Amplified: And after He had appeared in human form, He abased and humbled Himself [still further] and carried His obedience to the extreme of death, even the death of the cross! (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: And when he came in appearance as a man for all to recognise, he became obedient even to the extent of accepting death, even the death of a cross. (Westminster Press)
KJV: And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.
Lightfoot: Nor was this all. Having thus appeared among men in the fashion of a man, he humbled himself yet more, and carried out his obedience even to dying. Nor did he die by a common death: he was crucified, as the lowest malefactor is crucified
Phillips: And, having become man, he humbled himself by living a life of utter obedience, even to the extent of dying, and the death he died was the death of a common criminal. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: And being found to be in outward guise as man, He stooped very low, having become obedient to the extent of death, even such a death as that upon a cross. (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and in fashion having been found as a man, he humbled himself, having become obedient unto death -- death even of a cross,
AND BEING FOUND IN APPEARANCE AS A MAN: kai schemati heuretheis (AAPMSN) os anthropos: (Mt 17:2; Mk 9:2,3; Lk 9:29)
Being found (2147) (heurisko, gives us English word eureka which is from the exclamation attributed to Archimedes on discovering a method for determining the purity of gold) means learn location of something, either by intentional searching or by unexpected discovery.
The contrast here is between what He was in Himself, God, and what He appeared in the eyes of man. "Likeness" states the fact of His real resemblance to men in mode of existence. (Derivative words of schema = metaschematizo, suschematizo)
Schema "always refers to what may be known from without." (Schneider, TDNT 1:954)
Schema in this verse signifies what Jesus was in the eyes of men. Schema describes the entire, outward, perceptible mode and shape of Christ's existence as a man.
Thayer says schema is…
Schema should be distinguished from the Greek word morphe which signifies "form" in Phil 2:7. Vine (quoting from Gifford's work "The Incarnation") says that
Expositor's adds that morphe “always signifies a form which truly and fully expresses the being which underlies it… the words mean ‘the being on an equality with God.’”
KJV Bible Commentary - The word form (Greek morphē) differs from fashion (Greek schēma) as that which is intrinsic from that which is outward. The contrast is between what He is in Himself (God) and what He appears to be in the eyes of men (man). Christ had all the qualities which Adam had before he sinned, but not the sinful nature which came through Adam’s fall. (Dobson, E G, Charles Feinberg, E Hindson, Woodrow Kroll, H L. Wilmington: KJV Bible Commentary: Nelson)
Radmacher explains that schema "is the third word Paul uses to show the Philippians that Jesus Christ who is fully God from all eternity is also fully man. In the previous verses, Paul describes Jesus as possessing the nature of God and taking on the nature (morphe) of a servant. Jesus came to the earth with the identity of a man (homoíoma = likeness). Here the word appearance points to the external characteristics of Jesus: He had the bearing, actions, and manners of a man. (Radmacher, E. D., Allen, R. B., & House, H. W. The Nelson Study Bible: NKJV. Nashville: Thomas Nelson)
Barclay writes that "There are two Greek words for form, morphē and schēma. They must both be translated form, because there is no other English equivalent, but they do not mean the same thing. Morphē is the essential form which never alters; schēma is the outward form which changes from time to time and from circumstance to circumstance. For instance, the morphē of any human being is humanity and this never changes; but his schēma is continually changing. A baby, a child, a boy, a youth, a man of middle age, an old man always have the morphē of humanity, but the outward schēma changes all the time. Roses, daffodils, tulips, chrysanthemums, primroses, dahlias, lupins all have the one morphē of flowers; but their schēma is different. Aspirin, penicillin, cascara, magnesia all have the one morphē of drugs; but their schēma is different. The morphē never alters; the schēma continually does. The word Paul uses for Jesus being in the form of God is morphē; that is to say, his unchangeable being is divine. However his outward schēma might alter, he remained in essence divine. (Philippians 2 Commentary)
NIDNTT has this note on the classic use of schema - (1) form, shape, figure; (2) appearance, as opposed to reality; (3) bearing, air, mien; (4) fashion, manner; (5) character. Greek thought did not sharply distinguish between the external and the internal. Schēma denotes the form that is seen. It could thus denote the role played by an actor which includes its essential character (Plato, Leg., 11, 918e). But the outward form can also be deceptive, and appearance become a sham. Schēma can thus mean mere appearance as opposed to reality. It can also mean a dancing figure (Plato, Ion, 536c), bodily attitude or bearing (Eur., Medea, 1039), clothing (Xen., Cyr., 5, 1, 5), and occasionally semblance (Theophrastus, Historia Plantarum, 3, 12, 7). In studying the Greek word, one has to beware of the modern outlook which would relate schēma merely to external things, implying that the essential character was something different. To the Greek mind, the observer saw not only the outer shell but the whole form with it. (Brown, Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986. Zondervan)
The only other NT use of schema is
Appearance in summary defines the outward mode and expression. While on earth, Jesus did not give expression to the glory of His deity except on the Mount of Transfiguration. He appeared as the Man Christ Jesus to the world around Him. He was in His humiliation. And of course in contrast to the occasional nuance of schema meaning deception, Jesus' schema never for an instance presented even a suggestion of deception. He was fully Man, just as other men saw Him. Indeed John records Jesus' schema as interpreted by Nathanael…
D A Carson explains this section noting that Jesus Christ…
Bob Utley - In Greek philosophy morphē meant “the inner form of something that truly reflected its inner essence,” while “ schēma ” meant “the outer changing form of something that did not fully represent its inner essence” (cf. 1Cor. 7:31). Jesus is like us in all ways except fallen mankind’s sin nature. (Philippians 2 Commentary)
Marvin Vincent says that when we consider morphe "We must here dismiss from our minds the idea of shape. The word is used in its philosophic sense, to denote that expression of being which carries in itself the distinctive nature and character of the being to whom it pertains, and is thus permanently identified with that nature and character. Thus it is distinguished from schema = fashion, comprising that which appeals to the senses and which is changeable. Morphe or form is identified with the essence of a person or thing… As applied here to God, the word is intended to describe that mode in which the essential being of God expresses itself."
