Revelation 1 Commentary


                          Apostle John on Isle of Patmos

REVELATION OF JESUS CHRIST
THE BIG PICTURE


REVELATION 10-22
EVENTS OF THE END TIMES

HISTORICAL SETTING OF REVELATION


Click charts to enlarge
Charts from Jensen's Survey of the NT - used by permission
Another Chart from Charles Swindoll

Revelation 1:1  The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave Him to show to His bond-servants, the things which must soon take place; and He sent and communicated it by His angel to His bond-servant John,

NET  Revelation 1:1 The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show his servants what must happen very soon. He made it clear by sending his angel to his servant John,

NLT  Revelation 1:1 This is a revelation from Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show his servants the events that must soon take place. He sent an angel to present this revelation to his servant John,

ESV  Revelation 1:1 The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things that must soon take place. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant John,

NIV  Revelation 1:1 The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show his servants what must soon take place. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant John,

GNT  Revelation 1:1 Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἣν ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ ὁ θεὸς δεῖξαι τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ ἃ δεῖ γενέσθαι ἐν τάχει, καὶ ἐσήμανεν ἀποστείλας διὰ τοῦ ἀγγέλου αὐτοῦ τῷ δούλῳ αὐτοῦ Ἰωάννῃ,

KJV  Revelation 1:1 The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John:

ASV  Revelation 1:1 The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show unto his servants, even the things which must shortly come to pass: and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John;

CSB  Revelation 1:1 The revelation of Jesus Christ that God gave Him to show His slaves what must quickly take place. He sent it and signified it through His angel to His slave John,

NKJ  Revelation 1:1 The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave Him to show His servants-- things which must shortly take place. And He sent and signified it by His angel to His servant John,

NRS  Revelation 1:1 The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show his servants what must soon take place; he made it known by sending his angel to his servant John,

YLT  Revelation 1:1 A revelation of Jesus Christ, that God gave to him, to shew to his servants what things it behoveth to come to pass quickly; and he did signify it, having sent through his messenger to his servant John,

  • Revelation: Da 2:28,29 Am 3:7 Ro 16:25 Ga 1:12 Eph 3:3 
  • which God: Joh 3:32 8:26 12:49 
  • to show: Rev 22:6 Ps 25:14 Joh 15:15 
  • must: Rev 1:3,19 4:1 22:10, 2Pe 3:8 
  • and he: Rev 22:6,16 Da 8:16 9:21,23 
  • John: Rev 1:4,9 21:2  
  • Interpretative Views of Revelation

GOD TAKES THE LID OFF THE
FINAL CHAPTER OF PLANET EARTH

The Revelation of Jesus Christ - Note first that the title is not "The Revelations (plural)," nor is the title "The Revelation of John." The title of the last book of the Bible, the Revelation of Jesus Christ. The title speaks volumes telling this is the revelation, uncovering (exposing to view by removing the covering), unveiling or disclosure of Jesus Christ, especially of the truths about Him and His victory over all God's enemies. The book of Revelation contains truths that have been concealed, but have now been revealed and made fully known. As an aside, note that although the Revelation nowhere directly quotes the Old Testament, 278 of its 404 verses allude to Old Testament prophetic truths. Thus the Revelation in fact amplifies what was only initially suggested in the Old Testament. Isn't it amazing that a book that God says is an unveiling is one of the books most cloaked in confusion and mystery as the result of the manifold interpretations! Notice the irony in the fact that to many the revelation is not a revealing but a mystery.

Scholars debate whether the is from Jesus Christ or is about Jesus Christ (objective genitive), but taking the entire book in context, it is clear this is revelation from Jesus and about Jesus. Jesus passes on the truth from His Father that He "wins" the victory and He reclaims and restores the planet earth. 

Notice that the Greek word for Revelation, apokalupsis, is the antithesis of apocrypha which is from the Greek word apokrupto meaning hide away and so in Latin "aprocrypha scripta" means "hidden writings." The Revelation of Jesus Christ, far from being "hidden words" are in fact "revealed words!" 

Revelation (602)(apokalupsis from apó = from + kalúpto = cover, conceal, English = apocalypse) literally means cover from and so the idea is to remove that which conceals something and exposing to open view that which was heretofore not visible, known or disclosed. It means to make manifest or reveal a thing previously secret or unknown. It describes removing of a veil (an unveiling) or covering thus exposing to open view what was concealed. In all its uses, revelation refers to something or someone, once hidden, becoming visible and now made fully known. 

