Jude Commentaries & Sermons


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Jude Resources
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Jude 1:1-4

Jude 1:5-16

Jude 1:17-23

Jude 1:24-25

Salutation &

of False Teachers

Jude 1:17-23

Jude 1:24-25

Contend for
The Faith

Their Doom (Jude 1:5-7)
Their Denunciation (Jude 1:8-10)
Their Description (Jude 1:11-16)

Defense Against
False Teachers






Date: A.D. 70-80

Key Verses: Jude 1:4, Jude 1:20, Jude 1:24, 25

Key Words:

  • Lord (Jude 1:4, 5, 9, 14, 17, 21, 25)
  • Faith (Jude 1:3, 20)
  • Keep/Kept (Jude 1:1, 6, 21, 24),
  • Ungodly (Jude 1:4, 15, 18),
  • Beloved (Jude 1:1, 3, 17, 20),
  • Judgment (Jude 1:6, 9, 15),
  • Remember (Jude 1:17),
  • Angel/Archangel (Jude 1:6, 8, 9),
  • Holy Spirit (Jude 1:19, 20).
  • See discussion of key words, a vital component of inductive Bible study.

The following outline is adapted from J Sidlow Baxter's Outline entitled "Contend for the Faith"

GREETING, Jude 1:1,2.


  • Their subtle perversions: Two basic denials (Jude 1:3-4).
  • Their certain doom: Three historic examples (Jude 1:5-7).
  • Their impious ways: Three historic examples (Jude 1:8-11).
  • Their utter falsity: six awful metaphors (Jude 1:12-13).
  • Enoch's prophecy: Coming destruction (Jude 1:14-16).


  • Realize that the apostasy has been foretold (Jude 1:17-19).
  • "Build," "pray in the Spirit," "keep," "look" (Jude 1:20,21).
  • Show compassion towards certain who contend (Jude 1:22).
  • Others seek urgently to rescue: but keep pure (Jude 1:23).
  • Jude's doxology: Coming consummation. (Jude 1:24, 25)

In all contending for the faith we must "keep ourselves in the love of God," the counterpart of which is that the love of God must be in us. We must love, even while we contend against the errors of apostatisers. We must love their souls even while we oppose their words and deplore their ways. Sometimes it is delicately difficult to keep these separate, but the love of Christ in our hearts will put wisdom on our lips....There are some who "contend" against us. Endless counter-contention with them is useless. But there are others who need "snatching out of the fire"; they have been deceived, and in one sense or another, i.e. by bewilderment, remorse, doubt or danger, are in the fire. And there an still others on whom we are to "have mercy with fear," i.e. being cautious lest in seeking to bring them back we should defile our own garments. (J Sidlow Baxter)


Authorship Jude identifies himself as the brother of James (Jude 1:1), the leader of the Jerusalem church (Acts 15), and the half brother of the Lord Jesus. Jude is listed among Christ's half brothers in Matthew 13:55 and Mark 6:3. Although, by his own statement, he intended to write a treatise on salvation, pressing circumstances required him to deal instead with the false teachers (Jude 1:3).

Purpose This letter was written to defend the apostolic faith against false teachings that were arising in the churches. Alarming advances were being made by an incipient form of Gnosticism--not ascetic, like that attacked by Paul in Colossians, but antinomian. The Gnostics viewed everything material as evil and everything spiritual as good. They therefore cultivated their "spiritual" lives and allowed their flesh to do anything it liked, with the result that they were guilty of all kinds of lawlessness. (See "Gnosticism" in the Introduction to 1 John, 1 John 1:1 book note.)

Extrabiblical Quotations In Jude 1:14 and Jude 1:15, Jude quotes the pseudepigraphal apocalypse of 1 Enoch and in Jude 1:9 alludes to a reference in another pseudepigraphal book, The Assumption of Moses. This does not mean that he considered these books to be inspired as the canonical Scriptures were. Paul quoted from heathen poets without implying their inspiration (Acts 17:28; 1 Cor. 15:33; Titus 1:12).

Readership The readers are not identified, but we know that they were beset by false teachers who were immoral, covetous, proud, and divisive.

Contents Condemning the heretics in no uncertain terms, Jude exhorts his readers to "contend earnestly for the faith" (Jude 1:3).


I. The Salutation and Purpose, Jude 1:1-4

II. Exposure of the False Teachers, Jude 1:5-16

A. Their Doom, Jude 1:5-7

B. Their Denunciation, Jude 1:8-10

C. Their Description, Jude 1:11-16

III. Exhortations to Believers, Jude 1:17-23

IV. The Benediction, Jude 1:24-25

(Ryrie Study Bible)

Jude: Precept Upon Precept
Precept Ministries International Inductive Bible Study
Lesson 1 of 5 can be downloaded as Pdf (Click here)

Verse by Verse

Includes Many Greek Word Studies
Compiled by BRUCE HURT, MD
Updated August 4, 2015

The New Testament for English Readers
Jude Commentary

James Rosscup writes that Alford's series on the New Testament "contains much that is valuable in the Greek New Testament...though all of the Greek New Testament words have been changed to English throughout." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

Charles Haddon Spurgeon (see his comments in following entry on Alford).

Editorial Note: If you are not proficient in Greek, you will find this work considerably more useful than the following work by Alford, because in this volume he translates the Greek and Latin into English. While the "The Greek New Testament" (see next entry below) is longer (e.g., English version of 1John = 66 pages compared to Greek version = 94 pages in part because the latter includes comments of more technical nature), the substance of the commentary is otherwise similar to that found in the "NT for English Readers".

The Greek Testament
Jude Commentary

Charles Haddon Spurgeon writes that this text "is an invaluable aid to the critical study of the text of the New Testament. You will find in it the ripened results of a matured scholarship, the harvesting of a judgment, generally highly impartial, always worthy of respect, which has gleaned from the most important fields of Biblical research, both modern and ancient, at home and abroad. You will not look here for any spirituality of thought or tenderness of feeling; you will find the learned Dean does not forget to do full justice to his own views, and is quite able to express himself vigorously against his opponents; but for what it professes to be, it is an exceedingly able and successful work. The later issues are by far the most desirable, as the author has considerably revised the work in the fourth edition. What I have said of his Greek Testament applies equally to Alford’s New Testament for English Readers,* which is also a standard work." (Spurgeon, C. H. Lectures to my Students, Vol. 4: Commenting and Commentaries; Lectures Addressed to the students of the Pastors' College, Metropolitan Tabernacle)

Commentary on Jude
Daily Study Bible

D Edmond Hiebert - Prints the author's own translation. A series of popular studies whose strong point is word study. Contains good illustrative material. Part of the author's interpretation follows a liberal position. Barclay holds that Christ's descent into Hades gave those who there heard Him a second chance.

Comment: I appreciate Barclay's unique insights on Greek words, but clearly his teaching about a "second chance" is NOT sound doctrine! Be an Acts 17:11 Berean with Barclay. See discussion of his orthodoxy especially the article "The Enigmatic William Barclay".

Commentary on Jude
Lessons on Jude

Notes on the New Testament
The Book of Jude

James Rosscup writes that Barnes "includes 16 volumes on the Old Testament, 11 on the New Testament. The New Testament part of this old work was first published in 1832–1851. Various authors contributed. It is evangelical and amillennial...Often the explanations of verses are very worthwhile." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

C H Spurgeon "Albert Barnes is a learned and able divine, but his productions are unequal in value, the gospels are of comparatively little worth, but his other comments are extremely useful for Sunday-school teachers and persons with a narrow range of reading, endowed with enough good sense to discriminate between good and evil....Placed by the side of the great masters, Barnes is a lesser light, but taking his work for what it is and professes to be, no minister can afford to be without it, and this is no small praise for works which were only intended for Sunday-school teachers." (Spurgeon, C. H. Lectures to my Students, Vol. 4: Commenting and Commentaries; Lectures Addressed to the students of the Pastors' College, Metropolitan Tabernacle)

Sermons on Jude
Acts of the Apostates

Note: If not proficient in Greek, see related Critical English Testament below.

James Rosscup writes "This work (Gnomon), originally issued in 1742, has considerable comment on the Greek, flavoring the effort with judicious details about the spiritual life. It has much that helps, but has been surpassed by many other commentaries since its day." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

The Critical English Testament
Commentary on Jude

Represents Combination of Bengel's Gnomon (above) and Comments by more modern expositors (in brackets) to make this more usable for those who do not read Greek.

Spurgeon comments on the goal to make Bengel's Gnomon (listed above) more accessible -- "Such is the professed aim of this commentary, and the compilers have very fairly carried out their intentions. The whole of Bengel’s Gnomon is bodily transferred into the work, and as 120 years have elapsed since the first issue of that book, it may be supposed that much has since been added to the wealth of Scripture exposition; the substance of this has been incorporated in brackets, so as to bring it down to the present advanced state of knowledge. We strongly advise the purchase of this book, as it...will well repay an attentive perusal. Tischendorf and Alford have contributed largely...to make this one of the most lucid and concise commentaries on the text and teachings of the New Testament" (Spurgeon, C. H. Lectures to my Students, Vol. 4: Commenting and Commentaries; Lectures Addressed to the students of the Pastors' College, Metropolitan Tabernacle)

Commentary on Jude
A Critical and Exegetical Commentary

James Rosscup - "As other ICC works, it deals with details of philology, grammar and possible views on problems." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)


Resources that Reference Jude

Commentary on Jude
Joseph Exell, Editor

Commentary on Jude

Commentary on Jude
E H Plumptre

Expository Notes
Epistle of Jude

Epistle of Jude

Commentary on Jude

Alfred Plummer

Hiebert - A concise and informative commentary on the epistle. Gives list of parallels between Enoch, 2 Peter, and Jude.