Alexander Maclaren - Equally emphatic in another direction is Paul’s next expression, ‘In the form of God,’ for ‘form’ means much more than ‘shape.’ I would point out the careful selection in this passage of three words to express three ideas which are often by hasty thought regarded as identical, We read of ‘the form of God’ (Phil. 2:6),’ the likeness of men’ (Phil. 2:7), and’ in fashion as a man.’ Careful investigation of these two words ‘form’ and’ fashion’ has established a broad distinction between them, the former being more fixed, the latter referring to that which is accidental and outward, which may be fleeting and unsubstantial. The possession of the form involves participation in the essence also. Here it implies no corporeal idea as if God had a material form, but it implies also much more than a mere apparent resemblance. He who is in the form of God possesses the essential divine attributes. Only God can be ‘in the form of God’: man is made in the likeness of God, but man is not ‘in the form of God.’ Light is thrown on this lofty phrase by its antithesis with the succeeding expression in the next verse, ‘the form of a servant,’ and as that is immediately explained to refer to Christ’s assumption of human nature, there is no room for candid doubt that ‘being originally in the form of God’ is a deliberately asserted claim of the divinity of Christ in His pre-existent state. (The Descent of the Word)
Lightfoot in his commentary on Philippians has a lengthy discussion of schema as it differs from morphe…
Joseph Beet - Fashion (in NT only 1Co 7:31) differs from form as any occasional appearance or visible clothing differs from an expression which corresponds to actual inner reality. The form of God is the appropriate self-manifestation of the Son’s essence, of His equality with God. The fashion as a man was the outward guise of humanity, a visible clothing bearing only a distant relation to the actual nature of the Son. It is practically the same as in the likeness of men, except perhaps that it recalls more conspicuously the outward aspect of Christ as an individual man. In this outward guise, by those who sought Him, the Incarnate Son was found. This last word keeps before us, as does the conspicuous repetition of the word form, the self-presentation of the Son both as God and as Man. (Philippians 2 Commentary)
James E Rosscup writes that Jesus "did not rid Himself of the essence in which He was God, or relinquish the attributes of God. He always remained God but also became man. He was fully God and fully man, in one Person. He did not exchange the “form” of God (let it go), but always had this, and simply added or took the form also of a man in being fully humanity. What He emptied Himself of was the exercise, use, or expression of the prerogatives of being God. As a servant, He showed perfect submission to the Father to do His will as the God-man. This is as other humans also can obey whatever is God’s will for them, as in many things it varies for each person. Christ worked miracles only as these served the Father in His will and timing, and many times bypassed showing the power He could have asserted, never making His own way easier. He lived as a true human, experiencing thirst, hunger, and weariness in His treks instead of moving from one place to another in an instant. (An Exposition on Prayer in the Bible: Igniting the Fuel to Flame Our Communication with God)
HE HUMBLED HIMSELF: etapeinosen (3SAAI) heauton: (Acts 8:33; Heb 5:5, 6, 7; 12:2)
In Proverbs we read that…
Jesus put aside all personal rights and interests in order to insure the welfare of others. In so doing He gave us His perfect example to follow in His steps (1Pe 2:21-note, 1Jn 2:6). F B Meyer spoke of applying Jesus' pattern of living as a Man to our life as men and women who are now in Him (and enabled by His indwelling Spirit, the Spirit of Christ)…
Humbled (5013) (tapeinoo [word study]) from tapeinos = low, not high, figuratively of one's attitude/social position) literally means to level, to cause something to be lower or to make low (eg, to level off a mountain in Lk 3:5 from the Septuagint (Lxx) of Isa 40:4). Tapeinoo means to bow down, to make low, to humble. Most NT uses of tapeinoo are figurative and include the following meanings: To cause someone to lose prestige, to reduce to a meaner condition or lower rank, to abase. To be ranked below others.
Tapeinoo - 14x in 11v - Mt 18:4; 23:12; Luke 3:5; 14:11; 18:14; 2 Cor 11:7; 12:21; Phil 2:8; 4:12; Jas 4:10; 1 Pet 5:6. NAS = brought low(1), get along(1), humble(2), humble means(1), humbled(4), humbles(4),humbling(1)
Humble in English is derived from Latin "humilis" meaning low and this word is in turn from "humus" meaning earth! Greeks saw humility as shameful but the NT sees humility as condition bringing man to right relation to God! The fundamental difference between the Greek and the biblical use of these words is that in the Greek world, with its anthropocentric view of man, lowliness is looked on as shameful, to be avoided and overcome by act and thought. In the NT, with its theocentric view of man, the words are used to describe those events that bring a man into a right relationship with God and his fellow-man.
This was a "voluntary humiliation on the part of Christ and for this reason Paul is pressing the example of "Christ upon the Philippians, this supreme example of renunciation." (A T Robertson - Word Pictures) In this lowly estate He humbled Himself. The Greek word translated "humbled" is used in an early document, of the Nile River at its low stage, in the sentence, "It runs low," a good description of the humility of our Lord, who said of Himself, "I am meek and lowly of heart." (Mt 11:28KJV) He became obedient, not to death, but obedient to the Father up to the point of death, even the death of a cross. In so doing our Lord gave us the perfect example of the self-emptied life, an example and challenge to all those who would seek to follow in His steps (1Pe 2:21-note, 1Jn 2:6), seeking to be servants of the One Who came not to be ministered unto but to minister, and to give His life a ransom for many (Mk 10:45)
J Vernon McGee on Christ humbling Himself - You and I have been humbled by someone doing or saying something which has been humiliating to us. But notice that Christ “humbled himself.” This is a most difficult thing to do.
One of the finest things I ever heard about John Wesley was concerning an incident when he was about to cross a brook over which was a very narrow bridge, just wide enough for one person. As he was starting over, he met a liberal preacher of that day. This preacher swelled up and said, “I never give way to a fool.” John Wesley looked at him for a moment, smiled, and began to back off, saying, “I always do.” My friend, it is difficult to take that humble place, but it has made me think a great deal more of John Wesley. We find it difficult to humble ourselves, but our Lord humbled Himself.