It is 2020 as I write and the global pandemic with COVID19 which feels like an apocalypse and makes one think about some of the horrible plagues coming in the Revelation. As bad as it is now with Coronavirus, this is nothing compared to the the Seal, Trumpet and Bowl Judgments.

Lehman Strauss on apokalupsisThe word is used once only in the Gospel records (Luke 2:32+) where it is translated "lighten," referring to one of the purposes of the Incarnation, namely, to draw away the veil of darkness covering the Gentiles as prophesied in Isaiah 25:7. The same word appears frequently in the Epistles and is translated "manifestation" (Romans 8:19), "coming" (1 Corinthians 1:7), "revealed" (2 Thessalonians 1:7), "appearing" (1 Peter 1:7), "revelation" (1 Peter 1:13). This book is therefore all about the manifestation, the coming, the appearing of Jesus Christ. He shall come in like manner as He was seen going up into Heaven (Luke 24:50-52 cf. Acts 1:10-11). At His next "appearing" on the earth, "every eye shall see Him" (Revelation 1:7). It will be His glorious apocalypse. (Ibid) 

This book is not intended to be a veiled document full of mysterious symbols,
but an unveiling and clarification of things which have heretofore not been revealed by God.
-- Tony Garland

It is sad to read comments by respected evangelical authors like Kistemaker who says that "The Book of Revelation appears not to accomplish what its title promises, confusing its readers by all the images, figures, and numbers they encounter. (NT Commentary) I strongly disagree with this well known scholar for if Kistemaker is correct, the title of the book is not accurate.  God is not a God of confusion but of order. Even from a logical standpoint it would make little sense that in His final Word to man, God would not bring "order" out of the chaos of this sinful world. Indeed by definition the inspired word (not a title given by men) clearly states that this book is an unveiling of Jesus Christ. God accomplishes what He intends in the Revelation for as His servant Joshua (Joshua 23:14) said centuries earlier "not one word of all the good words which the LORD your God spoke concerning you has failed; all have been fulfilled for you, not one of them has failed" and this statement is true in regard to "the Revelation of Jesus Christ".

John MacArthur also strongly refutes Kistemaker's conclusion that "the Revelation" does not accomplish what its writer promises writing that "The late British prime minister Winston Churchill once described the former Soviet Union as “a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma.”many Christians view the book of Revelation in much the same way. Bewildered by its mystifying symbolism and striking imagery, many believers (including some pastors, who never preach through Revelation) avoid serious study of the book. Even John Calvin, the greatest commentator of the Reformation, who wrote commentaries on the other books, did not attempt to write a commentary on Revelation." MacArthur goes on to explain that "Far from being the mysterious, incomprehensible book many imagine it to be, Revelation’s purpose is to reveal truth, not to obscure it. That fact is evident in its title, “The Revelation of Jesus Christ” (Rev 1:1), primarily in His second coming glory. Apokalupsis (“Revelation”) could be translated “an uncovering,” “an unveiling,” or “a disclosure.”… In each case, apokalupsis describes something (or someone) that was formerly hidden, but now becomes visible. Revelation unveils truths about Jesus Christ, and makes clear features of prophetic truth only hinted at in the Old Testament and other New Testament books. This clarity is often obscured by a rejection of the principles of literal interpretation in favor of an allegorical or spiritualizing hermeneutical method (Ed note: click here for comments on Revelation commentaries). Such approaches attempt to place Revelation’s account in the past and present rather than the future. But once the plain meaning of the text is denied, an interpreter is left to his own imagination, and the truths of this book are lost in a maze of human inventions void of authenticity."… Many people are confused by the book of Revelation, viewing it as a mysterious, bizarre, indecipherable mystery. But nothing could be further from the truth. Far from hiding the truth, the book of Revelation reveals it. This is the last chapter in God’s story of redemption. It tells how it all ends. As the account of the Creation in the beginning was not vague or obscure, but clear, so God has given a detailed and lucid record of the ending. It is unthinkable to believe that God would speak with precision and clarity from Genesis to Jude, and then when it comes to the end abandon all precision and clarity. Yet, many theologians today think Revelation is not the precise record of the end in spite of what it says. They also are convinced that its mysteries are so vague that the end is left in confusion. As we shall see in this commentary, this is a serious error that strips the saga of redemption of its climax as given by God." (MacArthur, J. Revelation 1-11. Chicago: Moody Press or - this work is also highly recommended for it's lucid, literal, balanced interpretation) 