Commentary on Jude
Alfred Plummer

Hiebert - A concise and informative commentary on the epistle. Gives list of parallels between Enoch, 2 Peter, and Jude.

Commentary on Jude
Edwin A Blum
Frank Gaebelein, Editor

Not the same commentary as the preceding or following commentaries.

Rosscup - A worthy evangelical work which, though brief, argues well and knowledgeably, helping on the verses.

Commentary on Jude
J B Mayor

James Rosscup - Along with Bigg, this is an old, detailed study of the Greek text which the student will want to have.

Hiebert - Greek text. Important for advanced critical study of the epistle. The forty-page introduction supplies much valuable information.

Epistle of Jude

Lange's Commentary 
Epistle of Jude

Commentary on Jude

Audio, Html, Pdf Formats. Well Done

Commentary on Jude


Commentary on Jude


Links below are to Hiebert's articles on Jude in Bibliotheca Sacra. You will need to pay a fee (annual = $50; monthly = $5 click to sign up) to view the entire article but you will have access to literally thousands of conservative theological journal articles.

James Rosscup writes that Hiebert "takes conservative positions, even seeing Jude as following Peter’s second epistle. He usually has something clarifying on a verse and displays considerable awareness of views and issues. Preachers and lay readers will find his present work worth the time." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

Commentary on Jude

Recommended - goes into considerable depth!

James Rosscup - "An exceptionally thorough analysis of the Greek text and its theological and practical import. A student looking for detail laying out the progression of thought will certainly find it here, and frequent valuable input to help his study." (Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works)

Spurgeon says "Earnest and popular, but very full, and profoundly learned. A treasure-house of good things.” (Commenting and commentaries)

Sermons on Jude



D Edmond Hiebert - A series of popular expository lectures by a noted Plymouth Brethren scholar of the past century.

Sermons on
Epistle of Jude

Note only Mp3 Format but excellent exposition from a Messianic Jewish pastor.

Sermons on
Epistle of Jude

Commentary on
Epistle of Jude

C H Spurgeon's critique: In Luther’s racy style. One of his best productions. Copies are scarce as white elephants, and consequently expensive.

Sermons and Study Guides on Jude

Note that Study Guides are accessed by clicking the drop down menu for the respective title

Rosscup commenting on MacArthur's commentary on Jude - One of the earlier MacArthur expositions, following the verses of Jude and pointing out the relevance of the truths to being on guard against error today.

Sermons on Jude

Commentary on Jude

In Depth Verse by Verse Comments (An Estimate of Manton by J. C. Ryle)

Spurgeon says "Manton at first gave up all idea of printing this book on Jude, when he found that Jenkyn had taken up the subject; but he afterwards changed his mind. He tells us “I consulted with my reverend brother’s book, and when I found any point at large discussed by him, I either omitted it or mentioned it very briefly; so that his labors will be necessary to supply the weaknesses of mine.” Manton’s work is most commendable.” (Commenting and commentaries)

D Edmond Hiebert - A solid, old Puritan volume of deep interpretation. Manton died in 1677. While full and rich in content (370 pages), most modern readers will find the style rather difficult. Rewarding to the diligent student.

James Rosscup - Though a very old work, it is good. It is a sermonic composition by a Puritan whom C. H. Spurgeon and J. C. Ryle saw as the best Puritan expositor (cf. p. ix of Crossway ed.). Manton, a London pastor in the 1650’s, deals with every word of every verse, exposing meaning and often using this as a take-off point to draw in aspects that relate for believers, e. g. “to those … called” (v. 1) leads on to how people respond to God’s call, how they can have assurance of being called, etc. After each section of detailed exposition, Manton adds a section of special notes on each verse (v. 1 involves pp. 15–40, v. 2 entails 41–56, but several vv. receive far shorter treatments, as v. 10 has but 2 fi pp.). The angels’ sin in v. 6 is seen as soon after creation, not in Gen. 6. Many parts offer a rich larder, for example “faith” and “Praying in the Spirit” (v. 20). Here, as in other verses, good application is made obvious, and devotional reading can be enhanced.

J Vernon McGee
Commentary on Jude


JUDE - The Unchangeable Message - Jude 1:3 - D Martyn Lloyd-Jones

JUDE - Almost Unwritten, Now Rarely Read - 1 -  by Derek Thomas

JUDE - Almost Unwritten, Now Rarely Read - 2 - by Derek Thomas

JUDE - Almost Unwritten, Now Rarely Read - 3 -  Dr Sinclair B Ferguson

JUDE - Almost Unwritten, Now Rarely Read - 4 -  David Lauten


  • These are generally Conservative and evangelical but you must still be A Berean! (Acts 17:11-note)



  • Blum, Edwin. “Jude,” in Expositor’s Bible Commentary, Volume 12, ed. Frank Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981. -  A worthy evangelical work which, though brief, argues well and knowledgeably, helping on the verses.
  • Jenkyns, William. An Exposition Upon The Epistle of Jude. Minneapolis: James & Klock, 1976. Reprint of 1863 work. - An exceptionally thorough analysis of the Greek text and its theological and practical import. A student looking for detail laying out the progression of thought will certainly find it here, and frequent valuable input to help his study.
  • Lawlor, George L. The Epistle of Jude. Nutley, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1972. - The author, a graduate of Grace Theological Seminary where he studied under Alva J. McClain, Herman A. Hoyt and Homer A. Kent, Sr., was Professor of Greek and New Testament at Cedarville College in Ohio when he wrote this commentary. The interpretation verse by verse is detailed, lucid, handles the Greek well, discusses problems at length, and uses good scholarly sources which he documents carefully. This is one of the most helpful works on Jude in recent decades.
  • Plummer, Alfred. The General Epistles of St. James and St. Jude (Expositor’s Bible). NY: Hodder & Stoughton (n. d.). - This is a good study in the Greek text.
  • Wolff, Richard. A Commentary on the Epistle of Jude. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1960.  This is a thorough and scholarly verse-by-verse exposition which shows a good breadth of reading. It is conservative and recommended.





The writer of the Epistle of Jude was evidently not an apostle; he calls himself a "servant of Jesus Christ and brother of James." Which James? There were two whose brother he might have been, the son of Alphaeus and the brother of our Lord. It would be profitless to speculate on this question here, enough to say that the general opinion is in favor of the last named relationship.

1. The first division of the Epistle, as usual, is the salutation (Jude 1:1, 2).

- in what terms are the believers addressed?

Notice the verse: "them that are sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and called." How comforting all this is! They who are called of GOD are beloved in GOD the Father and kept for JESUS CHRIST. Why kept for Him? How much this suggests as to His coming manifested glory and the part believers will take in it?

2. The object of the Epistle follows (Jude 1:3, 4).

- what is that object as stated in Jude 1:3?

- to what did he find it necessary to exhort them to whom he wrote? Notice that the faith delivered to the saints was delivered "once" - once for all. The word "faith" here is to be taken in the sense of that body of Christian doctrine which forms the sum and substance of the truth concerning "our common salvation."

It is used synonymously with the word "Gospel." This was delivered to the saints, to the body of the church, at the beginning of its history as a complete revelation in itself (Revelation 22:18, 19). It is a sacred deposit not only to be preserved in its integrity, but to be defended and earnestly contended for. The necessity for this defense is seen in the substance of Jude 1:4. The word "foreshadowed" in that verse speaks of being "forewritten," i.e., the false teachers therein referred to had been predicted as coming in among the flock. Our Lord had spoken of them, and so had all His apostles. The nature and outcome of their teaching as suggested by that word "lasciviousness" are particularly noticeable.

3. The third division of the Epistle deals in detail with the subject of these false teachers (Jude 1:5-16).

We have first, a revelation of their condemnation or punishment (vv. 5-7), from which their position as professed disciples would not save them any more than it saved the Israelites who were brought out of Egypt, when they afterwards sinned against light (v. 5); or the angels referred to previously in Peter's Epistles and Genesis (v. 6); or Sodom and Gomorrah (v. 7). Do not fail to observe the special class of sins prominent in these instances, especially the two last named, and their relationship to that word "lasciviousness" already spoken of. While the erroneous teachings of these false teachers were intellectual, of course, yet their power was terribly augmented by association with carnality of the grossest kind.

The description of these false teachers is followed by a declaration of the punishment coming upon them (Jude 1:8-13).

Observe in verse 8 that they not only defile the flesh but speak evil of dignitaries, by which may be meant both civil and ecclesiastical superiors. And in this connection there is a strange illustration used in verse 9, that throws a good deal of light on the mystery of the death and burial of Moses as recorded in Deuteronomy.

- why that mystery?

- why should GOD Himself have buried the body of Moses, and kept the burial place a secret?

- why should Satan have desired possession of that body?

- did his foreknowledge of what should take place on the Mount of Transfiguration have aught to do with it?

And shall we say with some, that Moses in the flesh is to be one of the two witnesses named in Revelation 11, and did Satan seek thus to frustrate GOD's purposes concerning the last days?

And then the contention of Michael, how that brings to mind the teaching in Daniel concerning his particular relationship as the prince that stands for Israel. What a bearing all this has on the teachings of the New Testament about the dominions, and principalities and powers of the air (Ephesians 6).It may be asked, Where did Jude obtain this information about the conflict between Michael and Satan? Of course, the answer is very simple, that he obtained it by inspiration of GOD; but is it not remarkable that it is spoken of nowhere else in the Scriptures? He refers to it as though it were a matter of tradition among the Jews, and a reference to it is found in their books; but the tradition must have had a source, and we can hardly believe an inspired writer would thus employ it if that source were not divine.

Further analysis of the character of these teachers is afforded in Jude 1:11.

- with what three Old Testament individuals, each conspicuous for his self-willed and rebellious spirit, are they compared?