The great Puritan divine Thomas Watson commenting on "God made Him who had no sin—to be sin for us!" (2Corinthians 5:21-note) wrote that
Spurgeon's Devotional - Jesus is the great teacher of lowliness of heart. We need daily to learn of him. See the Master taking a towel and washing his disciples' feet! Follower of Christ, wilt thou not humble thyself? See him as the Servant of servants, and surely thou canst not be proud! Is not this sentence the compendium of his biography, "He humbled himself"? Was he not on earth always stripping off first one robe of honour and then another, till, naked, he was fastened to the cross, and there did he not empty out his inmost self, pouring out his life-blood, giving up for all of us, till they laid him penniless in a borrowed grave? How low was our dear Redeemer brought! How then can we be proud? Stand at the foot of the cross, and count the purple drops by which you have been cleansed; see the thorn-crown; mark his scourged shoulders, still gushing with encrimsoned rills; see hands and feet given up to the rough iron, and his whole self to mockery and scorn; see the bitterness, and the pangs, and the throes of inward grief, showing themselves in his outward frame; hear the thrilling shriek, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" And if you do not lie prostrate on the ground before that cross, you have never seen it: if you are not humbled in the presence of Jesus, you do not know him. You were so lost that nothing could save you but the sacrifice of God's only begotten. Think of that, and as Jesus stooped for you, bow yourself in lowliness at his feet. A sense of Christ's amazing love to us has a greater tendency to humble us than even a consciousness of our own guilt. May the Lord bring us in contemplation to Calvary, then our position will no longer be that of the pompous man of pride, but we shall take the humble place of one who loves much because much has been forgiven him. Pride cannot live beneath the cross. Let us sit there and learn our lesson, and then rise and carry it into practice.
Remember that Paul is telling the Philippians that if they think they cannot humble themselves to the will of one another, they need to ponder the obedience of the Lord of glory who was willing to give up His rights as their example of perfect selflessness. This is the attitude the saints at Philippi were to manifest. It is the attitude every believer is to manifest to assure unity in the body of Christ.
Becoming (1096) (ginomai) means to cause to be ("gen"-erate) and in this context means that it came to be that Jesus experienced obedience to the will of His Father.
Obedient (5255) (hupekoos/hypekoos is from hupo = under, frequently meant not simply to be beneath but to be totally under the power, authority, control of something or someone + akouo = hear and apprehend with the mind, gives us our English word "acoustic") is an adjective which means giving ear to, hearkening, attentively listening and thus describes one who is obedient.
Obedient describes a person who obeys based on the fact that they have paid attention to what was commanded or instructed. In other words, what they heard did not just (as the saying goes) "go in one ear and out the other!" We have all seen the child who, when they are being instructed by their parents, responds by putting their hands over their ears so as to not hear their parent's words! That is a picture of not "giving ear to" (i.e., they are disobedient - I'm sure this doesn't describe your child dear reader!).
Hupekoos also conveys the sense of subject or submissive to (another).
J I Packer in the New Bible Dictionary writes that…
Webster says "obedient" describes the attitude of being submissive to the restraint or command of authority; i.e., willing to obey. The obedient individual is submissive to the will, guidance or control of another, implying compliance with the commands or instructions of the one who is in authority, performing what is required, or abstaining from what is forbidden. Words related to obedient = acquiescent, compliant, sheeplike, submissive, yielding; duteous, dutiful, loyal; law-abiding; obeisant, subservient. Words contrasted with obedient = insubordinate, rebellious; contrary, froward, perverse, wayward, willful; headstrong, intractable, recalcitrant, refractory, uncontrollable, ungovernable, unruly. Which group of synonyms best describes your Christian walk? Beloved, as Christ followers we are called to "follow in His steps" (1Peter 2:21-note), "to walk in the same manner as He walked." (1Jn 2:6), and it follows that obedience to the guiding and leading of the Holy Spirit (Ezek 36:27, Ro 8:14-note, Gal 5:16-note, Gal 5:18-note, Gal 5:25-note) should be our continual desire and practice (You might consider praying Ps 25:4,5, 143:10). This study of hupekoos begs the question - Are you being obedient to the will of your Father, surrendering your will to His Spirit's leading and enabling power? This is the "Jesus way", the way to "walk in a manner worthy of the God who calls you into His own kingdom and glory." (1Thes 2:12-note)
J C Ryle exhorts us to make Jesus' example our chief standard of holy living…
As A W Tozer said…
See study of other words in this "family"…
The other two uses of hupekoos in the NT…
Hupekoos is found 5 times in the Septuagint - Deut 20:11; Josh 17:13; Pr 4:3; 13:1; 21:28
As discussed obedient describes an attitude and willingness to be submissive to the will of another and to comply with the demands or requests of the one in authority (contrast Acts 7:39). And here again we see the perfect example of Jesus who declared…
David foretold of Jesus' obedience to His Father when he wrote…
Isaiah records the prophetic words of Jesus…
We see His obedience in the Garden of Gethsemane as the sinless Son anticipated the cup of suffering in which He took upon Himself all the sins of mankind including the humanly unfathomable mystery of His temporary separation from His Father (Mt 27:45, 46). Jesus naturally shrank from this separation, but was obedient and willingly submitted, Matthew recording…
In fact Jesus entire life purpose was to live in humble submission to the Father's will, John recording Jesus' words to His disciples that…
Paul speaks of Jesus' perfect obedience, an obedience which took H im to the "nth" degree, to death itself…
The writer of Hebrews explains that…
Expositor's Greek Testament…
Muller writes that…
TO THE POINT OF DEATH EVEN DEATH ON A CROSS: mechri thanatou thanatou de staurou: (Dt 21:23; Ps 22:16; Jn 10:18; 12:28, 29, 30, 32, 32; 14:31; Gal 3:13; Titus 2:14; Heb 12:2; 1Pet 2:24; 3:18)
As we read these words, it is good for us to remember that Jesus was perfectly obedient to the point of death in our place, as our substitute.