Tony Garland adds that a major source of difficulty in understanding the Revelation "is the variety of interpretations resulting from those who undertake to study the book and explain it to others. “It is doubtless true that no other book, whether in sacred or profane literature, has received in whole or in part so many different interpretations.” (Beckwith) Many of these interpretations are more enigmatic than the book itself. “The literary genius G.K. Chesterson once quipped, ‘Though St. John the Evangelist saw many strange monsters in his vision, he saw no creatures so wild as one of his own commentators.’ ” (Randall Price) This variety of interpretive results has been damaging to the cause of Christ and was certainly not His intention when He first gave it to His servant John.

THE PURPOSE OF
THE BOOK "TO SHOW"

Which God gave Him to show to His bond-servants - The verb show means God desires to make this truth clear by bringing it to light. His ultimate recipient (see pattern below) are those men and women who are His bond-servants. So one reason some do not understand the Revelation is because they are not His bond-servants. They are not born again. They lack the indwelling Spirit of Truth to illuminate the Word of Truth. As Garland says "who hear His voice (John 10:3, 16, 27; Acts 22:14; Heb. 3:7, 15; Heb 4:7) and respond in faith. Those who lack faith in the Son are unable to comprehend what is shown here (the he quotes MacArthur). "This is why unbelievers find the book of Revelation incomprehensible; it was not intended for them. It was given by the Father to the Son to show to those who willingly serve Him. Those who refuse to acknowledge Jesus Christ as Lord cannot expect to comprehend this book. “A natural man,” explains Paul, “does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually appraised” (1Cor. 2:14+).

In John's Gospel Jesus Himself gives us a clear clue about how we can know and understand the Revelation...

If anyone's will is to do God's will, he will know whether the teaching is from God or whether I am speaking on my own authority. (Joh 7:17ESV) 

Henry Morris -  Thus the first prerequisite to ascertaining God's leading in some matter, or the truth about some doctrinal question, is a genuine willingness to believe the truth and to follow God's will before they are made known, even if the answer goes against one's preference.

THOUGHT - If you are not willing to obey the truth you know, you are not likely to know the truth of the Revelation.

Lehman Strauss says "If the Revelation is a closed book to the majority of God's children, it is quite possible that for this very reason it is so. Eight times in the book we find the admonition, "He that hath an ear, let him hear" (Rev 2:7, 11, 17, 29; 3:6, 13, 22; 13:9). It takes the circumcised ear of a willing bondslave of Jesus Christ to hear with the understanding the truths set forth in this book (see Exodus 21:1-6 cf. Jeremiah 5:21; 6:10). It was never God's intention to hold back the meaning of the Revelation, but rather to show, to exhibit, to make known its meaning. All who willingly submit to Christ will have little difficulty with this book. (The Book of the Revelation: Outlined Studies)

The pattern
of the Revelation

  1. Begins with God
  2. Gave it to Jesus Christ
  3. Jesus communicated to His angel
  4. Jesus' angel communicated it to His bond-servant John
  5. John wrote it down to who God's bond-servants. 

Show (1166)(deiknuo) means to show and has the sense of (1) to draw attention to, to point out, to show, to make known, to exhibit something (by visual, auditory, gestural, or linguistic means) so that it can be apprehended by the senses, to cause to see (Mt 4:8, Lk 4:5, Mt 8:4) or (2) to show so as to prove something is true or to make clear by evidence or reasoning. Show in the sense of demonstrate or prove as in Jas 3:13). To exhibit or present to the view of others. To explain the meaning or significance of something by demonstration. Note the concentration of deiknuo in the most "graphic" NT book, the Revelation, or the revealing =  Rev. 1:1; Rev. 4:1; Rev. 17:1; Rev. 21:9; Rev. 21:10; Rev. 22:1; Rev. 22:6; Rev. 22:8. How interesting that in the "revealing" we repeatedly encounter the verb to show, and specifically to show what God's plan is for the consummation of this age. Note that it is the bondservants who will be shown these heretofore previously unrevealed truths! Little wonder that many do not understand (and/or are frightened by the book of the Revelation, for they are not His bondservants, but in fact are "earth dwellers"!). Note especially that 5 of the 33 "showings" are related to heaven! God wants us to see this preview of coming attractions, that we might be motivated to live accordingly. Mark it down that what you are looking for will determine how you live, for this world or the next