How strange it would seem that such persons could have any standing in the Christian church were it not that we discover their successors among us at the present day! "Spots in your feasts of charity," are to be pictured as hidden rocks in the love-feasts. These "love feasts" were the Christian gatherings on the first day of the week for the "breaking of bread," and the presence of such would be leaders and teachers in those assemblies suggested the perils of the hidden rocks to the mariners on the broad seas.

What exceeding care and circumspection were required to avoid disastrous contact with them. It is characteristic always of the heretical teacher that he is thinking of himself rather than the flock. "There is a rough, incisive earnestness, and yet a majesty and eloquence" in all the language the inspired writer uses here, for the probable meaning of which, however, it will be necessary to consult a commentary.

The description of these false teachers is followed by a reference to the foreknowledge of them.

And here is a quotation from Enoch in verse 14, on which we might say a word. Where are these words of Enoch found? There is an apocryphal book in which they are found, but its author probably quoted from our Epistle. Doubtless their real source should be spoken of in the same way as that of the reference to Michael and the body of Moses already mentioned. How deeply interesting to learn that Enoch, away back there before the deluge, had his mind carried out in the Spirit to the day of the second coming of CHRIST! And how perfectly his words agree with those of all the later prophets down to the very last, concerning the details and the purposes of that momentous event!

Every reader of this Epistle must have had his attention arrested by the fact that this whole passage, indeed from verse 3 to verse 13, is very similar to one found in II Peter 2:1-19.

Does it not look as though one of these inspired writers saw and used the text of the other? And would this destroy the feature of inspiration in either case? Certainly not, any more than it would destroy the same in the case of Moses, to learn that he had obtained his data for the book of Genesis from tradition or earlier written sources. Inspiration is as truly needed, and may be as truly exercised in the selection and use of such material as in that which is original in the most absolute sense. Some who have carefully examined the two passages have reached the conclusion that Jude is the earlier writer of the two and that Peter is the copyist. And yet Peter is using the words with a somewhat different object from that of Jude, and is changing and abridging them a little to suit that object. Let the two passages be read side by side and these distinctions will scarcely need to be pointed out.

4. The detailed reference to the false teachers or ungodly leaders in the church closes with verse 16, and gives way to the fourth general division of the Epistle, which contains a description of the true church or true believers in sharp contrast with the false (Jude 1:17-25).

It begins with a caution (Jude. 17-19).

- to which of the apostles in particular is he here referring, do you think?

- how does he describe these ungodly persons who have found their way into the visible church? That word "sensual" means "natural" or "animal." It is simply a case of unregenerated Christians of whom the church is still also plentifully supplied.

The caution is followed by an exhortation (Jude 1:20, 21).

- "Build,"

- "pray,"

- "keep,"

- "look."

Here are the four corner posts defining the possessions of the Christian life.

- does the exhortation to build suggest similar instruction from any apostle recently studied?

- what is peculiar about the exhortation to pray in this case?

In Romans 8 we have revealed the inspiring truth that the HOLY SPIRIT prays in us, but here we are to pray in Him. Are these contradictory teachings?

- is it not true that the HOLY SPIRIT is our inner life, and that He is also our spiritual atmosphere?

- in what are we to keep ourselves according to this exhortation?

- does this mean that we are to keep ourselves in GOD's love to us or in our love to Him?

- how better can we keep ourselves both in the experience of His love to us, and the conscious emotion of our love to Him than by building ourselves up on our most holy faith, and praying in the HOLY SPIRIT?

- what do you suppose is meant by "looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life."

- in the light of all the previous teaching about the appearing of His glory, may it not refer to that?

The exhortation is followed by instruction, and instruction especially concerning soul-winning (Jude 1:22, 23). The Greek text here, especially in Jude 1:23, is somewhat obscure, but the teaching in any event calls for compassion on our part, and an effort to save the sinner while hating the sin.

The benediction and ascription follow, concluding the Epistle in language as well known to, and appreciated by the whole church as any in the New Testament. What two great things is GOD able to do for believers in His Son? No wonder, therefore, that we should ascribe unto Him through JESUS CHRIST "glory and majesty, dominion and power throughout all ages." (Jude - Synthetic Bible Study)




  • Jude Introduction

    Excerpt: Historical and Theological Themes - Jude is the only NT book devoted exclusively to confronting “apostasy,” meaning defection from the true, biblical faith (vv. 3,17). Apostates are described elsewhere in 2 Thess. 2:10; Heb. 10:29; 2 Pet. 2:1–22; 1 John 2:18–23. He wrote to condemn the apostates and to urge believers to contend for the faith. He called for discernment on the part of the church and a rigorous defense of biblical truth. He followed the earlier examples of: 1) Christ (Matt. 7:15ff.; 16:6–12; 24:11ff; Rev. 2,3); 2) Paul (Acts 20:29,30; 1 Tim. 4:1; 2 Tim. 3:1–5; 4:3,4); 3) Peter (2 Pet. 2:1,2; 3:3,4); and 4) John (1 John 4:1–6; 2 John 6–11).

    Jude is replete with historical illustrations from the OT which include:

    1) the Exodus (Jude 1:5);
    2) Satan’s rebellion (Jude 1:6);
    3) Sodom and Gomorrah (Jude 1:7);
    4) Moses’ death (Jude 1:9);
    5) Cain (Jude 1:11);
    6) Balaam (Jude 1:11);
    7) Korah (Jude 1:1);
    8) Enoch (Jude 1:14,15);
    9) Adam (Jude 1:14).

    Jude also vividly described the apostates in terms of their character and unconscionable activities (Jude 1:4,8,10,16,18,19). Additionally, he borrowed from nature to illustrate the futility of their teaching (Jude 1:12,13). While Jude never commented on the specific content of their false teaching, it was enough to demonstrate that their degenerate personal lives and fruitless ministries betrayed their attempts to teach error as though it were truth. This emphasis on character repeats the constant theme regarding false teachers—their personal corruption. While their teaching is clever, subtle, deceptive, enticing, and delivered in myriads of forms, the common way to recognize them is to look behind their false spiritual fronts and see their wicked lives (2 Pet. 2:10,12,18,19).
    Outline of Jude
    I. Desires of Jude (Jude 1:1,2)
    II. Declaration of War Against Apostates (Jude 1:3,4)
    III. Damnable Outcome of Apostates (Jude 1:5–7)
    IV. Denunciation of Apostates (Jude 1:8–16)
    V. Defenses Against Apostates (Jude 1:17–23)
    VI. Doxology of Jude (Jude 1:24,25)







    JAMES SMITH - Sermon Outlines:  Kept-Book of Jude, Jude 1:6-7, 21 - Eternal Things, Jude 1:3 - Common Salvation


    • Jude Notes from Insight for Living
    • Excerpt: What's the big idea? Jude’s purpose in his letter was twofold: he wanted to expose the fase teachers that had infiltrated the Christian community, and he wanted to encourage Christians to stand firm in the faith and fight for the truth. Jude recognized that false teachers often peddled their wares unnoticed by the faithful, so he worked to heighten the awareness of the believers by describing in vivid detail how terrible dissenters actually were. But more than simply raising awareness, Jude thought it important that believers stand against those working against Jesus Christ. Believers were to do this by remembering the teaching of the apostles, building each other up in the faith, praying in the Holy Spirit, and keeping themselves in the love of God (Jude 1:17, 20–21).
    • How do I apply this? Fight for the truth! Stand up against error! The book of Jude is the very definition of punchy and pithy proclamations—with its short commands and statements popping off the page like machine-gun fire. But in our day and age, punchy has become rude or unacceptable. In many circles the forcefulness of Jude will not be tolerated, the crowds preferring a softer and gentler side of the Christian faith. But Jude reminds us that there is a time and a place for the aggressive protection of the truth from those who would seek to tear it down. How can you participate in defending the truth from error?
    • Overview Chart of Jude








    JOHN CEREGHIN - 26 page commentary





































    MARK DEVER - Audios - Having Faith in Faithless Times, et al

    ADRIAN ROGERS - The Portrait of an Apostate Part 1The Portrait of an Apostate Part 2; False Prophets




    • Jude 1:4 Mockers

      Jude foresaw the coming of mockers in the last time who would walk after their own lusts and godlessness, and having the Spirit. And by their deeds we see clearly that they have no hope, for they rage furiously and live shamelessly and desire inordinately and persecute arrogantly and seize and grasp everything that they can plunder or steal or gain. All these things are tokens of their godlessness and despair. Like their father the devil, they are harsh toward everybody, refuse the joy and consolation of salvation, and despise every warning that might turn them from error. They will not retain God in their knowledge. So they begin to experience already that eternal perdition that in the world to come they will fulfill eternally.




    J C RYLE


    Jude Commentary
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    Jude - Introduction
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    Epistle of Jude

    Epistle of Jude
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    Epistle of Jude

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    Epistle of Jude

    Epistle of Jude

    Cross References and Notes on Jude
    Compiled by R A Torrey

    See also in depth Verse by Verse Commentary on Jude
    Jude 1:1-13 Commentary
    Jude 1:14-25 Commentary

    Jude 1:1 Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, to them that are sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and called:

    Jude = Mt 13:55, Mark 6:3

    the servant = Jn 12:26; Acts 27:23; Ro 1:1; 6:22; 16:18; Jas 1:1; 2Pe 1:1

    them = Jn 15:16; 17:17,19; Acts 20:32; 1Co 1:2; 6:11; Ep 5:26; 1Th 5:23; 1Pe 1:2

    preserved = John 6:39; 10:28, 29, 30; 17:11,12,15; 2Ti 4:18; 1Pe 1:5

    and called = Ro 8:30; 9:24; 1Th 2:12; 2Th 2:13,14; 2Ti 1:9; Heb 3:1; 1Pe 2:9; 5:10

    Jude 1:2 Mercy unto you, and peace, and love, be multiplied.