Jerry Bridges writes that…
Death (2288) (thanatos from thnesko = to die) refers physically to the separation of soul from the body (physical) death and was a legal technical term for capital punishment. In the NT thanatos is treated as a destroying power related to sin and its consequences.
The act of voluntary humiliation did not stop with the Incarnation but continued to the ignominious depths of death by crucifixion.
Kenneth Wuest clarifies - He became obedient unto death. But this does not mean that He became obedient to death. He was always the Master of death. He died as no other individual ever died or ever will die. He died of His own volition. He dismissed His human spirit. The word “unto” is the translation of a Greek word which means “up to the point of.” Our Lord was obedient to the Father up to the point of dying. He said, “Lo, I come to do thy will, O God” (Heb. 10:9). (Philippians Commentary - Verse by Verse Comments Online)
Albert Barnes - He obeyed even when obedience terminated in death. The point of this expression is this: One may readily and cheerfully obey another where there is no particular peril. But the case is different where obedience is attended with danger. The child shows a spirit of true obedience when he yields to the commands of a father, though it should expose him to hazard; the servant who obeys his master, when obedience is attended with risk of life; the soldier, when he is morally certain that to obey will be followed by death. Thus many a company or platoon has been ordered into the “deadly breach,” or directed to storm a redoubt, or to scale a wall, or to face a cannon, when it was morally certain that death would be the consequence. No profounder spirit of obedience can be evinced than this. It should be said, however, that the obedience of the soldier is in many cases scarcely voluntary, since, if he did not obey, death would be the penalty. But in the case of the Redeemer, it was wholly voluntary. He placed himself in the condition of a servant to do the will of God, and then never shrank from what that condition involved.
Cross (4716) (stauros from histemi = to stand) was an an upright stake, especially a pointed one. Thayer adds the stauros was a well-known instrument of most cruel and ignominious punishment, borrowed by the Greeks and Romans from the Phoenicians; to it were affixed among the Romans, down to the time of Constantine the Great, the guiltiest criminals, particularly the basest slaves, robbers, the authors and abetters of insurrections, and occasionally in the provinces, at the arbitrary pleasure of the governors, upright and peaceable men also, and even Roman citizens themselves. Stauros is used somewhat in with a figurative (but still very real) supernatural significance as the source of the the doctrine concerning the saving power of the death on the cross endured by Christ (1Co 1:18 = where "being saved" = present tense).
Vine on stauros - Noun Masculine — denotes, primarily, "an upright pale or stake." On such malefactors were nailed for execution. Both the noun and the verb stauroo, "to fasten to a stake or pale," are originally to be distinguished from the ecclesiastical form of a two beamed "cross." The shape of the latter had its origin in ancient Chaldea, and was used as the symbol of the god Tammuz (being in the shape of the mystic Tau, the initial of his name) in that country and in adjacent lands, including Egypt. By the middle of the 3rd cent. A.D. the churches had either departed from, or had travestied, certain doctrines of the Christian faith. In order to increase the prestige of the apostate ecclesiastical system pagans were received into the churches apart from regeneration by faith, and were permitted largely to retain their pagan signs and symbols. Hence the Tau or T, in its most frequent form, with the cross-piece lowered, was adopted to stand for the "cross" of Christ. As for the Chi, or X, which Constantine declared he had seen in a vision leading him to champion the Christian faith, that letter was the initial of the word "Christ" and had nothing to do with "the Cross" (for xulon, "a timber beam, a tree," as used for the stauros, see under TREE). The method of execution was borrowed by the Greeks and Romans from the Phoenicians. The stauros denotes (a) "the cross, or stake itself," e.g., Matthew 27:32; (b) "the crucifixion suffered," e.g., 1 Corinthians 1:17,18 , where "the word of the cross," RV, stands for the Gospel; Galatians 5:11 , where crucifixion is metaphorically used of the renunciation of the world, that characterizes the true Christian life; Galatians 6:12,14; Ephesians 2:16; Philippians 3:18. The judicial custom by which the condemned person carried his stake to the place of execution, was applied by the Lord to those sufferings by which His faithful followers were to express their fellowship with Him, e.g., Matthew 10:38 . (Cross, Crucify - Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words)
Note another Greek word xulon is also translated "cross".
The cross as used figuratively to describes that which was to be borne by those who, on behalf of God's cause, do not hesitate cheerfully to bear persecutions, troubles, distresses thus recalling and identifying with the rejection and fate of Christ while on earth. (Mt 10:38, 16:24, Mk 8:34, 10:21, Lk 9:23, 14:27, literally of Simon of Cyrene in Mk 15:21)
Stauros - 27x in 27v -Mt 10:38; 16:24; 27:32, 40, 42; Mark 8:34; 15:21, 30, 32; Luke 9:23; 14:27; 23:26; John 19:17, 19, 25, 31; 1Cor 1:17f; Gal 5:11; 6:12, 14; Eph 2:16; Phil 2:8; 3:18; Col 1:20; 2:14; Heb 12:2. All uses are rendered "cross".
Crucifixion on a Cross was the most despised death of all and was reserved for condemned criminals. The cross was an instrument of most dreadful and agonizing torture. This mode of punishment was known to the Persians (Ezra 6:11; Esther 7:10); and the Carthaginians. However, it was most common among the Romans for slaves and criminals, and was introduced among the Jews by the Romans. It was not abolished until the time of Constantine who did so out of regard for Christianity. Persons sentenced to be crucified were first scourged and then made to bear their own cross to the place of execution. A label or title was usually placed on the chest of or over the criminal. Crucifixion was at once an execution, a pillory, and an instrument of torture. When we read of the antagonism to the cross of Christ, we must understand it as antagonism to a redemption which was accomplished by the deepest humiliation, not by the display of power and glory
Dwight Pentecost explains that the Cross was not a natural death but in fact…
COUNTING THE COST
Warren Wiersbe -Dr. J. H. Jowett has said, “Ministry that costs nothing accomplishes nothing.” If there is to be any blessing, there must be some “bleeding.” At a religious festival in Brazil, a missionary was going from booth to booth, examining the wares. He saw a sign above one booth: “Cheap Crosses.” He thought to himself, “That’s what many Christians are looking for these days—cheap crosses. My Lord’s cross was not cheap. Why should mine be?” (Wiersbe, W: Bible Exposition Commentary - New Testament. 1989. Victor)
Beloved, is it costing you anything
to be a Christ Follower?