Bondservant (Slave, servant) (1401)(doulos from deo = to bind) an individual bound to another in servitude and conveys the idea of the slave's close, binding ties with his master, belonging to him, obligated to and desiring to do his will and in a permanent relation of servitude. In sum, the will of the doulos is consumed in the will of the master. A bondservant is one who surrendered wholly to another’s will and thus devoted to another to the disregard of his own interest. Believers in Jesus Christ are not their own but had been bought with the price of the blood of Christ and are now the property of Christ, His exclusive slaves. No man can serve two masters (Mt 6:24+). Believers once were slaves of Sin (viewed an a entity, a "master" or "king") by birth in Adam's likeness (Ro 5:12), but now in covenant with Christ they have become slaves of Christ by the new birth. Bond-servants have no will of their own, no business of their own, no time of their own and to dedicated to their Master, Christ; dependent upon His Spirit to obey His will. 

He had no rights

No right to a soft bed, and a well-laid table.

No right to a home of His own, a place where His own pleasure might be sought.

No right to choose pleasant, congenial companions, those who could understand Him and sympathize with Him.

No right to shrink away from filth and sin, to pull His garments closer around Him and turn aside to walk in cleaner paths.

No right to be understood and appreciated; no, not by those upon whom He had poured out a double portion of His love.

No right even never to be forsaken by His Father, the One who meant more than all to Him.

His only right was silently to endure shame, spitting, blows; to take His place as a sinner at the dock; to bear my sins in anguish on the cross.

He had no rights. And I?

A right to the “comforts” of life? No, but a right to the love of God for my pillow.

A right to physical safety? No, but a right to the security of being in His will.

A right to love and sympathy from those around me? No, but a right to the friendship of the One who understands me better than I do myself.

A right to be a leader among men? No, but the right to be led by the One to whom I have given my all, led as is a little child, with its hand in the hand of its father.

A right to a home, and dear ones? No, not necessarily, but a right to dwell in the heart of God.

A right to myself? No, but oh, I have a right to Christ.

All that He takes I will give.
ll that He gives I will take.
He, my only right!
He, the one right before which all other rights fade into nothingness.
I have full right to Him.
Oh, may He have full right to me!
(Mabel Williamson)

REVELATION: THE 
"DIVINE TACHOMETER"

A tachometer is an instrument for measuring speed,  revolutions per minute (RPM) displayed on a dial. Tachometer comes from Greek táchos for "speed") and métron for "measure". In short a tachometer measures velocity, how fast a car is going. When the motor is off the tachometer is not moving. But once the motor is turned on the tachometer moves. By the same token, when the events of Revelation begin to take place, they will move speedily. The divine tachometer will be spinning fast. When the first Seal on the scroll is broken by Jesus, the events in the Revelation of Jesus Christ begin to move quickly and irrevocably toward the consummation of this present age in which we now live. 

The things which must soon take place - What are the things? The prophetic passages, especially Revelation 6-19 and then Revel  22. Notice the verb must which means the events in Revelation are not maybe but must, not optional but integral to the consummation of God's redemptive plan for the ages. God said that certain things must take place, so if God said it that settles it, whether we understand these things or not! "The things which transpire here are not without Scriptural foundation and this is the very reason they must take place." (Garland)

Must (necessary, ought) (1163)(dei from deo = to bind or tie objects together, put in prison and also root of doulos, bond-servant) refers to what is not optional but needful (binding) out of intrinsic necessity or inevitability. Dei refers to inward constraint which is why it is often translated "must". Dei describes that which is under the necessity of happening or which must necessarily take place, and as stated above, conveys a sense of inevitability. To express the sense of necessity dei is translated "one ought", "one should", "one has to" or "one must". In English dictionaries must means to be obliged and expresses both physical and moral necessity or insistence. Must speaks of something that should not be overlooked or missed. In the Scriptures prophecies are often described as that which must happen indicating they are guaranteed to transpire. For example Jesus declares "You will be hearing of wars and rumors of wars. See that you are not frightened, for those things must take place, but that is not yet the end." (Mt 24:6+, cf Mt 16:21, Acts 1:16 - "had to be fulfilled"; 2 Cor 5:10+; 2 Pe 3:11+).

