written in its present form. The remainder of the book from this point on (8:1–12:13) is in Hebrew. The bilingual nature of the book has been variously explained, but it most likely has to do with the book’s transmission history.....The third year of King Belshazzar’s reign would have been ca. 551 B.C. Daniel would have been approximately 69 years old at the time of this vision....Heb “in the beginning.” This refers to the vision described in chapter seven.

        Da 8:2 Susa (Heb. שׁוּשַׁן, shushan), located some 230 miles (380 km) east of Babylon, was a winter residence for Persian kings during the Achaemenid period. The language of v. 2 seems to suggest that Daniel may not have been physically present at Susa, but only saw himself there in the vision. However, the Hebrew is difficult, and some have concluded that the first four words of v. 2 in the MT are a later addition (cf. Theodotion).....The term אוּבַל (’uval = “stream, river”) is a relatively rare word in biblical Hebrew, found only here and in vv. 3 and 6. The Ulai was apparently a sizable artificial canal in Susa (cf. NASB, NIV, NCV), and not a river in the ordinary sense of that word.

        Da 8:7 The goat of Daniel’s vision represents Greece; the large horn represents Alexander the Great. The ram stands for Media-Persia. Alexander’s rapid conquest of the Persians involved three battles of major significance which he won against overwhelming odds: Granicus (334 B.C.), Isus (333 B.C.), and Gaugemela (331 B.C.).

        Da 8:8 The four conspicuous horns refer to Alexander’s successors. After his death, Alexander’s empire was divided up among four of his generals: Cassander, who took Macedonia and Greece; Lysimachus, who took Thrace and parts of Asia Minor; Seleucus, who took Syria and territory to its east; and Ptolemy, who took control of Egypt.

        Da 8:9 This small horn is Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who controlled the Seleucid kingdom from ca. 175–164 B.C. Antiochus was extremely hostile toward the Jews and persecuted them mercilessly.....The expression the beautiful land (Heb. הַצֶּבִי [hatsévi] = “the beauty”) is a cryptic reference to the land of Israel. Cf. Da 11:16, 41, where it is preceded by the word אֶרֶץ (’erets, “land”).

        Da 8:10 Traditionally, “host.” The term refers to God’s heavenly angelic assembly, which he sometimes leads into battle as an army..... In prescientific Israelite thinking the stars were associated with the angelic members of God’s heavenly assembly. See Judg 5:20; Job 38:7; Isa 40:26. In west Semitic mythology the stars were members of the high god’s divine assembly (see Isa 14:13).

        Da 8:11 The prince of the army may refer to God (cf. “whose sanctuary” later in the verse) or to the angel Michael (cf. 12:1)....Or perhaps “and by him,” referring to Antiochus rather than to God....Here the sanctuary is a reference to the temple of God in Jerusalem.

        Da 8:12 Truth here probably refers to the Torah. According to 1 Macc 1:56, Antiochus initiated destruction of the sacred books of the Jews.

        Da 8:13 The holy one referred to here is presumably an angel. Cf. Da 4:13[10], Da 4:23 [20].

        Da 8:14 The language of evenings and mornings is reminiscent of the creation account in Genesis 1. Since “evening and morning” is the equivalent of a day, the reference here would be to 2,300 days. However, some interpreters understand the reference to be to the evening sacrifice and the morning sacrifice, in which case the reference would be to only 1,150 days. Either way, the event that marked the commencement of this period is unclear. The event that marked the conclusion of the period is the rededication of the temple in Jerusalem following the atrocious and sacrilegious acts that Antiochus implemented. This took place on December 25, 165 B.C. The Jewish celebration of Hanukkah each year commemorates this victory.

        Da 8:16 The only angels whose names are given in the OT are Gabriel (Dan 8:16; 9:21; cf. Luke 1:19, 26) and Michael (Dan 10:13, 21; 12:1; cf. Jude 9; Rev 12:7). The name Gabriel means in Hebrew “man of God,” and Michael means “who is like God?”

        Da 8:23 The present translation reads הַפְּשָׁעִים (happésha’im, “rebellious acts”) for the MT הַפֹּשְׁעִים (happoshé’im, “rebels”). While the MT is understandable (cf. NIV, “when rebels have become completely wicked”), the filling up of transgressions is a familiar OT expression (cf. Gen 15:16) and fits this context well. Cf
         
      • Daniel 9
        Da 9:2 The tetragrammaton (the four Hebrew letters which constitute the divine Name, YHWH) appears eight times in this chapter, and nowhere else in the book of Daniel.

        Da 9:3 When lamenting, ancient Israelites would fast, wear sackcloth, and put ashes on their heads to show their sorrow and contrition.

        Da 9:11 Or “transgressed.” The Hebrew verb has the primary sense of crossing a boundary, in this case, God’s law....Heb “the curse and the oath which is written.” The term “curse” refers here to the judgments threatened in the Mosaic law (see Deut 28) for rebellion. The expression “the curse and the oath” is probably a hendiadys (cf. Num 5:21; Neh 10:29) referring to the fact that the covenant with its threatened judgments was ratified by solemn oath and made legally binding upon the covenant community.

        Da 9:16 Heb “your anger and your rage.” The synonyms are joined here to emphasize the degree of God’s anger. This is best expressed in English by making one of the terms adjectival (cf. NLT “your furious anger”; CEV “terribly angry”).

        Da 9:17 Heb “let your face shine.” This idiom pictures God smiling in favor. See Ps 31:16; 67:1; 80:3, 7, 19.

        Da 9:18 Heb “over which your name is called.” Cf. Da 9:19. This expression implies that God is the owner of his city, Jerusalem. Note the use of the idiom in 2 Sam 12:28; Isa 4:1; Amos 9:12.