    Ro 1:7; 1Pe 1:2; 2Pe 1:2; Rev 1:4-6

    Jude 1: 3 Beloved, when I gave all diligence to write unto you of the common salvation, it was needful for me to write unto you, and exhort you that ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints.

    when = Ro 15:15,16; Gal 6:11; Heb 13:22; 1Pe 5:12; 2Pe 1:12-15; 3:1

    common = Isaiah 45:17,22; Acts 4:12; 13:46,47; 28:28; Gal 3:28; Titus 1:4; 2Pe 1:1

    that ye = Neh 13:25; Jer 9:3; Acts 6:8-10; 9:22; 17:3; 18:4, 5, 6,28; Php 1:27; 1Th 2:2; 1Ti 1:18; 6:12; 2Ti 1:13; 4:7,8; Rev 2:10; 12:11

    which = Dt 9:10; 21:9; Acts 20:27; 1Co 15:3; Gal 2:5; 2Pe 3:2

    the saints = Ep 1:1; Php 1:1; Col 1:2

    Jude 1:4 For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness, and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ.

    crept = Mt 13:25; Acts 15:24; Gal 2:4; Ep 4:14; 2Ti 3:6; 2Pe 2:1,2

    who = Ro 9:21,22; 1Pe 2:8; 2Pe 2:3

    ungodly = 15; 2 Samuel 22:5; Ps 1:1; 1Pe 4:18; 2Pe 2:5,6; 3:7

    turning = Ro 6:1,2; Gal 5:13; Titus 2:11,12; Heb 12:15,16; 1Pe 2:16; 2Pe 2:10,18-22

    denying = Titus 1:15,16; 2Pe 2:1; 1 John 2:22

    only = Ps 62:2; John 17:3; 1Ti 6:15,16; Rev 15:4

    Jude 1:5 I will therefore put you in remembrance, though ye once knew this, how that the Lord, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed them that believed not.

    put = Ro 15:15; 2Pe 1:12,13; 3:1

    having = 1Co 10:1-12

    afterward = Nu 14:22-37; 26:64,65; Dt 2:15,16; Ps 106:26; Heb 3:16, 17, 18, 19; 4:1,2

    Jude 1:6 And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.

    angels = John 8:44

    first estate or, principality = Ep 6:12

    he hath = Mt 25:41; 2Pe 2:4

    unto = Mt 8:29; Heb 10:27; Rev 20:10

    Jude 1:7 Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them in like manner, giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire.

    as = Ge 13:13; 18:20; 19:24-26; Dt 29:23; Isa 1:9; 13:19; Jer 20:16; 50:40; La 4:6; Ezek 16:49,50; Hos 11:8; Amos 4:11; Luke 17:29

    strange = Ge 19:5; Ro 1:26,27; 1Co 6:9

    are = Mt 11:24; 2Pe 2:6

    eternal = Dt 29:23; Isa 33:14; Mt 25:41; Mk 9:43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49

    Jude 1:8 Likewise also these filthy dreamers defile the flesh, despise dominion, and speak evil of dignities.

    these = Jer 38:25, 26, 27, 28

    defile = 1Co 3:17; 1Ti 1:10; 2Pe 2:10, 11, 12

    despise = Ge 3:5; Nu 16:3,12,13, Ps 2:1-6; 12:3, 4; Lk 19:14; Acts 7:27,39; 1Th 4:8; Heb 13:17

    speak = Jude 1:9,10; Ex 22:28; Pr 30:11,17; Ec 10:20; Acts 23:5; 1Pe 2:17

    Jude 1:9 Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee.

    Michael = Da 10:13,21; 12:1; Rev 12:7

    archangel = 1Th 4:16

    the body = Dt 34:6

    durst = Ex 22:28; Isa 36:13-21; Mark 15:29; Lk 23:39,40; 1Pe 3:9; 2Pe 2:11

    The Lord = 1Chr 12:17; Isa 37:3,4,10-20; Zech 3:2

    Jude 1:10 But these speak evil of those things which they know not: but what they know naturally, as brute beasts, in those things they corrupt themselves.

    speak = 2Pe 2:12

    in those = Ro 1:21,22

    Jude 1:11 Woe unto them! for they have gone in the way of Cain, and ran greedily after the error of Balaam for reward, and perished in the gainsaying of Core.

    Woe = Isa 3:9,11; Jer 13:27; Ezek 13:3; Zech 11:17; Mt 11:21; 23:13, 14, 15, 16; Lk 11:42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47

    for = Ge 4:5-14; 1Jn 3:12

    ran = Nu 22:1-24; 31:16; Dt 23:4; Josh 24:9-11; Mic 6:5; 2Pe 2:15; Rev 2:14

    perished = Nu 16:1-35; 26:9,10

    Jude 1:12 These are spots in your feasts of charity, when they feast with you, feeding themselves without fear: clouds they are without water, carried about of winds; trees whose fruit withereth, without fruit, twice dead, plucked up by the roots;

    are spots = 2Pe 2:13,14

    feasts = 1Co 11:21,22

    feeding = Ps 78:29, 30, 31; Isa 56:10-12; Ezek 34:8,18; Lk 12:19,20,45; 16:19; 21:34; Php 3:19; 1Th 5:6,7; Jas 5:5

    clouds = Pr 25:14; Hos 6:4; 2Pe 2:17

    carried = Ep 4:14

    trees = Ps 1:3; 37:2; Mt 13:6; 21:19,20; Mk 4:6; 11:21; Lk 8:6; Jn 15:4, 5, 6

    twice = 1Ti 5:6; Heb 6:4-8; 2Pe 2:18-20

    plucked = 2Chr 7:20; Ezek 17:9; Mt 15:13; Mk 11:20

    Jude 1:13 Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; wandering stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness for ever.

    Raging = Ps 65:7; 93:3,4; Isa 57:20; Jer 5:22,23

    foaming = Php 3:19; 2Ti 3:13

    wandering = Rev 8:10,11

    to whom = 2Pe 2:17; Rev 14:10,11; 20:10; 21:8

    Jude 1:14 And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints,

    Enoch = Ge 5:18,24; 1Chr 1:1, 2, 3; Heb 11:5,6

    Behold = Dt 33:2; Job 19:25, 26, 27; Ps 50:3, 4, 5; Da 7:9,10; Zech 14:5; Mt 16:27; Mt 24:30,31; 25:31; 1Th 3:13; 2Th 1:7,8; Rev 1:7

    Jude 1:15 To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him.

    execute = Ps 9:7,8; 37:6; 50:1-6; 98:9; 149:9; Ec 11:9; 12:14; Jn 5:22,23,27; Acts 17:31; Ro 2:16; 14:10; 1Co 4:5; 5:13; Rev 22:12, 13,1 4, 15,20

    convince = Ro 2:5; 3:19,20

    and of all = Jude 1:16; Ex 16:8; 1Sa 2:3; Ps 31:18; 73:9; 94:4; Isa 37:22-36; Da 7:20; Da 11:36; Mal 3:13, 14, 15; Mt 12:31-37; Rev 13:5,6,11

    Jude 1:16 These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own lusts; and their mouth speaketh great swelling words, having men's persons in admiration because of advantage.

    murmurers = Nu 14:36; 16:11; Dt 1:27; Ps 106:25; Isa 29:24; Lk 5:30; 15:2; 19:7; Jn 6:41,61; 1Co 10:10; Php 2:14

    walking = Jude 1:18; Gal 5:16,24; 1Th 4:5; 2Ti 4:3; Jas 1:14,15; 1Pe 1:14; 2:11; 1Pe 4:2; 2Pe 2:10; 3:3

    their mouth = Jude 1:15; Job 17:4,5; Ps 17:10; 73:9, 10, 11; 2Pe 2:18

    having = Lev 19:15; Job 32:21; 34:19; Ps 15:4; Pr 28:21; 1Ti 6:5; Jas 2:1-9; 2Pe 2:1, 2, 3

    Jude 1:17 But, beloved, remember ye the words which were spoken before of the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ;

    remember = Mal 4:4; Acts 20:35; Ep 2:20; 4:11; 2Pe 3:2; 1Jn 4:6

    Jude 1:18 How that they told you there should be mockers in the last time, who should walk after their own ungodly lusts.

    there = Acts 20:29; 1Ti 4:1,2; 2Ti 3:1-5,13; 4:3; 2Pe 2:1; 3:3

    who = Jude 1:16; Ps 14:1,2

    Jude 1:19 These be they who separate themselves, sensual, having not the Spirit.

    who = Pr 18:1; Isa 65:5; Ezek 14:7; Hos 4:14; 9:10; Heb 10:25

    sensual = 1Co 2:14; Jas 3:15 Jn 3:5,6; Ro 8:9; 1Co 6:19

    Jude 1:20 But ye, beloved, building up yourselves on your most holy faith, praying in the Holy Ghost,

    building = Acts 9:31; Ro 15:2; 1Co 1:8; 10:23; 14:4,5,26; Ep 4:12,16,29; Col 2:7; 1Th 5:11; 1Ti 1:4 Acts 15:9; 26:18; 2Ti 1:5; Titus 1:1; Jas 2:22; 2Pe 1:1; 1Jn 5:4; Rev 13:10

    praying = Zech 12:10; Ro 8:15,26,27; 1Co 14:15; Gal 4:6; Ep 6:18 (see on site in depth article - Praying in the Spirit)

    Jude 1:21 Keep yourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life.