Soon (quickly)(5034)(tachos) with speed, haste, swiftness; adverbially as in Lk 18:8+ ("en tachei") means without delay, at once, speedily. Tachos is used in the first and last chapter of the Revelation of Jesus Christ, here in the first verse of the first chapter (Rev 1:1+) and then in the last chapter John recording "And he said to me, “These words are faithful and true”; and the Lord, the God of the spirits of the prophets, sent His angel to show to His bond-servants the things which must soon take place." (Rev 22:6+) The idea of tachos is better understood as meaning swiftly. In other words, when God acts it will be swift. So once God begins to act (in the presence context of 7 seals, 7 trumpets, 7 bowls) He will move fast and accomplish His purposes in a relatively short time. 

Lehman Strauss says "When the things in this book come to pass, they will "speedily happen." God has borne along with men patiently, and while some ridicule the prophecies of this book, they fail to see that God is longsuffering (2 Peter 3:9+). But the end will come, and when it does it will be marked by suddenness and swiftness. The events will come to pass speedily. Thus the purpose of the Revelation is to show beforehand those things that will speedily happen."

And He sent and communicated it by His angel to His bond-servant John - He refers to Jesus Who provides "an explanation for something that is enigmatic." (BDAG) That is a good description of the Revelation which explains something that is enigmatic (perplexing, ambiguous, inexpliable) to the unbelieving world and sadly still enigmatic to many believers because of the plethora of proposed interpretations! Remember that Scripture has only one literal meaning, although it can have multiple interpretations. 

Communicated (made clear)(4591)(semaino from semma = a mark or sign) has a basic meaning of intentionally producing an impression and thus signaling or signifying something, to make known, to report, to communicate (Acts 25:27 = "indicate the charges", Rev 1:1 = served to communicate and give a prophecy). John uses semaino three times in describing how Jesus would die (Jn 12:33, 18:32) and how Peter would die (John 21:19). In the context of making known before it means to prophetically foretell (Jn 12:33 - Jesus predicting His death). In the Lxx of Nu 10:9 the idea is to give a public sign or signal. In the Lxx uses in Ezekiel the idea was to sound an alarm, blow a trumpet (Ezek 33:3, 33:6, cf Jer 4:5). 

THOUGHT - Now think about the words used even in opening verse - revelation, show, communicated. What do these say about the God's heart regarding this last book of the Bible? Do they not reiterate that the desire of God is that we know the truths in this great book. God knows that if we know these truths, they will impact the way we live, seeking to redeem the short time left (Eph 5:16+), diligently striving to "to be blameless and innocent, children of God above reproach in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation, among whom you appear as lights in the world," (Php 2:15+) so that we might obey Jesus' command to "Let your light shine before men in such a way that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father Who is in heaven." (Mt 5:16+

Lehman Strauss on John There is no question that the John mentioned in the Revelation is the son of Zebedee and Salome and the brother of James (Mark 1:19-20; 15:40). His occupation was that of a fisherman (Matthew 4:21). He heard John the Baptist preach and became a follower of Jesus Christ (John 1:35, 40). He was one of the three whom Jesus took with Him on several special occasions (Matthew 17:1; 26:37; Mark 5:37). John also was one of the two sent by Christ to prepare the Passover (Luke 22:8). He is referred to as "that disciple whom Jesus loved" (John 13:23; 20:2; 21:7, 20), and is mentioned three times in the Acts (Acts 3:1; 4:13; 8:14). He wrote five books of the New Testament, and only he uses Christ's title of "the Word" (Logos). (See John 1:1, 14; 1 John 1:1; 5:7; Revelation 19:13). (The Book of the Revelation: Outlined Studies)

Who wrote the book of the Revelation? Peter writes that "no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God." (2 Pet 1:21+) Revelation was written by a man moved by the Spirit, a man who identifies himself as John....

I, John, your brother and fellow partaker in the tribulation and kingdom and perseverance which are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus. (Revelation 1:9)

I, John, am the one who heard and saw these things. And when I heard and saw, I fell down to worship at the feet of the angel who showed me these things. (Revelation 22:8)

Revelation 1:2  who testified to the word of God and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, even to all that he saw.

NET  Revelation 1:2 who then testified to everything that he saw concerning the word of God and the testimony about Jesus Christ.

NLT  Revelation 1:2 who faithfully reported everything he saw. This is his report of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ.

ESV  Revelation 1:2 who bore witness to the word of God and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, even to all that he saw.

NIV  Revelation 1:2 who testifies to everything he saw--that is, the word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ.