        Da 9:24  Heb “sevens.” Elsewhere the term is used of a literal week (a period of seven days), cf. Gen 29:27–28; Exod 34:22; Lev 12:5; Num 28:26; Deut 16:9–10; 2 Chr 8:13; Jer 5:24; Dan 10:2–3. Gabriel unfolds the future as if it were a calendar of successive weeks. Most understand the reference here as periods of seventy “sevens” of years, or a total of 490 years.....Or “the most holy place” (NASB, NLT); or “a most holy one”; or “the most holy one,” though the expression is used of places or objects elsewhere, not people.

        Da 9:25 The accents in the MT indicate disjunction at this point, which would make it difficult, if not impossible, to identify the “anointed one/prince” of this verse as messianic. The reference in v. 26 to the sixty-two weeks as a unit favors the MT accentuation, not the traditional translation. If one follows the MT accentuation, one may translate “From the going forth of the message to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until an anointed one, a prince arrives, there will be a period of seven weeks. During a period of sixty-two weeks it will again be built, with plaza and moat, but in distressful times.” The present translation follows a traditional reading of the passage that deviates from the MT accentuation. (Editorial note: The ESV translation chooses to translate this verse in such a way that it does not readily suggest a Messianic prophecy =  ESV reads "Know therefore and understand that from the going out of the word to restore and build Jerusalem to the coming of an anointed one, a prince, there shall be seven weeks. Then for sixty-two weeks it shall be built again with squares and moat, but in a troubled time." Of interest however is that the ESV Study Notes do suggest a Messianic interpretation! = "The first seven sevens would run from the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem to the time when that rebuilding was complete (perhaps 458–409 B.C., or 445–396). This period of restoration, along with the subsequent sixty-two sevens after the city had been rebuilt, would be a time of trouble. The messianic ruler would make his appearance at the end of these 69 sevens.")"

        Da 9:26 The expression have nothing is difficult. Presumably it refers to an absence of support or assistance for the anointed one at the time of his “cutting off.” The KJV rendering “but not for himself,” apparently suggesting a vicarious death, cannot be defended.....Flood here is a metaphor for sudden destruction.
         
      • Daniel 10
        Da 10:1 This chapter begins the final unit in the book of Daniel, consisting of chapters 10–12. The traditional chapter divisions to some extent obscure the relationship of these chapters.....Cyrus’ third year would have been ca. 536 B.C. Daniel would have been approximately eighty-four years old at this time.

        Da 10:3 Anointing oneself with oil (usually olive oil) was a common OT practice due to the severity of the Middle Eastern sun (cf. Ps 121:6). It was also associated with rejoicing (e.g., Prov 27:9) and was therefore usually not practiced during a period of mourning.

        Da 10:5 The identity of the messenger is not specifically disclosed. Presumably he is an unnamed angel. Some interpreters identify him as Gabriel, but there is no adequate reason for doing so.

        Da 10:11 (NET = "of great value") Or “a treasured person”; KJV “a man greatly beloved”; NASB “man of high esteem.”
         
      • Daniel 11
        Da 11:5 The king of the south is Ptolemy I Soter (ca. 323–285 B.C.). The following reference to one of his subordinates apparently has in view Seleucus I Nicator (ca. 311–280 B.C.). Throughout the remainder of chap. 11 the expressions “king of the south” and “king of the north” repeatedly occur. It is clear, however, that these terms are being used generically to describe the Ptolemaic king (i.e., “of the south”) or the Seleucid king (i.e., “of the north”) who happens to be in power at any particular time. The specific identity of these kings can be established more or less successfully by a comparison of this chapter with the available extra-biblical records that discuss the history of the intertestamental period. In the following notes the generally accepted identifications are briefly mentioned.

        Da 11:6  Here they refers to Ptolemy II Philadelphus (ca. 285–246 B.C.) and Antiochus II Theos (ca. 262–246 B.C.). The daughter refers to Berenice, who was given in marriage to Antiochus II Theos. Antiochus II eventually divorced Berenice and remarried his former wife Laodice, who then poisoned her husband, had Berenice put to death, and installed her own son, Seleucus II Callinicus (ca. 246–227 B.C.), as the Seleucid king.

        Da 11:7 The reference is to the king of Egypt.....he reference to one from her family line is probably to Berenice’s brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes (ca. 246–221 B.C.).

        Da 11:10 The sons of Seleucus II Callinicus were Seleucus III Ceraunus (ca. 227–223 B.C.) and Antiochus III the Great (ca. 223–187 B.C.).

        Da 11:11 This king of the south refers to Ptolemy IV Philopator (ca. 221–204 B.C.).

        Da 11:14 This was Ptolemy V Epiphanes (ca. 203–181 B.C.).

        Da 11:15 This well-fortified city is apparently Sidon. Its capture from the Ptolemies by Antiochus the Great was a strategic victory for the Seleucid kingdom.

        Da 11:17 The daughter refers to Cleopatra, the daughter of Antiochus, who was given in marriage to Ptolemy V.

        Da 11:18 The commander is probably the Roman commander, Lucius Cornelius Scipio.

        Da 11:20  The one who will send out an exactor of tribute was Seleucus IV Philopator (ca. 187–176 B.C.).

        Da 11:21 This despicable person to whom the royal honor has not been rightfully conferred is Antiochus IV Epiphanes (ca. 175–164 B.C.).

        Da 11:25 This king of the south was Ptolemy Philometer (ca. 181–145 B.C.).