    Keep = 24; John 14:21; 15:9,10; Acts 11:23; 1Jn 4:16; 5:18,21; Rev 12:11

    in = Ro 5:5; 8:39; 2Th 3:5; 1Jn 3:16,17

    looking = Job 14:14; La 3:25,26; Mt 24:42-51; Lk 12:36, 37, 38, 39, 40; 2Ti 4:8; Titus 2:13,14; Heb 9:28; 2Pe 3:12

    the mercy = John 1:17; 1Ti 1:2; 2Ti 1:2,16,18

    unto = Ro 5:21; 6:23; 1Jn 5:10,11

    Jude 1:22 And of some have compassion, making a difference:

    Ezek 34:17; Gal 4:20; 6:1; Heb 6:4, 5, 6, 7, 8; Jas 5:19,20; 1Jn 5:16, 17, 18

    Jude 1:23 And others save with fear, pulling them out of the fire; hating even the garment spotted by the flesh.

    save = Ro 11:14; 1Co 5:3-5; 2Co 7:10, 11, 12; 1Ti 4:16

    pulling = Amos 4:11; Zech 3:2; 1Co 3:15

    hating = Lev 13:47-59; 14:47; 15:17; Isa 64:6; La 4:14; Zech 3:3, 4, 5; 1Co 5:9, 10, 11; 1Co 15:33; 2Th 3:14; Rev 3:4,18

    Jude 1:24 Now unto him that is able to keep you from falling, and to present you faultless before the presence of his glory with exceeding joy,

    able = 21; John 10:29,30; Ro 8:31; 14:4; 16:25, 26, 27; Ep 3:20; 2Ti 4:18

    present = 2Co 4:14; 11:2; Ep 5:27; Col 1:22,28; 3:4; Heb 13:20,21

    faultless = Rev 14:5

    the presence = Mt 16:27; 19:28; 25:31; Lk 9:26; 1Th 4:16,17; 1Pe 4:13

    exceeding = Ps 21:6; 43:4; Mt 5:12; 2Co 4:17; 1Pe 4:13

    Jude 1:25 To the only wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen.

    the only = Ps 104:24; 147:5; Ro 11:33; 16:27; Ep 1:8; 3:10; 1Ti 1:17

    God = Ps 78:20; Isa 12:2; 45:21; Jn 4:22; 1Ti 2:3; Titus 1:3,4; 2:10,13; Titus 3:4; 2Pe 1:1

    be glory = 1Chr 29:11; Ps 72:18,19; Da 4:37; Mt 6:13; Ep 3:21; 1Pe 4:11; 1Pe 5:10,11; 2Pe 3:18; Rev 1:6; 4:9, 10, 11; 5:13,14

    New Testament Word Studies
    On the Epistle of Jude

    Note: Vincent's Notes below have been modified/supplemented with word studies and brief notes. Click here to see Vincent's original notes with no modifications.

    See also in depth Verse by Verse Commentary on Jude
    Jude 1:1-13 Commentary
    Jude 1:14-25 Commentary

    Jude 1:1

    Jude = Rev., Judas. One of the brethren of Jesus; not the brother of James the Apostle, the son of Alphaeus, but of James the superintendent of the church at Jerusalem. He is named among the brethren of the Lord. Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3.

    Servant = He does not call himself an apostle, as Paul and Peter in their introductions, and seems to distinguish himself from the apostles in Jude 1:17, 18: "The apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ, how that they said," etc. We are told that Christ's brethren did not believe on him (John 7:5); and in Acts 1 the brethren of Jesus (Acts 1:14) are mentioned in a way which seems to separate them from the apostles. Doulos [word study], Bond-servant, occurs in the introductions to Romans, Philippians, Titus, James, and 2 Peter.

    Brother of James = That Jude does not allude to his relationship to the Lord may be explained by the fact that the natural relationship in his mind would be subordinate to the spiritual (see Luke 11:27, 28), and that such a designation would, as Dean Alford remarks, "have been in harmony with those later and superstitious feelings with which the next and following ages regarded the Lord's earthly relatives." He would shrink from emphasizing a distinction to which none of the other disciples or apostles could have a claim, the more so because of his former unbelief in Christ's authority and mission. It is noticeable that James likewise avoids such a designation.

    Kept (tereo [word study]) = See on 1Pe 1:4-note {Note = Lit., which has been reserved, a perfect participle, indicating the inheritance as one reserved through God's care for his own from the beginning down to the present. Laid up and kept is the idea. The verb signifies keeping as the result of guarding. Thus in John 17:11, Christ says, "keep (tereson) those whom thou hast given me;" in Jn 17:1212, "I kept them" (eteroun); i.e., preserved by guarding them. "Those whom thou gavest me I guarded (ephulaxa)." So Rev., which preserves the distinction. Similarly, John 14:15, "keep (teresate) my commandments;" preserve them unbroken by careful watching. So Peter was delivered to the soldiers to guard him (phulassein), but he was kept (etereito) in prison (Acts 12:4, 5). Compare Colossians 1:5, where a different word is used: apokeimenen, lit., laid away.}.

    Compare John 17:6, 12.

    In Jesus Christ (Iesou Christo) = The simple dative without preposition. Therefore for Jesus Christ; by the Father to whom Christ committed them (John 17:11). Compare 1 Thessalonians 5:23; Philippians 1:6, 10.

    Called (kletos [word study]) = At the end of the verse, for emphasis.

    Jude 1:2

    Mercy (eleos [word study]) is the outward manifestation of pity and assumes need on the part of those who are recipients of the mercy and sufficient resources to meet the need on the part of those who show it. The idea of mercy is to show kindness or concern for someone in serious need or to give help to the wretched, to relieve the miserable. Here the essential thought is that mercy gives attention to those in misery.

    Peace (eirene [word study]) from verb eiro = to join or bind together that which has been separated) literally pictures the binding or joining together again of that which had been separated or divided and thus setting at one again, a meaning convey by the common expression of one “having it all together”. It follows that peace is the opposite of division or dissension. Peace as a state of concord and harmony is the opposite of war. Peace was used as a greeting or farewell corresponding to the Hebrew word shalom - "peace to you". Peace is a condition of freedom from disturbance, whether outwardly, as of a nation from war or enemies or inwardly, as in the current context, within the soul. Peace implies health, well-being, and prosperity.

    Love (agape [word study]) = Peculiar to Jude in salutation.

    Multiplied (plethuno [word study]) means to be made full and in the active sense it means to cause to increase or to become greater in number.

    Jude 1:3

    Beloved = Occurring at the beginning of an epistle only here and 3 John 2.

    When I gave all diligence (spoude [word study]) =Lit., making all diligence; the phrase found only here. In Hebrews 6:11, we find "shew diligence" (endeiknusthai) ; and in 2 Peter 1:5-note, "adding diligence." See note there {2Pe 1:5 note = Giving all diligence - The verb occurs only here in New Testament, and means, literally, to bring in by the side of: adding your diligence to the divine promises. So Rev., adding on your part.}

    To write (grapho [word study])

    The common salvation (pasan spouden poioumenos) (salvation = soteria [word study]) = The best texts add hemon, "of us". So Rev., "our common salvation."

    It was needful (anagken eschon) = Lit., I had necessity (anagke [word study]). Alford, I found it necessary. Rev., I was constrained.

    Earnestly contend (epagonizesthai) = Only here in New Testament. (See agonizomai [word study])

    The faith (See "the faith -pistis") = The sum of what Christians believe.

    See on Acts 6:7 {Note = Opinions differ greatly as to whether this (Acts 6:7 - the faith) is to be taken as meaning faith in Jesus Christ, or faith considered as Christian doctrine—the Gospel; the faith in the ecclesiastical sense. This passage and Galatians 1:23 are the strong passages in favor of the latter view; but the general usage of the New Testament, added to the fact that in both these passages the former meaning gives a good, intelligible, and perfectly consistent sense, go to confirm the former interpretation.

    1. In the great majority of New Testament passages faith is clearly used in the sense of faith in Jesus Christ: "the conviction and confidence regarding Jesus Christ as the only and perfect mediator of the divine grace and of eternal life, through his work of atonement" (Meyer).

    2. This interpretation is according to the analogy of such expressions as obedience of Christ (2 Corinthians 10:5), where the meaning is, clearly, obedience to Christ: obedience of the truth (1Peter 1:22). Accordingly, faith, though it becomes in man the subjective moral power of the new life, regenerated through the power of the Spirit, is regarded objectively as a power—the authority which commands submission.

    3. This interpretation is according to the analogy of the expression hearing of faith (Galatians 3:2), which is to be rendered, not as equivalent to the reception of the Gospel, but as the report or message of faith; i.e., which treats of faith, akoe, hearing being always used in the New Testament in a passive sense, and often rendered fame, rumor, report (see Matthew 4:24; 14:1; Mark 1:28; John 12:38; Ro 10:16). Compare, also, obedience of faith (Ro 1:5; Ro 16:26), where faith is to be taken as the object, and not as the source, of the obedience; and hence is not to be explained as the obedience which springs from faith, but as the obedience rendered to faith as the authoritative impulse of the new life in Christ.

    The great majority of the best modern commentators hold that faith is to be taken as the subjective principle of Christian life (though often regarded objectively as a spiritual power), and not as Christian doctrine.}

    Once (hapax) = Not formerly, but once for all. So Rev., "No other faith will be given," says Bengel.

    Delivered (paradidomi [word study])

    Saints (hagios [word study])

    Jude 1:4

    With the whole verse compare 2 Peter 2:1-see notes.

    Ungodly (asebes [word study]) means lack of interest in the things of God and a behavior and lifestyle consistent with such an irreverent attitude. See the depth study of the related word ungodliness (asebeia [word study]). Asebes pertains to violating norms for a proper relation to deity, and in short means irreverent (lacking proper respect of God) or impious. In simple terms it is choosing to live as if God did not exist and without regard for Him.

    Crept in unawares (pareisedusan) = Rev., privily. The verb means to get in by the side, to slip in by a side-door. Only here in New Testament.