GNT  Revelation 1:2 ὃς ἐμαρτύρησεν τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὴν μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ὅσα εἶδεν.

KJV  Revelation 1:2 Who bare record of the word of God, and of the testimony of Jesus Christ, and of all things that he saw.

ASV  Revelation 1:2 who bare witness of the word of God, and of the testimony of Jesus Christ, even of all things that he saw.

CSB  Revelation 1:2 who testified to God's word and to the testimony about Jesus Christ, in all he saw.

NKJ  Revelation 1:2 who bore witness to the word of God, and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, to all things that he saw.

NRS  Revelation 1:2 who testified to the word of God and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, even to all that he saw.

YLT  Revelation 1:2 who did testify the word of God, and the testimony of Jesus Christ, as many things also as he did see.

  • bare: Rev 1:9 6:9 12:11,17 Joh 1:32 12:17 19:35 21:24 1Co 1:6 2:1 1Jn 5:7-11 3Jn 1:12 
  • and of all: Rev 1:19 Joh 3:11 Ac 4:20 22:15 26:16 1Jn 1:1 4:14 

who testified to the word of God and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, even to all that he saw.

Revelation 1:3  Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of the prophecy, and heed the things which are written in it; for the time is near.

NET  Revelation 1:3 Blessed is the one who reads the words of this prophecy aloud, and blessed are those who hear and obey the things written in it, because the time is near!

NLT  Revelation 1:3 God blesses the one who reads the words of this prophecy to the church, and he blesses all who listen to its message and obey what it says, for the time is near.

ESV  Revelation 1:3 Blessed is the one who reads aloud the words of this prophecy, and blessed are those who hear, and who keep what is written in it, for the time is near.

NIV  Revelation 1:3 Blessed is the one who reads the words of this prophecy, and blessed are those who hear it and take to heart what is written in it, because the time is near.

GNT  Revelation 1:3 μακάριος ὁ ἀναγινώσκων καὶ οἱ ἀκούοντες τοὺς λόγους τῆς προφητείας καὶ τηροῦντες τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ γεγραμμένα, ὁ γὰρ καιρὸς ἐγγύς.

KJV  Revelation 1:3 Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein: for the time is at hand.

ASV  Revelation 1:3 Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of the prophecy, and keep the things that are written therein: for the time is at hand.

CSB  Revelation 1:3 The one who reads this is blessed, and those who hear the words of this prophecy and keep what is written in it are blessed, because the time is near!

NKJ  Revelation 1:3 Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written in it; for the time is near.

NRS  Revelation 1:3 Blessed is the one who reads aloud the words of the prophecy, and blessed are those who hear and who keep what is written in it; for the time is near.

YLT  Revelation 1:3 Happy is he who is reading, and those hearing, the words of the prophecy, and keeping the things written in it -- for the time is nigh!

  • Blessed: Rev 22:7 Pr 8:34 Da 12:12,13 Lu 11:28 
  • for: Rev 22:6,10,12,20 Ro 13:11 Jas 5:8,9 1Pe 4:7 2Pe 3:8 

Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of the prophecy, and heed the things which are written in it; for the time is near.

Strauss No book in the Bible has an introduction and a conclusion quite like this one. It commences with a promised blessing (Rev 1:3) and closes with a promised blessing (Rev 22:7). Altogether there are seven beatitudes, the word "blessed" appearing seven times. It is the same word used by our Lord in the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:1-11). The beatitudes of the Revelation provide seven texts for an interesting study:

  • The Blessed Challenge (1:3)
  • The Blessed Comfort (14:13)
  • The Blessed Cautiousness (16:15)
  • The Blessed Calling (19:9)
  • The Blessed Conquest (20:6)
  • The Blessed Cherishing (22:7)
  • The Blessed Conformity (22:14)

Revelation 1:4  John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from Him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven Spirits who are before His throne,

NET  Revelation 1:4 From John, to the seven churches that are in the province of Asia: Grace and peace to you from "he who is," and who was, and who is still to come, and from the seven spirits who are before his throne,

NLT  Revelation 1:4 This letter is from John to the seven churches in the province of Asia. Grace and peace to you from the one who is, who always was, and who is still to come; from the sevenfold Spirit before his throne;

ESV  Revelation 1:4 John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven spirits who are before his throne,

NIV  Revelation 1:4 John, To the seven churches in the province of Asia: Grace and peace to you from him who is, and who was, and who is to come, and from the seven spirits before his throne,