        Da 11:30 This is apparently a reference to the Roman forces, led by Gaius Popilius Laenas, which confronted Antiochus when he came to Egypt and demanded that he withdraw or face the wrath of Rome. Antiochus wisely withdrew from Egypt, albeit in a state of bitter frustration.

        Da 11:32 This is an allusion to the Maccabean revolt, which struggled to bring about Jewish independence in the second century B.C.

        Da 11:36 The identity of this king is problematic. If Da 11:36–45 continue the description of Antiochus Epiphanes, the account must be viewed as erroneous, since the details do not match what is known of Antiochus’ latter days. Most modern scholars take this view, concluding that this section was written just shortly before the death of Antiochus and that the writer erred on several key points as he tried to predict what would follow the events of his own day. Conservative scholars, however, usually understand the reference to shift at this point to an eschatological figure, viz., the Antichrist. The chronological gap that this would presuppose to be in the narrative is not necessarily a problem, since by all accounts there are many chronological gaps throughout the chapter, as the historical figures intended by such expressions as “king of the north” and “king of the south” repeatedly shift.

        Da 11:40 (NET = "At the time of the end the king of the south will attack him. Then the king of the north will storm against him with chariots, horsemen, and a large armada of ships. He will invade lands, passing through them like an overflowing river") The referent of the pronoun is most likely the king of the south, in which case the text describes the king of the north countering the attack of the king of the south.....This most likely refers to the king of the north who, in response to the aggression of the king of the south, launches an invasion of the southern regions.

        Da 11:41 The beautiful land is a cryptic reference to the land of Israel.
         
      • Daniel 12
        Da 12:2 This verse is the only undisputed reference to a literal resurrection found in the Hebrew Bible.

        Da 12:13 The deuterocanonical writings known as the Story of Susanna and Bel and the Dragon appear respectively as chapters 13 and 14 of the book of Daniel in the Greek version of this book. Although these writings are not part of the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel, they were popular among certain early communities who valued traditions about the life of Daniel.

      PASTOR LIFE
      SERMONS
      BOOK OF DANIEL

      OUR DAILY BREAD
      Devotionals/Illustrations
      Radio Bible Class

      Updated March 10, 2015

      RAY PRITCHARD
      Courageous Living in Turbulent Times
      Recommended

      ROB SALVATO
      Daniel Sermon Notes

      JOSEPH AUGUSTUS SEISS
      Daniel Commentary (1879)
      Voices from Babylon: or, The Records of Daniel the Prophet

      CHUCK SMITH
      Sermon Notes Daniel
      Calvary Chapel

      CHUCK SMITH
      Commentary on Daniel

      C H SPURGEON
      Sermons on Daniel
      All his sermons on Daniel

      C H SPURGEON
      Devotionals on Daniel

      RAY STEDMAN
      Expository Series on Daniel

      PAUL TAYLOR
      SERMONS
      BOOK OF DANIEL

      Note that the links open to several formats - audio and transcripts

      TODAY IN THE WORD
      Devotionals
      Moody Bible Institute

      TODAY'S WORD
      Verse by Verse Commentary
      Grant Richison

      JOHN WALVOORD
      Daniel: The Key To Prophetic Revelation
      Recommended

      Note: This is Dr Walvoord's entire original book of Daniel)

      Rosscup - In the opinion of the reviewer, this, Stephen Miller’s effort, and Wood’s 1972 work are the finest overall commentaries of a popular nature on Daniel by premillennial dispensational scholars to date. Walvoord weaves into the work an up-to-date understanding of archaeological and historical confirmations of Daniel that offset the critics and also gives a solid reasoning for a premillennial perspective of Messianic prophecy. He very capably answers the late-daters of Daniel, argues that the four kingdoms of Daniel 2 and 7 are Babylon, Media-Persia, Greece, and Rome, and deals with most problem areas in adequate detail. Still he manages to keep the great theme of the work before the reader. (Ibid)

      STEVE ZEISLER
      Sermons
      Peninsula Bible Church

      INTERPRETATIVE APPROACH
      TO THE BOOK OF DANIEL

      There is considerable disagreement on how the book of the Daniel should be interpreted. Therefore it is strongly recommended that you consider performing your own inductive study prior to consulting any commentaries. The single best inductive study in my opinion is the Precept Ministries International study on Daniel (click here), the understanding of which is crucial to an accurate interpretation of the prophecies in the book of the Revelation. To state it another way, a full understanding of the book of the Revelation is impossible without an accurate understanding of the book of Daniel.

      The following is adapted from the introduction to the Revelation Resources because Daniel is replete with prophecies, some of which have been fulfilled (assuming a literal approach) and some of which are yet to be fulfilled. The approach one takes to the interpretation of the future prophecies in the book of the Revelation will greatly influence how one interprets the future prophecies in the book of Daniel. The following chart summarizes the four main "schools" of interpretation regarding the prophecies in the Revelation.

      Even more important is to build a firm foundation from your own inductive study of Daniel before you consult even the most respected commentary, otherwise you may be confused by the diversity of interpretations!

      The four views of interpretation of Revelation are summarized in the following chart. If you would like to see which "school" of interpretation your favorite commentator espouses, click here for a list of authors who are categorized by their main interpretative approach. Although there are probably some exceptions, the authors in this list undoubtedly take a similar interpretative approach to the unfulfilled prophecies in Daniel (Click here to see Daniel Commentaries categorized by the approach to the important prophecy in Daniel 9:24-27)

      John MacArthur (any of his sermons or publications are highly recommended) nicely summarizes the "interpretative challenges" in Daniel noting that

      The main challenges center on interpreting passages about future tribulation and kingdom promises. Though the use of Imperial Aramaic and archeology have confirmed the early date of writing, some skeptical interpreters, unwilling to acknowledge supernatural prophecies that came to pass (there are over 100 in Daniel 11 alone that were fulfilled), place these details in the intertestamental times. They see these prophecies, not as miraculously foretelling the future, but as simply the observations of a later writer, who is recording events of his own day. Thus, they date Daniel in the days of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175–164 b.c., Daniel 8; 11:21–45). According to this scheme, the expectation of the Stone and Son of Man (Da 2, Da 7) turned out to be a mistaken notion that did not actually come to pass, or the writer was being intentionally deceptive."