If we are to have this attitude (Phil 2:5) what does it mean to us today? We too must be willing (humility) to die to our old man's selfish interests. Positionally this has occurred on the Cross, so that when He died, we died (Ro 6:3-note, Ro 6:4-note), but if we are truly His disciples (Mk 8:34), He calls us to experience death to self daily as a "normal" part of our life (Mk 8:34ff, 1Cor 15:31). How is this even possible? In Philippians 2:13 Paul explains that…
Every Christ follower has the indwelling Spirit of Christ (Ro 8:9, 1Cor 3:16, 1Cor 6:19), and He is our sole Source of inner motivation, continually giving us the "want to" so that we might even be willing to consider dying daily to self. But notice not only does the Spirit give us the supernatural desire but also the supernatural power, for He continually is working in us, "energizing" us and doing so in a way that brings glory, honor and pleasure to our Father Who art in heaven.
Jesus repeatedly called for death to self in the lives of those who would see to follow after Him (Christ followers is another name for "disciples" - see Greek word study = mathetes) - Mt 16:25; Mk 8:35; Lk 9:24;17:33; Jn 12:24,25). The same truth is also stressed by Paul (Ro 12:1-note, Ro 12:2-note; 2Co 5:14,15; 6:9,10; Gal 2:20-note; Phil 2:5-11; 2Ti 2:11, 12-note). Dying to self and living unto God is the very essence of a truly happy (blessed) and fulfilling life in this world and the one to come (cp the promise in 1Ti 4:7, 8-note).
In his book "The Epistle to the Philippians" F B Meyer summarizes Philippians 2:5-8 as…
|Greek: dio kai o theos auton huperupsosen (3SAAI) kai echarisato (3SAMI) auto to onoma to huper pan onoma
Amplified: Therefore [because He stooped so low] God has highly exalted Him and has freely bestowed on Him the name that is above every name, (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: And for that reason God exalted him, and granted to him the name which is above every name (Westminster Press)
KJV: Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name:
Lightfoot: But as was his humility, so also was his exaltation. God raised him to a preeminent height, and gave him a title and a dignity far above all dignities and titles else.
Phillips: That is why God has now lifted him so high, and has given him the name beyond all names, (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: Because of which voluntary act of supreme self-renunciation, God also super-eminently exalted Him to the highest rank and power, and graciously bestowed upon Him THE NAME, the one which is above every name, (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: wherefore, also, God did highly exalt him, and gave to him a name that is above every name,
THEREFORE ALSO GOD HIGHLY EXALTED HIM: dio kai o Theos auton huperupsosen (3SAAI): (Ge 3:15; Ps 2:6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12; 8:5, 6, 7, 8; 91:14; 110:1,5; Isa 9:7; 49:6, 7, 8; 52:13; 53:12; Da 2:44,45; 7:14; Mt 11:27; 28:18; Lk 10:22; Jn 3:35,36; 5:22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27; 13:3; 17:1, 2, 3,5; Acts 2:32, 33, 34, 35, 36; 5:31; Ro 14:9, 10, 11; 1Co 15:24, 25, 26, 27; Heb 2:9; 12:2; 2Pet 1:17; Rev 1:5; 3:21; 5:12; Rev 11:15; 19:16)
The psalmist foretells of Messiah's exaltation writing…
In another psalm we see a prayer that speaks of His exalted Name…
The Messianic Psalm 110 pictures Jesus exaltation to King of kings…
Isaiah records a prophecy of Jesus' exaltation…
Daniel records one of the most glorious descriptions of Messiah's exaltation…
Therefore (1352) (dio) begins this section explaining that because of this voluntary act of humility (Phil 2:6-8), God also highly exalted Him, giving Him not only an exalted position, but also an exalted name.
The contrasts with the previous section are striking…
This section although steeped in profound theology remains eminently practical for the saints at Philippi and for believers of all ages. Paul is presenting the divine paradox, foolish to the natural man, that the way up is down. That a cross precedes a crown. That the road of exaltation by the Father is paved by humble service to others for the Father's glory.
James put it this way…
Peter concurs writing…
Highly exalted (5251) (huperupsoo from huper = above or high + hupsoo = to elevate) means to exalt to the highest rank and power, to raise to supreme majesty and refers to a super-eminent exaltation. The idea is to regard a person as being exceptionally honored in view of high status—‘to give exceptional honor.
Vine explains that the verb exalted…
A T Robertson discussing the phrase "God highly exalted Him" writes that…
Why is Robertson's observation so significant? It means that Jesus Christ still bears the scars of His crucifixion in His hands, side and feet, scars which will eternally testify to the New Covenant which He cut with all those who have placed their faith in Him. His covenant scars bear evidence that once genuinely saved, always saved, for once a sinner has entered covenant with Jesus, He will never break that covenant. This picture of the exalted God-Man retaining the scars of Calvary should comfort all believers regarding the absolute eternal security of their salvation.
The psalmist prophesied of Jesus' exaltation writing…
AND BESTOWED ON HIM THE NAME WHICH IS ABOVE EVERY NAME:kai echarisato auto (3SAMI) to onoma to huper pan onoma: (Ps 89:27; Eph 1:20, 21, 22, 23; Col 1:18; Heb 1:4; 1Pet 3:22)
In Colossians Paul wrote of Jesus that…
The writer of Hebrews explains that after Jesus
Bestowed (5483) (charizomai [word study] is from charis = grace, unmerited favor) has the basic meaning of to give, and to do so freely and generously. To grant as a favor. To give gratuitously, generously, graciously and in kindness. It means to bestow as a gift of grace or out of grace, and to do so willingly and not under coercion. To give help to those who don't deserve it. To show grace by providing undeserved help to someone unworthy (see Eph 4:32)
Vine adds charizomai means "to bestow a favor unconditionally… then to remit a debt, and hence to forgive… Charizomai primarily denotes to show a favor (charis)… In each case the idea of a free, unconditioned act is involved, and in all save one or two cases this is the dominant thought, cp. Acts 27:24; Philemon 1:22." (Vine, W. Collected writings of W. E. Vine. Nashville: Thomas Nelson)
Charizomai - 23x in 19v - Luke 7:21, 42, 43; Acts 3:14; 25:11, 16; 27:24; Ro 8:32; 1Cor 2:12; 2Cor 2:7, 10; 12:13; Gal 3:18; Eph 4:32; Phil 1:29; 2:9; Col 2:13; 3:13; Philemon 1:22. NAS = bestowed(1), forgave(2), forgive(3), forgiven(4), forgiving(2), freely give(1), given(1),graciously forgave(1), granted(5), hand(2), things freely given(1).