GNT  Revelation 1:4 Ἰωάννης ταῖς ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαις ταῖς ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ· χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἑπτὰ πνευμάτων ἃ ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου αὐτοῦ

KJV  Revelation 1:4 John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace be unto you, and peace, from him which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from the seven Spirits which are before his throne;

ASV  Revelation 1:4 John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from him who is and who was and who is to come; and from the seven Spirits that are before his throne;

CSB  Revelation 1:4 John: To the seven churches in Asia. Grace and peace to you from the One who is, who was, and who is coming; from the seven spirits before His throne;

NKJ  Revelation 1:4 John, to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace to you and peace from Him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven Spirits who are before His throne,

NRS  Revelation 1:4 John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven spirits who are before his throne,

YLT  Revelation 1:4 John to the seven assemblies that are in Asia: Grace to you, and peace, from Him who is, and who was, and who is coming, and from the Seven Spirits that are before His throne,

  • John: Rev 1:1 
  • to the: Rev 1:11,20 2:1,8,12,18 3:1,7,14 Ac 19:10 1Pe 1:1 
  • Grace: Ro 1:7 1Co 1:3 2Co 1:2 1Pe 1:2 
  • him: Rev 1:8 Ex 3:14 Ps 90:2 102:25-27 Isa 41:4 57:15 Mic 5:2  Joh 1:1 Heb 1:10-13 13:8 Jas 1:17 
  • from the: Rev 3:1 4:5 5:6 Zec 3:9 4:10 6:5 1Co 12:4-13 

John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from Him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven Spirits who are before His throne,

Revelation 1:5  and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To Him who loves us and released us from our sins by His blood--

NET  Revelation 1:5 and from Jesus Christ– the faithful witness, the firstborn from among the dead, the ruler over the kings of the earth. To the one who loves us and has set us free from our sins at the cost of his own blood

NLT  Revelation 1:5 and from Jesus Christ. He is the faithful witness to these things, the first to rise from the dead, and the ruler of all the kings of the world.All glory to him who loves us and has freed us from our sins by shedding his blood for us.

ESV  Revelation 1:5 and from Jesus Christ the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of kings on earth. To him who loves us and has freed us from our sins by his blood

NIV  Revelation 1:5 and from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us and has freed us from our sins by his blood,

GNT  Revelation 1:5 καὶ ἀπὸ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὁ μάρτυς, ὁ πιστός, ὁ πρωτότοκος τῶν νεκρῶν καὶ ὁ ἄρχων τῶν βασιλέων τῆς γῆς. Τῷ ἀγαπῶντι ἡμᾶς καὶ λύσαντι ἡμᾶς ἐκ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ,

KJV  Revelation 1:5 And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,

ASV  Revelation 1:5 and from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loveth us, and loosed us from our sins by his blood;

CSB  Revelation 1:5 and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To Him who loves us and has set us free from our sins by His blood,

NKJ  Revelation 1:5 and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler over the kings of the earth. To Him who loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood,

NRS  Revelation 1:5 and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us and freed us from our sins by his blood,

YLT  Revelation 1:5 and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the first-born out of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth; to him who did love us, and did bathe us from our sins in his blood,

  • who is: Rev 3:14 Ps 89:36,37 Isa 55:4 Joh 3:11,32 8:14-16 18:37 1Ti 6:13 1Jn 5:7-10 
  • and the first: Ac 26:23 1Co 15:20-23 Col 1:18 
  • and the prince: Rev 11:15 17:14 19:16 Ps 72:11 89:27 Pr 8:15,16 Da 2:2 7:14 Mt 28:18 Eph 1:20-22 1Ti 6:15 
  • him: De 7:8 23:5 Joh 13:1,34 15:9 Ro 8:37 Ga 2:20 Eph 2:4 5:2,25-27 1Jn 4:10 
  • washed: Rev 7:14 Zec 13:1  Joh 13:8-10 Ac 20:28 1Co 6:11 Heb 9:14 1Pe 1:19 1Jn 1:7 

and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To Him who loves us and released us from our sins by His blood

Revelation 1:6  and He has made us to be a kingdom, priests to His God and Father--to Him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen.

NET  Revelation 1:6 and has appointed us as a kingdom, as priests serving his God and Father– to him be the glory and the power for ever and ever! Amen.