      MacArthur takes a literal approach to the interpretation of Daniel (an approach also taken by this website) noting that there will be a literal

      "future 7 year judgment period (cf. Da 7:21,22; 11:36-45; 12:1) and a literal 1,000 year kingdom (cf. Rev. 20) after Christ’s second coming when He will reign over Israelites and Gentiles (Da 7:27)...an era before and distinct from the final, absolutely perfect, ultimate state, i.e., the new heaven and the new earth with its capital, the New Jerusalem (Rev 21,22). The literal interpretation of prophecy, including Daniel, leads to the premillennial perspective.

      Finally MacArthur adds that there are specific interpretative challenges such as

      interpreting numbers (Da 1:12,20; 3:19; 9:24-27); identifying the one like a Son of Man (Da 7:13,14); determining whether to see Antiochus of the past or Antichrist of the far future in Da 8:19-23; explaining the “seventy sevens” in Da 9:24-27; and deciding whether Antiochus of Da 11:21-35 is still meant in Da 11:36-45, or whether it is the future Antichrist. (MacArthur, J. J. The MacArthur Study Bible. Nashville: Word Pub)

      Preterist

      Preterist (from Latin praeter meaning "past") holds that through use of symbols and allegory, the Revelation deals with events that were fulfilled in John's time and that it was written primarily to provide hope and comfort to the first century church persecuted by Rome. For example, this view interprets the beasts of (Rev 13) as imperial Rome and the imperial priesthood. The preterist view is held by many modern scholars, especially liberals and those who deny that the Revelation predicts specific future events.

      Historicist

      Views the Revelation as a symbolic or allegorical prophetic survey of church history from the first century up to the Second Coming of Christ and was the view espoused by most of the "reformers". This view however has been largely discounted as it does not adequately address the prophesy in the Revelation. The discerning reader needs to be aware that the historicist view is reflected in most of the "older" commentaries (many of which are public domain works easily accessible on the internet) including the works of John Knox, Martin Luther, John Calvin, John Wesley, Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield, C. H. Spurgeon, Matthew Henry, Adam Clarke and Albert Barnes. Unless you understand their historicist approach to prophesy, you may become very confused when reading these older "classic" commentaries. Note that with the exception of Spurgeon, these works are not included in the list of resources. It is also important to realize that many of these "classic" commentaries tend to treat many of the promises to Israel as now having their primary application to the church, and this view is firmly disavowed by this website. An example of a historicist interpretation is the belief that the strong angel of Rev 10 symbolizes the Reformation and that the harlot in Rev 17 represents the Roman Catholic church.

      Idealist

      Maintains that Revelation is not predictive prophecy, but a symbolic portrait of the cosmic conflict between the forces of good and evil. In this view the Revelation becomes merely a collection of stories designed to teach spiritual truth. Some refer to this method of interpretation as "Spiritual".

      Futurist

      Interprets Revelation 4-22 as predictive of future end time historical events preceding, during and after the return of Jesus Christ, the establishment of His 1000 year, millennial kingdom on earth, followed by the creation of a new heaven and new earth. Variations of this view were held by the earliest expositors, such as Justin Martyr (d. 164), Irenaeus (d. c. 195), et al. This futurist approach has enjoyed a revival since the 19th century and is widely held among evangelicals today.

      Note that as best I can discern, most of the resources listed below interpret the book of Daniel using a literal ("futuristic") approach.

      The interpretative approach taken by this website regarding Revelation 4-22 and the prophetic sections of the book of Daniel is that these passages describe literal people, places and events that will be fulfilled in the future. As someone has well said "If the plain sense makes good sense seek no other sense lest it result in nonsense." Many of the resources on this page espouse a similar literal interpretative view, but this does not necessarily mean that we agree with every comment in all of the resources.

      Bob Deffinbaugh notes that

      "What makes the Book of Daniel most profitable for some makes it most problematic for others. Daniel is one of the great Old Testament prophets, and these prophecies have a great deal to say about things yet to come. For the Bible-believing Christian this puts Daniel on the “must read” list. For the unbelieving skeptic, it puts the message and meaning of this great book on the “hit list.” Much that is written about Daniel, then, is written from a critical perspective. Daniel is profitable for the Christian because it describes life in Babylon during the dark days of the captivity of the Jews, in fulfillment of the prophecies God had given this wayward people. Finally, Daniel is a most profitable book because it describes the life of a very godly man, living in an ungodly world."

      The wide divergence of interpretative views in the realm of Scripture prophecy makes it imperative that the discerning reader be a "true blue" Berean (Acts 17:11) and perform his or her own inductive study prior to consulting any commentary, tape set, web site or sermon, lest he or she become mired down in confusing rhetoric and specious speculation. The Prophecies in Daniel and the Revelation of Jesus Christ were written to edify, equip, encourage and bless the saints, not to hopelessly confuse or divide them. Maranatha!