Paul used this same verb charizomai earlier to explain to the Philippians that…
to you it has been granted (charizomai = a gift of grace!!!) for Christ's sake, not only to believe in Him, but also to suffer (Do you accept suffering as a "gift" beloved? We can only accept it in this way when we understand that it has a holy even eternal purpose in the hand of our sovereign God [E.g. conformation to the image of God's Son Who suffered more than any of us will ever suffer - Ro 8:29-note] and is not simply a random event) for His sake (Php 1:29-note)
Wuest - "The word given is the translation of the Greek word used when God in grace freely gives salvation to the believing sinner. It is so used in Ro 8:32 ("He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how will He not also with Him freely give [charizomai] us all things?" see note Ro 8:32). It was an act of grace on the part of God the Father toward the incarnate Son who had voluntarily assumed a subordinate position so as to function as the Sin-bearer on the Cross." (Philippians Commentary - Verse by Verse Comments Online)
Paul is not referring here to the physical name as we think of it today but is using "name" as it was used in Scripture to represent the total person. In this sense, the Bible uses one's "name" to speak of the total person, as well as of the office, the rank, and the dignity attached to the person because of his position. Today we use a name as little more than a distinguishing mark or label to differentiate one person from other people. But in the world of the NT the name concisely sums up all that a person is. One's whole character was somehow implied in the name. In this passage "name" speaks not only of the total Person of Christ but also speaks to His title which supersedes forever every title every given to anyone.
In short, the Name of the Lord is what He is, it is Himself.
How this truth about "the Name" of Jesus contrasts with the many "names" by which He was ridiculed and mocked during the days of His flesh (and is still mocked by the unbelieving world), names like "a friend of sinners", "blasphemer", One Who has "lost His senses", etc. Jesus did not live to make His name great in this world, and yet God made His Name the one that is supremely exalted forever in the world to come.
Am I living to make a name for myself on this earth or to lead others to the Name above all names?
Pentecost - An exalted name indicates that one is worthy of adoration and praise. In the Old Testament, men praised and blessed and feared the name of God because the name represented the whole person of the God who had revealed Himself to them. Now God has elevated Jesus Christ to a position of authority over the earth and over heaven and over the expanse of the universe and has attached to Him all dignity and honor and glory and dominion and majesty so that men must bow before Him. (Pentecost, J. D. The Joy of Living: A study of Philippians. Kregel Publications)
Wuest - "That which was graciously bestowed was not “a name,” but “the Name.” The definite article ("to" = the) appears in the Greek text and refers to a particular name. The title, The Name, is a very common Hebrew title, denoting office, rank, dignity. The expression, “The Name of God” in the Old Testament, denotes the divine Presence, the divine Majesty, especially as the object of adoration and praise. The context here dwells upon the honor and worship bestowed on Him upon whom this name was conferred. The conferring of this title “The Name,” was upon the Lord Jesus as the Son of Man. A Man, the Man Christ Jesus, who as Very God had voluntarily laid aside His expression of the glory of Deity during His incarnation, now has placed upon His shoulders all the majesty, dignity, and glory of Deity itself. It is the God-Man Who stooped to the depths of humiliation, Who is raised, not as God now, although He was all that, but as Man, to the infinite height of exaltation possessed only by Deity. It is the answer of our Lord’s prayer “And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was” (John 17:5). It is the glory of Deity, not now seen shining in infinite splendor as in His pre-incarnate state, but that glory shining in perfect contrast to and with His glorified humanity raised now to a place of equal dignity with Deity. It is the ideal and beautiful combination of the exaltation of Deity and the humility of Deity seen in incarnate Deity." (Philippians Commentary - Verse by Verse Comments Online)
WHAT'S IN A NAME? - What's in a name? Plenty, according to Justin Kaplan and Anne Bernays, authors of the book The Language of Names. "Names penetrate the core of our being."
In the section of their book where they discuss literary names, Kaplan and Bernays point out that English novelist Charles Dickens was a great master at naming his characters. Seth Pecksniff, Wilkins Micawber, Tiny Tim, Sir Mulberry Hawk, and Thomas Gradgrind are just a few examples of characters whose names reflect who they are.
For Christians, the name above all other names is Jesus. The angelic messenger announced, "You shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins" (Mt. 1:21). Jesus' name has become the most exalted and meaningful name on earth and in heaven.
What's in that name? All the grace of God, all the wonder of redemption, all that we believe, and all that we are hoping for. We say it, we sing it, and adoration fills our souls. We anticipate the indescribable glory of that day when every knee will bow and every tongue, by glad choice or by divine constraint, will praise that highest and holiest of all names--Jesus! — Vernon C. Grounds (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)
THE NAME - Jesus! No other name draws people together so closely, while at the same time evoking hatred in others.
In 1999, a political candidate answered a question about who had the greatest effect on his life by saying, "Jesus Christ. He changed my heart." This person's honest answer was met with disdain from people who detest the name of Jesus.
On the other hand, people all over the world who love Christ meet every week to honor and praise Jesus' name. To them, His name means love, joy, peace, hope, and forgiveness.