    See similar descriptive verb in 2 Peter 2:1 {= Privily shall bring in [Secretly introduce = pareisago [word study]] Only here in New Testament. The kindred adjective occurs Galatians 2:4, "false brethren privily brought in" (pareisaktous). The metaphor is of spies or traitors introducing themselves into an enemy's camp. Compare Jude 1:4, crept in unawares. The verb means, literally, to bring (agein) into (eis) by the side of (para)}.

    Ordained = The meaning is in dispute. The word occurs four times in New Testament. In two of these instances pro has clearly the temporal sense before (Ro 15:4-note; Ephesians 3:3-note). In Galatians 3:1, it is taken by some in the sense of openly, publicly (see note there). It seems better, on the whole, to take it here in the temporal sense, and to render written of beforehand, i.e., in prophecy as referred to in Jude 1:14, 15. So the American Rev.

    Lasciviousness = See on 1Peter 4:3-note. = {Vincent's note on 1Pe 4:3 = The following enumeration of vices is characteristic of Peter's style in its fulness and condensation. He enumerates six forms of sensuality, three personal and three social:

    (1) Aselgeiais, wantonness (aselgeia [word study]). See on Mark 7:22 {= Derivation unknown. It includes lasciviousness, and may well mean that here; but is often used without this notion. In classical Greek it is defined as violence, with spiteful treatment and audacity. As in this passage its exact meaning is not implied by its being classed with other kindred terms, it would seem better to take it in as wide a sense as possible—that of lawless insolence and wanton caprice, and to render, with Trench, wantonness, since that word, as he remarks, "stands in remarkable ethical connection with aselgeia, and has the same duplicity of meaning" ("Synonyms of the New Testament"). At Ro 13:13, where lasciviousness seems to be the probable meaning, from its association with chambering (oitais), it is rendered wantonness in A. V. and Rev., as also at 2Pe 2:18.}. Excesses of all kinds, with possibly an emphasis on sins of uncleanness.

    (2) Epithumiasis, lusts (epithumia [word study]). See note on Mark 4:19 {= Lusts, not in the limited sense of mere sexual desire, but in the general sense of longing. The word is also used of desire for good and lawful things (Luke 22:15; Philippians 1:23-note).}. Pointing especially to fleshly lusts, "the inner principles of licentiousness" (Cook).

    (3) Oinophlugiais, excess of wine. Only here in New Testament. The kindred verb occurs in the Septuagint, Deuteronomy 21:20; Isaiah 56:12. From oinos, wine, and phleo or phuo, to teem with abundance; thence to boil over or bubble up, overflow. It is the excessive, insatiate desire for drink, from which comes the use of the word for the indulgence of the desire—debauch. So Rev., wine-bibbings. The remaining three are revellings, banquetings, and idolatries.}

    Turn (change) (metatithemi [word study]) literally means to put in another place. In the figurative sense metatithemi means to effect a change in state or condition and so to alter something as when the priesthood is changed (Heb 7:12).

    Grace (charis [word study]) is God's unmerited favor and supernatural enablement and empowerment for salvation and for daily sanctification.

    Lord God = God is omitted in the best texts. On Lord, see on 2 Peter 2:1-note. {= In most cases in the New Testament the word is rendered master, the Rev. changing lord to master in every case but two—Luke 2:29; Acts 4:24; and in both instances putting master in margin, and reserving lord for the rendering of kurios. In three of these instances the word is used in direct address to God; and it may be asked why the Rev. changes Lord to Master in the text of Revelation 6:10, and retains Lord in Luke 2:29; Acts 4:24. In five out of the ten occurrences of the word in the New Testament it means master of the household. Originally, it indicates absolute, unrestricted authority, so that the Greeks refused the title to any but the gods. In the New Testament despotes and kurios are used interchangeably of God, and of masters of servants.}

    Lord (master, owner) (kurios [word study]) describes the supreme one, one who is sovereign and possesses absolute authority, absolute ownership and uncontested power. Kurios is used of the one (God) to Whom a person or thing belongs, about which He has the power of deciding.

    Jude 1:5

    Ye once knew = Entirely wrong. The participle is to be rendered as present, and the once is not formerly, but once for all, as Jude 1:3. So Rev., rightly, though ye know all things once for all.

    Destroyed (apollumi [word study]) conveys the basic meaning of describing that which is ruined and is no longer usable for its intended purpose.

    Believe (pisteuo [word study]) means to have a firm conviction as to the goodness, efficacy, or ability of something or someone. To accept the word or evidence of.

    Jude 1:6

    Keep (tereo [word study]) means to keep an eye on, keep something in view, to attend carefully, or to watch over it. Tereo speaks of guarding something which is in one’s possession. It means to watch as one would some precious thing. The idea is to observe attentively and to retain in custody.

    First estate (archen = The word originally signifies beginning, and so frequently in New Testament, mostly in the Gospels, Acts, Hebrews, Catholic Epistles, and Apocalypse. From this comes a secondary meaning of sovereignty, dominion, magistracy, as being the beginning or first place of power. So mostly by Paul, as principalities (Romans 8:38); rule (1Co 15:24). Compare Lk 12:11, magistrates; Rev., rulers; and Lk 20:20, power. Rev., rule. A peculiar use of the word occurs at Acts 10:11, "the sheet knit at the four corners (archais);" the corners being the beginnings of the sheet. In this passage the A. V. has adopted the first meaning, beginning, in its rendering first estate. Rev. adopts the second, rendering principality. The Jews regarded the angels as having dominion over earthly creatures; and the angels are often spoken of in the New Testament as archai, principalities; as Romans 8:38; Ephesians 1:21; so that this term would be appropriate to designate their dignity, which they forsook.

    Left (abandoned) (apoleipo [word study])

    Habitation (oiketerion = Only here and 2 Corinthians 5:2.

    Everlasting (aidios [word study]) = Only here and Ro 1:20. For a longer form aeidios , from aei, always.

    Under darkness (hupo zophon) (zophos [word study]) Under carries the sense of the darkness brooding over the fallen spirits. On darkness, see on 2 Peter 2:4-note (Peculiar to Peter and Jude. Originally of the gloom of the nether world). Compare Hesiod:

    "There the Titanian gods, to murky gloom
    Condemned by will of cloud-collecting Jove,
    Lie hid in region foul."
    Theogony, v., 729.

    Jude 1:7

    Even as (just as) (homoios [word study])

    The cities about them = Admah and Zeboim. Deut 29:23; Hosea 11:8.

    Giving themselves over to fornication (ekporneusasai) = Rev., more strictly, having given, etc. Only here in New Testament. The force of ek is out and out; giving themselves up utterly. See on followed, 2 Peter 1:16-note.

    Giving (pareisphero [word study]) means literally to bear in alongside or besides (to bring to bear), and so to introduce simultaneously. This verb implies making a strong effort to provide something. Pareisphero was at times used of smuggling or of importing along byways.

    Going after (apelthousai opiso) = The aorist participle. Rev., having gone. The phrase occurs Mark 1:20; James and John leaving their father and going after Jesus. "The world is gone after him" (John 12:19). Here metaphorical. The force of ἀπό is away; turning away from purity, and going after strange flesh.

    Strange flesh = Compare 2 Peter 2:10-note; and see Romans 1:27; Leviticus 18:22, 23. Also Jowett's introduction to Plato's "Symposium ;" Plato's "Laws," viii., 836, 841; Döllinger, "The Gentile and the Jew," Darnell's trans., ii., 238 sq.

    Flesh (sarx [word study])

    Are set forth (prokeintai) (prokeimai [word study]) = The verb means, literally, to lie exposed. Used of meats on the table ready for the guests; of a corpse laid out for burial; of a question under discussion. Thus the corruption and punishment of the cities of the plain are laid out in plain sight.

    As an example (deigma) = Only here in New Testament. From deiknumi, to display or exhibit; something, therefore, which is held up to view as a warning.

    Suffering the vengeance of eternal fire (puros aioniou dioko hupechomsai) = Rev., rightly, substitutes punishment for vengeance, since dike carries the underlying idea of right or justice, which is not necessarily implied in vengeance. Some of the best modern expositors render are set forth as an example of eternal fire, suffering punishment. This meaning seems, on the whole, more natural, though the Greek construction favors the others, since eternal fire is the standing term for the finally condemned in the last judgment, and could hardly be correctly said of Sodom and Gomorrah. Those cities are most truly an example of eternal fire. "A destruction so utter and so permanent as theirs has been, is the nearest approach that can be found in this world to the destruction which awaits those who are kept under darkness to the judgment of the great day" (Lumby). Suffering (hupechomsai). Only here in New Testament. The participle is present, indicating that they are suffering to this day the punishment which came upon them in Lot's time. The verb means, literally, to hold under; thence to uphold or support, and so to suffer or undergo.

    Jude 1:8

    Yet (mentoi) = Not rendered by A. V., but expressing that though they have these fearful examples before them, yet they persist in their sin.

    Defile (miaino [word study]) means literally to dye with another color. Figuratively miaino it describes a mind and conscience that is morally contaminated, corrupted, tainted, tinged and polluted. In a ceremonial or cultic sense it means to defile or make unclean and so unacceptable. Jude uses miaino in a physical and a moral sense of the one's flesh defiled by licentiousness and so to corrupt morally.

    Reject (set aside, nullify) (atheteo [word study]) means to regard as nothing, to not recognize, to spurn, to despise, to do away with what has been laid down. In Classic Greek atheteo is used to describe setting aside of a treaty or promise.

    Blaspheme (blasphemeo [word study]) means literally to speak to harm and in general therefore means to bring into ill repute and so to slander.

    Dominiondignities (kuriotnta- doxas) = It is not easy to determine the exact meaning of these two terms. Kuriotes, dominion, occurs in three other passages, Ep 1:21-note; Col 1:16-note; 2Pe 2:10-note. In the first two, and probably in the third, the reference is to angelic dignities. Some explain this passage and the one in Peter, of evil angels. In Colossians the term is used with thrones, principalities, and powers, with reference to the orders of the celestial hierarchy as conceived by Gnostic teachers, and with a view to exalt Christ above all these. Glories or dignities is used in this concrete sense only here and at 2Pe 2:10-note.