      Addendum: Clearly any list of "Best Commentaries" on the Book of Daniel is going to be significantly influenced by one's interpretative view of Scripture (literal,  figurative/allegorical, etc). That said, there are 3 sites that usually come up on a Google search of "best commentaries" so let's briefly "review" the "review sites:"

      (1) Best Commentaries - A helpful feature in this list is that it provides a notation regarding the view of the commentary on the millennium - Amillennial (often a non-literal approach to prophecy) versus Pre-millennial (usually reflects a literal interpretation of the text). You will note for example that the top two commentaries are both amilennial and as Rosscup's critique says both are somewhat "fuzzy" (my words) in regard to their interpretation of eschatological or prophetic passages, which would seem to me to be a serious deficiency in a commentary on a book in which 8 of the 12 chapters have some of the most incredible prophetic texts in all of Scripture!  Read Rosscup's comments on three of the top five ranked Daniel commentaries- (#1) John Goldingjay (#2) Joyce Baldwin and (#5) Temper Longman. The take away is that the reader needs to be very discerning in any list of "best commentaries" lest he or she be misled as to the true interpretation. The best defense against this trap as mentioned above is to first do your own inductive Bible study of the text under the tutelage of the Holy Spirit and then you will in fact be able to comment on the commentaries! (See consulting conservative commentaries) Remember, while the commentary is usually written by someone with several degrees after they name, if you are a born again believer in Jesus Christ, you have "the Spirit of truth" (Jn 14:17) indwelling you, and He is every ready and able to lead you into all truth independent of whether or not you have an academic degree! Please do not misunderstand - I highly value the academic expertise of the commentaries written by those who are authorities in their field, but ultimately we must be like the ancient Berean followers of Christ "examining (literally "sifted up and down"!) the Scriptures daily, to see whether these things (the sermons preached, doctrine taught, and commentaries written)" are truly reflective of an accurate handling of "the Word of Truth." (Acts 17:11-note, 2 Ti 2:15-note

      (2) Ligonier Ministries Top Commentaries on the Book of Daniel - Suffice it to say that not even one of the top 5 commentaries on their list interprets Daniel 9:24-27 as a prophecy which has a yet future final fulfillment. 

      (3) Best Commentaries on Daniel - This is Tim Challies' list which is similar to Ligonier's, so it is not surprising that there is not one of these works (the one by Davis may be an exception but his comments on Da 9:24-27 are still somewhat vague) that sees Daniel 9:24-27 as having a component that his yet to be fulfilled in the future. 

      In summary, if you believe that the safest approach to interpretation of the Bible is literal, then suffice it to say you will likely be disappointed by the majority of the offerings of "best commentaries on Daniel." Therefore the watchword is "Caveat Emptor" when you go to either study or to purchase a commentary on the prophetic book of Daniel. Hopefully, the list below will give some guidance. And as you have surely already surmised, the majority of the works listed on this page of Daniel Commentaries and Sermons are from sources that seek to interpret the text literally, and also interpret figurative language (e.g., the statute in Daniel 2, the 4 beasts in Daniel 7, etc) with a literal interpretation. Remember that although the language of a text may be figurative or metaphorical, in the final analysis God always intends it to have a literal meaning.

      For more discussion on the origin and spiritual danger of the allegorical method of interpretation especially as applied to prophetic books like Daniel click here for Anthony Garland's analysis. He also has an interesting discussion on Understanding Symbols and FiguresAbuse of Numbers in Biblical Interpretation and Literal Interpretation of Numbers.

      THREE GENERAL
      INTERPRETATIVE APPROACHES
      REGARDING DANIEL 9:24-27
      Recommended Resources
      (And Some that are not recommended)

      The first group of resources below accepts Daniel 9:25-26 as a prophecy of the Messiah and allows for a "Gap" Between Daniel's 69 and 70th Week. The works in this first group seek the normal, literal interpretation and would in general be classified as "futurists" and millennialists.

      Disclaimer: Note that categorizing an entire work and/or writer's interpretative approach is undoubtedly somewhat subjective so if you see a commentary that you know is inappropriately classified, please email your concern and it will be researched and corrected as needed.

      • Anderson, Sir Robert: Daniel in the Critic's Den and The Coming Prince

        Rosscup - A popular, brief premillennial exposition of Daniel by an expositor who is a master of synthesis. Campbell taught Bible exposition at Dallas Seminary for many years. He illustrates vividly and gears the work for lay people. (Commentaries For Biblical Expositors - excellent resource)

        Rosscup - In a very systematic and thorough way, the author delves into Daniel to compare the amillennial, premillennial and postmillennial interpretations. He defends the premillennial view and presents several arguments to show that it is superior. It is a penetrating work and very valuable to have. In an appendix, he gives seven arguments in support of his view that the new heavens and new earth will come at the beginning of the millennium and not at the end. Many will disagree that the Bible supports this idea.. (Commentaries For Biblical Expositors - excellent resource)

        James Rosscup: A light, cursory exposition is along popular and premillennial lines, using a lot of long quotes and doing little more than outline prophetical matters. But it has some good principles for application. For the most part, one would derive more benefit from various works that offer so much more than the appeal of packaging. (Commentaries For Biblical Expositors - excellent resource)

        James Rosscup: Miller provides a careful premillennial, dispensational explanation on details, such as on Dan. 2, 7, and 11–12. His introduction upholds Daniel in the sixth century B. C. as author, and reviews the history of criticism, answering main reasons some use for a second century date, among other things. In the commentary, he offers competent light on many problems, and shows he is aware of views, often giving copious reasons for his own. He describes what the fiery furnace looked like (115), and has good discussions on such details as the Son of Man (7:13–14), and a defense of a premillennial view in 7:15ff, and a gap before the seventieth seven in 9:27 with the seven coming right before Christ’s Second Advent. Along premillennial lines it ranks close to Leon Wood’s work, and on discussing critical viewpoints offers more. (Commentaries For Biblical Expositors - excellent resource)

        Rosscup - A dispensational survey, documenting his use of scholarly literature and mingling exegesis and devotional elements. His dispensational interpretations are fairly standard. .(Commentaries For Biblical Expositors - excellent resource)

        The second group listed below accepts Daniel 9:25-26 as Prophecy of the Messiah but does not interpret a Gap between Daniel's 69 & 70th Week

        Most of these works interpret Daniel's 70th week as literally following the 69th week and interpret the he in Daniel 9:27 as the Messiah and not the Antichrist. Basically most of these writers also do not accept the 1000 year reign of Messiah on earth (i.e., they are amillennialists) as mentioned in Revelation 20.