What is it about this name that divides people so clearly? Why do some treat the name of Jesus with contempt while others hold it in highest esteem? I think the reason some people can't stand Jesus' name is that they don't want to be reminded of their sins. Jesus is "the way, the truth, and the life" (John 14:6), the One who saves us from our sins (Matthew 1:21). People who refuse to ask for forgiveness from sin cannot love the name of Jesus. Yet His name "is above every name," and one day "every tongue [will] confess that Jesus Christ is Lord" (Philippians 2:9,11).
Jesus! Do you love that name? Praise God for that holy name—and tell others what Jesus has done for you. — Dave Branon (Our Daily Bread, Copyright RBC Ministries, Grand Rapids, MI. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved)
Jesus—O how sweet the name,
Above (5228) (huper) conveys the basic meaning of "over" meaning a degree which is beyond that of a compared scale of extent. Huper is a marker of status which is superior to another status.
The Psalmist foretold of this exaltation writing…
Jesus exaltation after His resurrection was the basis for His declaration to His disciples that…
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Door Of Humility -- Over the centuries, the entrance to Bethlehem's Church of the Nativity has twice been made smaller. The purpose in the last case was to keep marauders from entering the basilica on horseback. It's now referred to as the "Door of Humility," because visitors must bend down to enter.
|Greek: hina en to onomati Iesou pan gonu kampse (3SAAS) epouranion kai epigeion kai katachthonion
Amplified: That in (at) the name of Jesus every knee hould (must) bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth (Amplified Bible - Lockman)Barclay: in order that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things upon the earth, and things below the earth
KJV: That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth;
Lightfoot: For to the name and majesty of Jesus all created things in heaven and earth and hell shall pay homage on bended knee;
Phillips: so that at the name of Jesus "every knee shall bow", whether in Heaven or earth or under the earth. (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: in order that in recognition of THE NAME belonging to Jesus, every knee should bow, of things in heaven, of things on earth, and of things under the earth, (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: that in the name of Jesus every knee may bow -- of heavenlies, and earthlies, and what are under the earth--
SO THAT AT THE NAME OF JESUS EVERY KNEE SHOULD BOW: hina en to onomati Iesou pan gonu kampsei (3SAAS): (Ge 41:43; Isa 45:23-25; Mt 27:29; 28:18; Ro 11:4; 14:10,11; Eph 3:14; Heb 1:6; Rev 4:10; 5:13,14)
Literally the Greek reads not "at the Name" but "in the Name of Jesus"
In a manner of speaking the tongue confesses that to which the knee bows.
So that (2443) (hina) expresses purpose, specifically the purpose of His having been given the exalted Name "Lord". For that reason (for that purpose) "every knee will bow". Ultimately, whether by choice or by force, every creature, human and angelic, will submit to Jesus Christ as the divine and exalted Lord.
As MacDonald phrases it "Those who will not be reconciled in the day of His grace will be subjugated in the day of His judgment. (MacDonald, W., & Farstad, A. Believer's Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson)
Jesus Himself foretold of this event some 700 years prior in the book of Isaiah (from which Paul quotes in part) declaring "I have sworn by Myself, the word has gone forth from My mouth in righteousness and will not turn back, that to Me every knee will bow, every tongue will swear allegiance. They will say of Me, 'Only in the LORD are righteousness and strength.' Men will come to Him, and all who were angry at Him shall be put to shame. In the LORD all the offspring of Israel will be justified, and will glory." (Isaiah 45:23, 24, 25)
Paul alludes to this event in Romans writing…
Every (3956) (pas) means all without exception.
Even those who mockingly bowed on earth will be forced to bow their knees. Matthew describes those who mocked him writing…
The writer of Hebrews records…
John wrote that in heaven…
All creation will render such homage, whether animate or inanimate, whether in heaven, on earth, or under the earth. Those who do not willingly bow the knee to Him now will one day be compelled to do so. Those who will not be reconciled in the day of His grace will be subjugated in the day of His judgment.
Bow (2578) (kampto) means to bend, such as the knees, to which it is applied in the New Testament. Bowing the knee is an act of reverence, respect, and submission to the person in whose presence we drop to our knees.
As Edwards note "Again we see the vindication of servanthood. Christ was willing to make others more important than Himself and now God has made Christ eternally more important than anyone else."
It is interesting to note that when a ruling dignitary approaches his subjects, they all rise in respect. One day as a British king entered a room and everyone stood, he said,
Paul is not referring to a perfunctory genuflection whenever the Name of Jesus is mentioned, but a universal acknowledgment of the majesty and power of Jesus who carried His human name and nature to heaven.
John upon seeing the resurrected, glorified Christ wrote…
Those to whom the resurrected, glorified Christ appeared fell on their faces, not because Scripture commanded them to, not because they were told that was what they ought to do, but because that was the natural response to such a revelation of the majesty and glory that belong to the Son of God.
Pentecost applies this truth to all believers asking…
This universal homage to Jesus is described by Paul in Ephesians where he explains the power available to believers today is the same power…
As someone has well said…
OF THOSE WHO ARE IN HEAVEN AND ON EARTH AND UNDER THE EARTH: epouranion kai epigeion kai katachthonion: (Mt 12:40; Jn 5:28,29; Eph 4:9; Rev 20:13)
There are three groups described:
(1) In heaven (2032) (epouranios from epí = upon, in + ouranos = heaven) = all the good angels and redeemed believers of all ages.
(2) On earth (1919) (epígeios from epí = upon + ge = earth) = would include both unredeemed and redeemed, the latter group described by Paul who wrote…
(3) Under the earth = the fallen angels and unredeemed dead who are awaiting final judgment and eternal punishment.
Under the earth" (2709) (katachthonios from kata = down + chthon = ground from a root word signifying that which is deep) describes the subterranean place for departed souls. It was a common in secular Greek describing the underworld where divine beings were thought to be localized.
Wuest adds that "All creation will render such homage, whether animate or inanimate, whether in heaven, on earth, or under the earth. (Philippians Commentary - Verse by Verse Comments Online)
Indeed First Chronicles records this amazing truth…
Pentecost writes that…
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TURNING THE TABLES - GOD has a way of turning the tables on evil. The French philosopher Voltaire predicted that Christianity would be swept from existence within one hundred years. Yet just fifty years after he died in 1779, the German Bible Society had occupied Voltaire's house and was using his printing press to produce stacks of Bibles.