    Majesties (doxa [word study])

    Jude 1:9

    Michael the archangel = Here we strike a peculiarity of this epistle which caused its authority to be impugned in very early times, viz., the apparent citations of apocryphal writings. The passages are Jude 1:9, 14, 15. This reference to Michael was said by Origen to be founded on a Jewish work called "The Assumption of Moses," the first part of which was lately found in an old Latin translation at Milan; and this is the view of Davidson, so far at least as the words "the Lord rebuke thee" are concerned. Others refer it to Zechariah 3:1; but there is nothing there about Moses' body, or Michael, or a dispute about the body. Others, again, to a rabbinical comment on Deuteronomy 34:6, where Michael is said to have been made guardian of Moses' grave. Doubtless Jude was referring to some accepted story or tradition, probably based on Deuteronomy 34:6. For a similar reference to tradition compare 2Ti 3:8-note; Acts 7:22.

    Michael = Angels are described in scripture as forming a society with different orders and dignities. This conception is developed in the books written during and after the exile, especially Daniel and Zechariah. Michael (Who is like God?) is one of the seven archangels, and was regarded as the special protector of the Hebrew nation. He is mentioned three times in the Old Testament (Daniel 10:13, 21; 12:1), and twice in the New Testament (Jude 9; Revelation 12:7). He is adored as a saint in the Romish Church. For legends, see Mrs. Jameson, "Sacred and Legendary Art," i., 94 sq.

    Archangel (archaggelos [word study]) refers to the first or highest angel, the leader of the angels.

    Disputed (diakrino [word study])

    Devil (diabolos [word study]) Notice how the root words (diá = through + bállō = throw) picture what the devil does. He constantly throws between seeking to divide whether it be between a husband and wife, a child and parent, a church, etc. Resist his divisive, condemnatory accusations firm in your faith.

    A railing accusation (krisin blasphemias) (blasphemia [word study]) = Lit., a judgment of railing; a sentence savoring of impugning his dignity. Michael remembered the high estate from which he fell, and left his sentence to God.

    Rebuke (epitimao [word study]) means literally to put honor upon and then to mete out due measure and so then to find fault with, to censure severely, to rebuke, to express strong disapproval of, or to denounce (cp the incredible example in Mt 16:22).

    Jude 1:10

    Compare 2Peter 2:12.

    They know not (ouk oidasin) = Mental comprehension and knowledge, and referring to the whole range of invisible things; while the other verb in this verse, also translated by A. V. know (epistantai, originally of skill in handicraft), refers to palpable things; objects of sense; the circumstances of sensual enjoyment. Rev. marks the distinction by rendering the latter verb understand.

    Naturally (phusikos) = Only here in New Testament. Compare phusika, natural (phusikos [word study]), 2 Peter 2:12-note.

    Corrupt (phtheiro [word study] from phthío or phthíno = waste, decay, wither, pine away) means to cause harm to in a physical manner or in outward circumstances. To shrivel, to wither, to spoil. It means to ruin or destroy something with the implication of causing something to be corrupt.

    Jude 1:11

    Woe (ouai) = Often used by our Lord, but never elsewhere except here and in the Apocalypse. The expression in 1 Corinthians 9:16 is different. There the word is not used as an imprecation, but almost as a noun: "Woe is unto me." So Hosea 9:12 (Sept.).

    Ran greedily (exechuthesan) (ekcheo [word study]) = Lit., were poured out. Rev., ran riotously. A strong expression, indicating a reckless, abandoned devotion of the energies, like the Latin effundi. So Tacitus says of Maecenas, "he was given up to love for Bathyllus;" lit., poured out into love.

    After = Better, as Rev., in; as, "in the way of Cain." The error was their sphere of action. Similarly,

    Error (plane [word study]) describes a roaming or a wandering and then figuratively a going astray or a wandering out of the right way. Vincent says plane is an "error which shows itself in action...It may imply deceit as accompanying or causing error"

    Reward (wage) (misthos [word study]) literally refers to pay which is due for labor performed or dues paid for work.

    In the gainsaying (te antilogia) (antilogia [word study]) = In the practice of gain-saying like Korah's. Antilogia is from anti, against, and lego, to speak. Hence, literally, contradiction. Gainsay is a literal translation, being compounded of the Anglo-Saxon gegn, which reappears in the German gegen, against, and say.

    Perished (apollumi [word study]) means to destroy utterly but not to cause to cease to exist. Apollumi is not the loss of being per se, but is more the loss of well-being. It means to ruin so that the person ruined can no longer serve the use for which he was designed. His very existence in time and eternity is rendered useless!

    Korah = Who spake against Moses (Nu 16:3). The water which Moses brought from the rock at Kadesh was called the water of Meribah (Strife), or, in Septuagint, hudor antilogias, the water of contradiction.

    Jude 1:12

    Spots (spilades) = Only here in New Testament. So rendered in A. V., because understood as kindred to spiloi (2 Peter 2:13-note); but rightly, as Rev., hidden rocks. So Homer, ("Odyssey," iii., 298), "the waves dashed the ship against the rocks (spiladessin)." See on deceivings, 2Peter 2:13-note. These men were no longer mere blots, but elements of danger and wreck.

    When they feast with you = See on 2Peter 2:13-note. {Note = The word originally conveys the idea of sumptuous feasting, and is appropriate in view of the fact to which Peter alludes, that these sensualists converted the love-feast into a revel. Compare Paul's words, 1Cor 11:21, "one is hungry and another drunken." This seems to favor the reading agapais. The word occurs only here and Jude 1:12.}

    Feeding (poimainontes) (poimaino [word study]) = See on 1Peter 5:2-note. Lit., shepherding themselves; and so Rev., shepherds that feed themselves; further their own schemes and lusts instead of tending the flock of God. Compare Isaiah 56:11.

    Without fear (aphobos) = Of such judgments as visited Ananias and Sapphira. Possibly, as Lumby suggests, implying a rebuke to the Christian congregations for having suffered such practices.

    Clouds without water = Compare 2Peter 2:17-note, springs without water. As clouds which seem to be charged with refreshing showers, but are borne past (parapheromenai) and yield no rain.

    Carried about (periphero [word study])

    Whose fruit withereth (phthinoporina) = From phthino or phthio, to waste away, pine, and opora, autumn. Hence, literally, pertaining to the late autumn, and rightly rendered by Rev., autumn (trees). The A. V. is entirely wrong. Wyc., harvest trees. Tynd., trees without fruit at gathering-time.

    Without fruit (Unfruitful) (akarpos [word study]) means barren, without fruit or unprofitable. Akarpos pictures a tree without fruit under the most favorable of circumstances.

    Twice dead (dead = apothnesko [word study]) = Not only the apparent death of winter, but a real death; so that it only remains to pluck them up by the roots.

    Jude 1:13

    Raging (agria) = Rev., wild, which is better, as implying quality rather than act. Waves, by nature untamed. The act or expression of the nature is given by the next word.

    Foaming out (epaphrizonta) = Only here in New Testament. Compare Isaiah 57:20.

    Shame (aischunas) (aischune [word study]) = Lit., shames or disgraces. Aischune describes shame resulting from exposure of one’s weaknesses or sins. It is not a feeling one has but an experience which comes to someone.

    Wandering stars = Compare 2Peter 2:17-note. Possibly referring to comets, which shine a while and then pass into darkness. "They belong not to the system: they stray at random and without law, and must at last be severed from the lights which rule while they are ruled" (Lumby).

    Blackness (zophos [word study]) = See on 2 Peter 2:4-note. {Note = Peculiar to Peter and Jude. Originally of the gloom of the nether world, So Homer:

    "These halls are full

    Of shadows hastening down to Erebus

    Amid the gloom (hupo zophon)."}

    Of darkness (tou skotous) (skotos [word study]) = Lit., "the darkness," the article pointing back to the darkness already mentioned, Jude 1:6. Skotos is from skia a shadow thrown by an object. Skotos is literally that sphere in which light is absent. Skotos is used as another name for the place of punishment, eternal misery and eternal separation from God (the meaning of skotos here).

    Jude 1:14

    Enoch prophesied = This is the second of the apocryphal passages referred to in notes on v. 9. It is quoted from the apocryphal book of Enoch, directly, or from a tradition based upon it.

    The passage in Enoch is as follows:

    "Behold he comes with ten thousands of his saints, to execute judgment upon them, and to destroy the wicked, and to strive (at law) with all the carnal for everything which the sinful and ungodly have done and committed against him."

    The Book of Enoch, which was known to the fathers of the second century, was lost for some centuries with the exception of a few fragments, and was found entire in a copy of the Ethiopic Bible, in 1773, by Bruce. It became known to modern students through a translation from this into English by Archbishop Lawrence, in 1821. It was probably written in Hebrew. It consists of revelations purporting to have been given to Enoch and Noah, and its object is to vindicate the ways of divine providence, to set forth the retribution reserved for sinners, angelic or human, and "to repeat in every form the great principle that the world—natural, moral, and spiritual—is under the immediate government of God."

    Besides an introduction it embraces five parts: 1. A narrative of the fall of the angels, and of a tour of Enoch in company with an angel through heaven and earth, and of the mysteries seen by him. 2. Parables concerning the kingdom of God, the Messiah, and the Messianic future. 3. Astronomical and physical matter; attempting to reduce the images of the Old Testament to a physical system. 4:. Two visions, representing symbolically the history of the world to the Messianic completion. 5. Exhortations of Enoch to Methuselah and his descendants. The book shows no Christian influence, is highly moral in tone, and imitates the Old Testament myths.