        • Baldwin, Joyce G: Daniel: An Introduction and Commentary. (Inter-Varsity Press, 1978). (Baldwin makes an odd comment that "The numbers are symbolic and not arithmetical; by the time 69 sevens have passed, God's allotted seventy is almost complete" She goes on to add that "to him (Daniel) the 70 years covered the whole of future time, and the coming of the kingdom looked from his vantage-point like one event.")

        Rosscup - The main contribution of this brief work is in the many references to literature in Baldwin’s sometimes broad reading and awareness. Baldwin is also helpful in referring at times back and forth from liberal to conservative views (cf. on resurrection, Da 12:2), so that the reader sees the difference in interpretative systems. One is disappointed in what she does (or fails to do) with some texts, such as Da Da 7:12, “the rest of the beasts.” Cf. by comparison Leon Wood. Baldwin’s work seems to lack a grasp of eschatological details whereas Walvoord, Wood etc. are more clear-cut in a consistent system they can verify in a meaningful way from Scripture.A dispensational survey, documenting his use of scholarly literature and mingling exegesis and devotional elements. His dispensational interpretations are fairly standard. .(Commentaries For Biblical Expositors - excellent resource)

        • Barnes, Albert: Barnes Notes on the Old Testament (ca 1942)
        • Calvin, John: Calvin's Commentaries (mid 1500's)

        Rosscup - This work appeared first in Latin in 1561. The reader will find much judicious comment with spiritual perception on the character of Daniel. The prophetical view Calvin advocates is amillennial, so one will see how he explains and defends that perspective on such passages as Daniel 2, 7, 9, 11, and 12. (Commentaries For Biblical Expositors - excellent resource)

        • Clarke, A: Clarke's Commentary: Daniel (ca 1850's)
        • Gill, John: Exposition of the Old and New Testaments (ca mid-1700's)
        • Henry, Matthew: Matthew Henry's commentary on the whole Bible (1706)
        • Jamieson, R., Fausset, & Brown: A commentary, critical and explanatory (1871) - This is one of the better older commentaries and tends to interpret Scripture literally!
        • Keil, C. F., & Delitzsch, F: Commentary on the Old Testament (1866-1891) (Presents a difficult to follow discussion which seems to conclude the 70th week correlates with the end times in which Antichrist is exterminated, but they interpret the "seven's" symbolically and thus do not formally espouse a "gap") 
        • Longman, Tremper III. Daniel (NIV Application Commentary)

        James Rosscup: A Westmont College professor posits sixth century B. C. material in Daniel, but his work is soft toward late-daters, even toward one who denies the possibility of supernatural prophecy in Dan. 7–12 (23). Longman seeks to resolve alleged inaccuracies as in Da 1:1–2 (43), difficult phrases such as “ten times better” in Da 1:20 (54), usually meeting them head-on in a substantial commentary of 313 pp. He is of the opinion in Daniel 7:1-6 that the four beasts represent an unspecified number of evil kingdoms that will succeed one another from the exile to Christ’s future coming (190). Many principles help readers in application, but too often the comments on prophecy mislead or leave uncertainty, not help one have a sound view. (Commentaries For Biblical Expositors - excellent resource) (Bolding added for emphasis)

        • Young, E J: The Prophecy of Daniel (1949)

        Rosscup (writing on Young's "The Messianic Prophecies of Daniel") has this comment - This is a solid work showing how an outstanding fairly recent amillennial scholar deals with so crucial a book on eschatology. It reveals the vital points at which he attacks dispensationalism. The commentary is very good in its verse by verse exegesis but is weak in eschatology, as shown by his treatment of Daniel 9:24–27 and the “stone” in chapter 2. He fastens upon the dispensational teaching that the kingdom of the future will be a thousand years, then argues from chapter 2 that the kingdom has to be eternal. Actually, dispensationalists are misrepresented here, for they believe in both. (Commentaries For Biblical Expositors - excellent resource) (Bolding added for emphasis) (Ed comment: It is indeed a sad paradox that in a clearly prophetic book like Daniel, the writer of a commentary on Daniel would be assessed as "weak in eschatology." And yet Young's work on Daniel is the #1 ranked commentary by Ligonier Ministries! So what is the upshot? As alluded to above, one must be very careful not to rely too heavily on the so-called "best commentary" lists!) 