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It's All For Him - All things were created through Him and for Him. —Colossians 1:16 (note) It's a little phrase of just two words at the end of Colossians 1:16—"for Him." Yet that little phrase gives God's own interpretation of history. In those two words He affirms that Jesus is the final and complete explanation of everything.
|Philippians 2:11 and that every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. (NASB: Lockman)|
|Greek: tkai pasa glossa exomologesetai (3SAMS) hoti kurios Iesous Christos eis doxan theou patros
Amplified: And every tongue [frankly and openly] confess and acknowledge that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father (Amplified Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father. (Westminster Press)
KJV: And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
Lightfoot: and every tongue with praise and thanksgiving shall declare that Jesus Christ is Lord, and in and for him shall glorify God the Father
Phillips: And that is why, in the end, "every tongue shall confess" that Jesus Christ" is the Lord, to the glory of God the Father (Phillips: Touchstone)
Wuest: and in order that every tongue should plainly and openly declare that Jesus Christ is LORD, resulting in the glory of God the Father (Eerdmans)
Young's Literal: and every tongue may confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
AND THAT EVERY TONGUE SHOULD CONFESS: kai pasa glossa exomologesetai (3SAMS): (Ps 18:49; Mt 10:32; Jn 9:22; 12:42; Ro 10:9; 15:9; 1John 4:2,15; 2John 1:7; Rev 3:5)
Paul presents the second phase of Jesus' dominion over all creation. Not only will all men realize Christ's Lordship but they also will vocalize it. Even the tongues which have vilified and blasphemed the wonderful Name of Jesus will one day bless Him, by faith or force and this will result in further glory unto God the Father. Amen.
Every (3956) (pas) means all without exception!
Tongue (1100) (glossa) is literally the tongue but as used in this context represents a spoken language. Paul's point is clear. No matter what language a person speaks now, every language will declare Jesus’ lordship.
Confess (1843) (exomologeo is from ek = out, out from + homologeo in turn derived from lego “to speak” + homos “the same” and so literally meaning to speak same thing that another speaks” or to agree with someone else) means to acknowledge, admit openly, agree fully, recognize or to express agreement with. Exomologeo means also to publicly declare. The sense here is that of frank, open confession.
Some day, the entire universe (including Satan) will publicly declare and openly acknowledge Jesus as Lord, agreeing with God the Father regarding the testimony which He has given concerning His Son.
It is important to note that this passage does not teach that ultimately all the lost will be saved, as taught by many cults. There is no passage in Scripture that teaches future reconciliation for the lost.
Although the entire creation will one day confess Jesus as "Lord", only those who do so during their life will be saved by that confession, Paul writing that…
The writer of Hebrews explains that when Christ returns the Second time it will not be for salvation writing that…
THAT JESUS CHRIST IS LORD TO THE GLORY OF GOD THE FATHER: hoti kurio Iesous Christos eis doxan Theou patros: (Ps 110:1; Jer 23:6; Lk 2:11; Jn 13:13; 20:28; Acts 2:36; 10:36; Ro 10:9, 10, 11, 12; 14:9,11; 1Co 8:6; 12:3; 15:47) (Jn 5:23; 13:31,32; 14:13,23; 16:14,15; 17:1; 1Pet 1:21)
The Lordship of Christ is the core of Christianity and the ultimate purpose of all creation acknowledging Jesus Christ as Lord is that God the Father might be glorified.
Jesus (2424)(Iesous) is transliteration of the Greek Iesous, which in turn is the transliteration of the Hebrew name Jehoshua (Yehoshua) or Jeshua (Yeshua) which mean Jehovah is help or Jehovah is salvation. Stated another way the Greek Iesous corresponds to the OT Jehoshua (Yehoshua) which is contracted as Jeshua (Yeshua).
NET Note on Jesus - The Greek form of the name Iēsous, which was translated into Latin as Jesus, is the same as the Hebrew Yeshua (Joshua), which means “Yahweh saves” (Yahweh is typically rendered as “LORD” in the OT).
One of my favorite (older) choruses is Jesus, Name Above All Names - YouTube
Jesus, Name above all names,
Christ (5547)(Christos from chrio = to rub or anoint, consecrate to an office) means one who has been anointed, symbolizing appointment to a task. The majority of the NT uses refer to Jesus (exceptions = "false Christs" - Mt 24:24, Mk 13:22).
Christos is translated in the NAS 1995 edition as Christ (516x), Christ's (11x) and Messiah (4x - Mt 1:1, 16, 17,2:4). The NIV and ESV never translate Christos as Messiah, but always as Christ. The Holman Christian Standard Bible has an interesting approach and translates Christos as Messiah many times depending on the context (see explanatory note) The NLT paraphrase translates Christos as Messiah over 80 times. The NET translates Christos as Messiah in Jn 4:29, Acts 3:20, Eph 2:12.
Many interpreters over the ages have commented on a possible wordplay between the Greek words for good (chrestos) and Christ (Christos), which as you note differ by only a single Greek letter. Whether a wordplay is intended or not, every believer can personally attest to the truth that Christos is chrestos!
See also discussion of related word Messiah = messias
Lord (2962) (kurios) describes one who has absolute ownership and uncontrolled power and is the translation of a word found in the Greek translation of the Old Testament to translate Jehovah. Lord is the title of majesty, authority, honor, and sovereignty. At His Second Coming Jesus Christ will manifest sovereign authority over all creation.
Wiersbe ties this profound doctrinal teaching in Philippians 2:9-11 with the idea that Paul is trying to teach the saints at Philippi about the futility of disunity and discord writing…
A T Robertson discussing the name "Lord" writes that…
If you adore Christ as your Savior, you won't ignore Him as your Lord. (Our Savior And King) In his sermon on Pentecost Peter declared…
Thomas who at first doubted Jesus' resurrection, was compelled to confess Him as Lord when presented with the clear proof of His deity…
Thomas Constable writes that…
William MacDonald puts this section into the context of the letter noting that…