    With ten thousands of his saints (en hagiais muriasin ) = Lit., in or among holy myriads. Compare Deuteronomy 33:2; Zechariah 14:5.

    Ungodly (asebeis) (asebeia [word study]) —ungodly deeds (ergon asebeias, lit., works of ungodliness) which they have ungodly committed (esebesan), and of all their hard speeches which ungodly (asebeis) sinners, etc.

    The evident play upon the word ungodly can be rendered but clumsily into English. Rev., translates, All the ungodly, of all their works of ungodliness which they have ungodly wrought, and of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against him. The words ungodly sinners are placed in an unusual position, at the end of the sentence, for emphasis; ungodliness being the key-note of the writer's thought.

    Hard (ton skleron) = Speeches is supplied. Lit., hard things. So Rev. The railing, gainsaying ; the profane and vain babblings (2Ti 2:16-note). Compare John 6:60, a hard saying, where the word means not abusive but difficult. In James 3:4, rough, used of the winds. In Acts 26:14, of Saul of Tarsus; "hard to kick against the pricks."

    Sinners (hamartolos [word study]) describes those who are continually erring from the way, constantly missing God's mark, living in opposition to His good and acceptable and perfect will.

    Jude 1:16

    Murmurers (goggustai) = Only here in New Testament. Doubtless, originally, with some adaptation of sound to sense, gongustai. It is used of the cooing of doves.

    Complainers (mempsimoiroi) = From memphomai, to find fault with, and moira, a part or lot. Lit., blamers of their lot.

    Lusts (epithumia [word study]) most often in the NT describes strong desires which are perverted and unrestrained and which originate from the Sin nature, which is corrupt and fallen.

    Great swelling words = See on 2Pe 2:18-note. {Note: Only here and Jude 16. The word means of excessive bulk. It accords well with the peculiar word uttering, since it denotes a kind of speech full of high-sounding verbosity without substance. Phtheggomenoi, uttering, is significantly applied alike to Balaam's beast and to these empty declaimers.}

    Having men's persons in admiration (thaumazontes prosopa) = The Rev., shewing respect of persons, is neater, but the A. V. more literal: admiring the countenances. Compare Gen 19:21, Sept., "I have accepted thee:" lit., have admired thy face.

    Because of advantage = See 2Pe 2:3-note, 2Pe 2:14-note. {Note = Make merchandise (emporeusontai) Only here and James 4:13. Compare Jude 1:16, for the sake of advantage; their glory being in having a multitude of followers.}

    Beloved = Compare Jude 1:3.

    Jude 1:17

    Words (rhema [word study]) refers to the spoken word, especially a word as uttered by a living voice.

    Jude 1:18

    Mockers = See on 2 Peter 3:3-note. {Note: Scoffers walking (eupaiktai poreuomenoi) This is the reading followed by A. V. But the later texts have added eupaigmone, in mockery, occurring only here, though a kindred word for mockings (eupaigmon) is found Hebrews 11:36. This addition gives a play upon the words; and so Rev., "Mockers shall come with mockery, walking," etc.}

    Ulrich Zwingli - Jude foresaw the coming of mockers in the last time who would walk after their own lusts and godlessness, and having the Spirit. And by their deeds we see clearly that they have no hope, for they rage furiously and live shamelessly and desire inordinately and persecute arrogantly and seize and grasp everything that they can plunder or steal or gain. All these things are tokens of their godlessness and despair. Like their father the devil, they are harsh toward everybody, refuse the joy and consolation of salvation, and despise every warning that might turn them from error. They will not retain God in their knowledge. So they begin to experience already that eternal perdition that in the world to come they will fulfill eternally.

    Ungodly lusts (epithumias ton asebeion) (epithumia [word study]) (asebeia [word study]) = Lit., lusts of ungodlinesses.

    Jude 1:19

    Separate themselves (apodiorizontes) = Only here in New Testament. Themselves is unnecessary. Better, as Rev., make separations; i.e., cause divisions in the church. The verb is compounded with apo, away; dia, through; pros, a boundary line. Of those who draw a line through the church and set off one part from another.

    Sensual (psuchikoi) = See on Mark 12:30. {Note = Soul (psuches) The word is often used in the New Testament in its original meaning of life. See Matthew 2:20; 20:28; Acts 20:10; Romans 11:3; John 10:11. Hence, as an emphatic designation of the man himself. See Matthew 12:18; Hebrews 10:38; Luke 21:19. So that the word denotes "life in the distinctness of individual existence" (Cremer). See further on psuchikos, spiritual, 1Corinthians 15:44.}

    As psuche denotes life in the distinctness of individual existence, "the centre of the personal being, the I of each individual," so this adjective derived from it denotes what pertains to man as man, the natural personality as distinguished from the renewed man. So 1 Corinthians 2:14; 15:44:. The rendering sensual, here and James 3:15, is inferential: sensual because natural and unrenewed In contrast with this is...

    The spirit = The higher spiritual life. So the adjective pneumatikos, spiritual, is everywhere in the New Testament opposed to psuchikos, natural. See 1Corinthians 15:44, 46.

    Jude 1:20

    Praying (proseuchomai [word study]) in the NT is always used of prayer addressed to God (to Him as the object of faith and the One who will answer one’s prayer) and means to speak consciously (with or without vocalization) to Him, with a definite aim (See study of noun proseuche).

    Jude 1:21

    Keep (tereo [word study]) - The aorist imperative is a command calling for effective, even urgent carrying out of this action.

    Looking for (waiting anxiously) (prosdechomai [word study]) means to accept favorably, to receive one into intercourse/companionship, to give access to oneself or receive to oneself. The present tense pictures this as one's habitual practice! Prosdechomai is used of things future, in the sense of expecting and with the meaning of accepting. This verb is virtually always is found in the middle voice conveying reflexive action (action directed or turned back on self) which means that one receives to one’s self or gives another access to one’s self.

    Jude 1:22

    And of some have compassion, making a difference = This follows the reading, kai ous men eleeite (eleate) diakrinomenoi, which would require, "On some have mercy who are in doubt. So Rev. Others, again, for eleeite, have mercy, read elegchete, reprove, and render diakrinomenos, who are contentious: "Some who are contentious rebuke." The Rev. rendering better suits what follows.

    Doubting (diakrino [word study])

    Jude 1:23

    Snatching them out of the fire = The writer has in mind Zechariah 3:2, a brand plucked from the burning. Compare Amos. 4:11.

    Snatching (harpazo [word study]) means to snatch up or way, to seize, to steal, to pluck or to pull and to do so suddenly, even with violence and speed and no warning. The idea is to take by force with a sudden swoop and usually indicates a force which cannot be resisted.

    With fear (en phobo) = Lit., in fear; i.e., of the contagion of sin while we are rescuing them.

    Spotted (espilomenon) = Only here and James 3:6. See on 2 Peter 2:13-note.

    Jude 1:24

    Able (dunamai [word study]) The present tense pictures His continual inherent ability to keep us from falling.

    To keep you from falling (phulaxai humas aptaistous) = Lit., "to keep you without stumbling. Only here in New Testament. See the kindred word offend. Rev., stumble, James 2:10; 3:2.

    Keep (phulasso [word study]) means to watch, to carry out the function as a military guard or sentinel (cp Ac 23:35, 28:16), to keep one's eye upon that he might remain safe. Phulasso is used to describe the shepherds "keeping watch over their flock by night (Lk 2:8), which congers up the image of savage wolves seeking to devour helpless sheep. This picture parallels our Good Shepherd Who keeps watch over His sheep as in this verse.

    Faultless (above reproach, blameless) (amomos [word study]) is literally without spot or blemish. It was used to describe the absence of defects in sacrificial animals and figuratively of the Lamb of God as unblemished.

    Glory (doxa [word study]) is from the verb dokeo which means to give a proper opinion or estimate of something and thus the glory of God expresses all that He is in His Being and in His nature, character, power and acts.

    Exceeding joy (agalliasei) (See related verb - agalliao [word study]) = See on 1 Peter 1:6-note. {Note: The word is always employed in the New Testament for great or lively joy. See Matthew 5:12; Luke 1:47; 10:21.}

    Jude 1:25

    Savior (soter [word study]) refers to the agent of salvation or deliverance, the one who rescues, delivers, saves and preserves. Anyone who saves or delivers can be called a deliverer or rescuer (a soter). Here obviously soter is used of God as the source of salvation - the Deliverer, the Preserver, the Protector, the Healer, the One Who rescues us from danger and to a state of spiritual prosperity now and throughout eternity.

    Dominion (kratos [word study]) denotes the presence and significance of force or strength rather than its exercise. It is the ability to exhibit or express resident strength.

    Power (authority) (exousia [word study]) refers to authority and combines the idea of the "right and the might". Exousía is the power to do something and was a technical term used in court where it described a legal right.

    Both now and ever (kai nun kai eis pantas tous aionas) = Lit., both now and unto all the ages. The best texts add pro pantos tou aionos, before all time.






DISCLAIMER: Before you "go to the commentaries" go to the Scriptures and study them inductively (Click 3 part overview of how to do Inductive Bible Study) in dependence on your Teacher, the Holy Spirit, Who Jesus promised would guide us into all the truth (John 16:13). Remember that Scripture is always the best commentary on Scripture. Any commentary, even those by the most conservative and orthodox teacher/preachers cannot help but have at least some bias of the expositor based upon his training and experience. Therefore the inclusion of specific links does not indicate that we agree with every comment. We have made a sincere effort to select only the most conservative, "bibliocentric" commentaries. Should you discover some commentary or sermon you feel may not be orthodox, please email your concern. I have removed several links in response to concerns by discerning readers. I recommend that your priority be a steady intake of solid Biblical food so that with practice you will have your spiritual senses trained to discern good from evil (Heb 5:14-note).