        • Geneva Study Bible: Study Notes (1599)
        • Mauro, Philip: The Seventy Weeks and the Great Tribulation (1921)
        • Leupold, H. C.: Exposition of Daniel (Baker Book House, 1949)

        Rosscup -  This amillennial work is quite detailed and helpful in showing the amillennial type of approach to the crucial prophecies, The work by Young, however, is better.(Commentaries For Biblical Expositors - excellent resource)

        • New Bible Commentary (Sinclair Ferguson)

        This last group does not believe Daniel 9:24-27 is a prophecy of the Messiah and thus these works generally equate with a liberal school of (non-literal) interpretation

        This group generally argues that Daniel was written in the second century (late date) after all the historical events prophesied had come to pass and thus they conclude that the entire book represents the author's (not the original Daniel) interpretation of past history. In general the commentators this non-Christological group attempts to find fulfillment of the Daniel's 70 Weeks in the events leading up to the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes. In 168 B.C., a pagan altar was constructed on top of the great altar of burnt sacrifices, and a pagan sacrifice was offered under the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes. This act precipitated the Maccabean revolt which Antiochus attempted unsuccessfully to put down with great cruelty (167-164 B.C.).

        The works below have some excellent aspects from an academic aspect but on prophet passages "be a Berean"! (Acts 17:11-note) Note that several of these works are published by companies that one normally considered conservative evangelical sources, but clearly that does not guarantee that the contents are thoroughly conservative and evangelical. Examine every commentary (including the notes you are now reading!) carefully. Hold fast (present imperative = command to make this one's lifestyle) to those that are true (cf 1Th 5:21-note). The only way you will personally be able to achieve this goal is to learn to study the Scriptures inductively (Click introduction to inductive Bible study).

        Solid food (as prepared by careful inductive study) is for the mature, who because of practice have their senses trained to discern good and evil (see Hebrews 5:14-note)

        • Goldingay, John E: Daniel. Word Biblical Commentary. Volume 30 (Dallas: Word Books, 1989) (For example he writes that "There is no reason to refer it exegetically to the first or second coming of Christ.", page 260)

        Rosscup - Immense research in books and journals has gone into this. It has excellent footnote details, many word studies, and a long, learned discussion on introductory matters that is quite informative for many. It summarizes the history of interpreting Daniel from the LXX to Goldingay’s work. Goldingay favors a second century date and sees much fulfillment of prophecy in Maccabean times; it is history written after things happen. He feels the author stretches history at times, and favors saying that the fourth empire in Daniel 7 is an elephant. Often numbers are symbolical. The work has much to offer on literature and views in many cases but is not of reliable value in handling prophecy, in the minds of premillennialists. (Commentaries For Biblical Expositors - excellent resource)

        • Brown, R. E., Fitzmyer, J. A., & Murphy, R. E: The Jerome Biblical commentary (1968)
        • Matthews, V. H., Chavalas, M. W., & Walton, J. H: The IVP Bible background commentary: Old Testament (InterVarsity Press, 2000)
        • Montgomery, James A: A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Daniel. The International Critical Commentary. (1964)

        Rosscup: This is a detailed study of the text from a critical standpoint, and is, in this regard, very helpful to the serious student who is dealing with problems. Often the work is in a dense fog on prophetical positions, fostering confusion. (Commentaries For Biblical Expositors - excellent resource)

        • F F Bruce: A popular commentary series edited by F. F. Bruce and William Barclay (Abingdon Press) is full of modernistic thought and historical-critical discussion and specifically in the volume dealing with Daniel, the book of Daniel is said to have been written after the fulfillment of the events prophesied therein. In the same volume we are told that we cannot know who authored the book of Daniel (though Jesus Christ strongly implies that Daniel wrote it -- he certainly spoke it - Mt 24:15!).
        • Russell, D. S: Daniel. The Daily Study Bible series. (Westminster John Knox Press, 1981)

        This is by the famous author of The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic (1964), later General Secretary of the Baptist Union of Great Britain. The series purports to have experts in their field write in a form that will appeal to the general public. Russell dates Daniel ca. 165 B. C., using arguments such as vocabulary and style. These have been answered well in favor of a 6th century date by such men as Edwin Yamauchi, Greece and Babylon. Yet there is much elucidation from careful scholarship even for evangelicals whose studies lead them to different conclusions. Russell in typical liberal fashion sees the parts of the image as depicting Neo-Babylon, Media, Persia and Greece. The fulfillment of God’s Kingdom is not in a far off kingdom (that, says Russell, is strained and fanciful exegesis), but in the writer’s own time. His hopes were not realized, for the kingdom did not come literally in the way he expected in his day (p. 54). Yet Russell does believe in the New Testament hope of the kingdom at the end of history. On 12:2, he says wrongly that the earlier Hebrews had no belief in individual life beyond the grave (p. 218). While the work often does not offer reliable help that understands the writer’s expectation in the futuristic way the writer most naturally seems to mean it, there is much to open up vividly many of the verses on other details. The work is helpful if one wants to see how a liberal mind deals with what is said. (Commentaries For Biblical Expositors - excellent resource)

        CHARTS ON
        PROPHETIC PASSAGES

        LECTURES ON THE REVELATION
        By Kay Arthur

        Revelation Part 3

        • Lecture 00 Knowing Revelation Takes Away the Fear
        • Lecture 01 Knowing Who God Is & Living Accordingly
        • Lecture 02 Who Do You Bow Down To?
        • Lecture 03 When Will the Mystery of God be Finished?
        • Lecture 04 Date Setting and The Return of Christ
        • Lecture 05 Matthew 24 and the Coming of the Son of Man
        • Lecture 06 When Does the Tribulation Begin?
        • Lecture 07 Why Is It So Important to Understand the Jew?
        • Lecture 08 Is God Finished With the Jews?
        • Lecture 09 This Land is Your Land...Forever!
        • Lecture 10 What Happened to the Old Testament Promises Regarding Israel?
        • Lecture 11 A Prophecy Regarding Israel: The Beginning of the End

        Revelation Part 4

        • Lecture 00 Where are the leaders? The Strong and Courageous? Those valiant for God's absolutes?
        • Lecture 01 The Lord Jesus Christ is Returning: You Can Count on It!
        • Lecture 02 Are the Events of Revelation Past? Happening Now? Or Yet Future?
        • Lecture 03 It's the Last Hour! Don't be Misled by the Devil's Antichrists
        • Lecture 04 What Will it be Like When the ''Real'' Antichrist Comes?
        • Lecture 05 When Will the Antichrist rear his Destructive head?
        • Lecture 06 The Devil's Beauty & Beast
        • Lecture 07 Who is the Great harlot Babylon?
        • Lecture 08 The Day of the Lord is Coming
        • Lecture 09 Where Will the Church be When the Day of the Lord Comes?
        • Lecture 10 What & When is Armageddon?
        • Lecture 11 When Jesus Returns to the Earth Where Will the Church Be?
        • Lecture 12 Where is the Church in the Book of the Revelation?
        • Lecture 13 Where is the Church in the 1000 Year Reign?

      25:28; Israel for Joseph, Gen. 37:3 and Benjamin 44:20); mother-in-law (Ruth for Naomi, Ruth 4:15); man's love for woman; wife (Isaac for Rebekah, Gen. 24:67; Jacob for Rachel, Gen. 29:30; Elkanah for Hannah, (1 Sam. 1:5; Rehoboam for Maachah, 2 Chr. 11:21). Also, Shechem for Dinah (Gen. 34:3); Sampson for Delilah, (Judg. 16:4, 15); Absalom for Tamar (2 Sam. 13:1, 4, 15) and figuratively of adulterous Judah (Jer. 2:25; Isa. 57:8; Ezek. 16:37). In addition to love for relatives and between the sexes aheb is used of the love of slave for master (Exo. 21:5; Deut. 15:16); inferior for superior (Israel and Judah for David, 1 Sam. 18:16, 22); for neighbor (Lev. 19:18) particularly the "stranger" (Lev. 19:34; Deut. 10:18, 19); and for the love between friends (Saul for David, 1 Sam. 16:21; David and Jonathan 1 Sam. 18:1,3; 20:17; Job's friends, Job 19:19). This term is used less often to refer to a love for things (appetite). A few examples are love for food (Isaac for savory meat, Gen. 27:4, 9, 14); wine (Hos. 3:1; Prov. 21:17); husbandry (Uzziah for agriculture, 2 Chr. 26:10); cupidity (Hos. 9:1; Isa. 1:23; Ecc. 5:9); sleep (Prov. 20:13; fig. of sluggish watchmen, Isa. 56:10). In the abstract sense, aheb is used to describe love for wisdom, knowledge, righteousness, etc. (Prov. 4:6; 8:17, 21; 12:1; 22:11; 29:3; Amos 5:15; Mic. 6:8); also folly and evil (Mic. 3:2; 4:3; Pss. 11:5, 52:5,6; 109:17; Prov. 1:22; 8:36; 17:19; 18:21; Zech. 8:17; Amos 4:5; Jer. 14:10; Hos. 12:8) and especially of idolatry (Jer. 8:2; Hos. 4:18). Love for God is expressed in passages such as Exo. 20:6, Deut. 5:10, cf.7:9. Jesus called this the "greatest" or "first" commandment (Deut. 6:5 cf. Matt. 22:36-38; Mark 12:28-30). In addition to these references, there is love for God's name (Pss. 5:11; 69:36); his House (Ps. 26:8); his salvation (Ps. 40:16); for God's law (Ps. 119:97, 113, 163, 165); his testimonies (v. 119; commandments and precepts (Ps. 119:127, 159); love for Jerusalem (Isa. 66:10); and Mount Zion (Ps. 78:68). With reference to divine love, the OT speaks of God loving a specific individual only twice, viz. Solomon (2 Sam. 12:24; Neh. 13:26) and Cyrus (Isa. 48:14). God's everlasting love for Israel, however, is described in Jer. 31:3. Also in this chapter we find Jeremiah's prophecy of the new covenant (vv. 31-34). God loves righteousness (Pss. 11:7; 33:5) and those who follow righteousness (Prov. 15:9), but He also loves the backslider (Hos. 14:4). In Ps. 37:28, aheb is used of God's love for judgment, i.e. that which is right and just, rather than a sentence by which penalty is inflicted. Note especially the words that follow, "For the Lord loveth judgment, and forsaketh not his saints...." God is faithful to the objects of his love. What an encouragement for saints today. Divine love is not affected by emotions or doubts that might threaten it. Yahweh is the true and faithful God who has bound himself by covenant to those who love him and keep his commandments (Deut. 7:9). Verses 12-16 of this same chapter link the love of God with his blessings as a reward for covenant faithfulness. Complete Biblical Library Hebrew-English Dictionary - The Complete Biblical Library Hebrew-English Dictionary – Aleph-Beth.

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      DISCLAIMER: Before you "go to the commentaries" go to the Scriptures and study them inductively (Click 3 part overview of how to do Inductive Bible Study) in dependence on your Teacher, the Holy Spirit, Who Jesus promised would guide us into all the truth (John 16:13). Remember that Scripture is always the best commentary on Scripture. Any commentary, even those by the most conservative and orthodox teacher/preachers cannot help but have at least some bias of the expositor based upon his training and experience. Therefore the inclusion of specific links does not indicate that we agree with every comment. We have made a sincere effort to select only the most conservative, "bibliocentric" commentaries. Should you discover some commentary or sermon you feel may not be orthodox, please email your concern. I have removed several links in response to concerns by discerning readers. I recommend that your priority be a steady intake of solid Biblical food so that with practice you will have your spiritual senses trained to discern good from evil (Heb 5:14-note).