NLT  Revelation 1:6 He has made us a Kingdom of priests for God his Father. All glory and power to him forever and ever! Amen.

ESV  Revelation 1:6 and made us a kingdom, priests to his God and Father, to him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.

NIV  Revelation 1:6 and has made us to be a kingdom and priests to serve his God and Father--to him be glory and power for ever and ever! Amen.

GNT  Revelation 1:6 καὶ ἐποίησεν ἡμᾶς βασιλείαν, ἱερεῖς τῷ θεῷ καὶ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ, αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας [τῶν αἰώνων]· ἀμήν.

KJV  Revelation 1:6 And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

ASV  Revelation 1:6 and he made us to be a kingdom, to be priests unto his God and Father; to him be the glory and the dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

CSB  Revelation 1:6 and made us a kingdom, priests to His God and Father-- the glory and dominion are His forever and ever. Amen.

NKJ  Revelation 1:6 and has made us kings and priests to His God and Father, to Him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.

NRS  Revelation 1:6 and made us to be a kingdom, priests serving his God and Father, to him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.

YLT  Revelation 1:6 and did make us kings and priests to his God and Father, to him is the glory and the power to the ages of the ages! Amen.

  • made: Rev 5:10 20:6 Ex 19:6 Isa 61:6 Ro 12:1 1Pe 2:5-9 
  • to him: Rev 4:11 5:12-14 Ps 72:18,19 Da 4:34 Mt 6:13  Joh 5:23 Php 2:11 1Ti 6:16 Heb 13:21 1Pe 4:11 5:11 2Pe 3:18 Jude 1:25 

and He has made us to be a kingdom, priests to His God and Father--to Him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen.

Revelation 1:7  BEHOLD, HE IS COMING WITH THE CLOUDS, and every eye will see Him, even those who pierced Him; and all the tribes of the earth will mourn over Him. So it is to be. Amen.

NET  Revelation 1:7 (Look! He is returning with the clouds, and every eye will see him, even those who pierced him, and all the tribes on the earth will mourn because of him. This will certainly come to pass! Amen.)

NLT  Revelation 1:7 Look! He comes with the clouds of heaven. And everyone will see him-- even those who pierced him. And all the nations of the world will mourn for him. Yes! Amen!

ESV  Revelation 1:7 Behold, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, even those who pierced him, and all tribes of the earth will wail on account of him. Even so. Amen.

NIV  Revelation 1:7 Look, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, even those who pierced him; and all the peoples of the earth will mourn because of him. So shall it be! Amen.

GNT  Revelation 1:7 Ἰδοὺ ἔρχεται μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν, καὶ ὄψεται αὐτὸν πᾶς ὀφθαλμὸς καὶ οἵτινες αὐτὸν ἐξεκέντησαν, καὶ κόψονται ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς. ναί, ἀμήν.

KJV  Revelation 1:7 Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen.

ASV  Revelation 1:7 Behold, he cometh with the clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they that pierced him; and all the tribes of the earth shall mourn over him. Even so, Amen.

CSB  Revelation 1:7 Look! He is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see Him, including those who pierced Him. And all the families of the earth will mourn over Him. This is certain. Amen.

NKJ  Revelation 1:7 Behold, He is coming with clouds, and every eye will see Him, even they who pierced Him. And all the tribes of the earth will mourn because of Him. Even so, Amen.

NRS  Revelation 1:7 Look! He is coming with the clouds; every eye will see him, even those who pierced him; and on his account all the tribes of the earth will wail. So it is to be. Amen.

YLT  Revelation 1:7 Lo, he doth come with the clouds, and see him shall every eye, even those who did pierce him, and wail because of him shall all the tribes of the land. Yes! Amen!

  • he cometh: Rev 14:14-16 Ps 97:2 Isa 19:1 Da 7:13 Na 1:3 Mt 24:30 26:64 Mk 13:26 14:62 Lu 21:27 Ac 1:9-11 1Th 4:17 
  • and every: Rev 22:4 Nu 24:17 Job 19:26,27 33:26 1Th 1:10 1Jn 3:2 Jude 1:14 
  • and they: Ps 22:16 Zec 12:10 Joh 19:34,37 Heb 6:6 10:29 
  • and all: Rev 6:15-17 18:15-19 Mt 24:30 Lu 23:28-30 
  • Even So: Rev 18:20 19:1-3 22:20 Jud 5:31 Ps 68:1 

BEHOLD, HE IS COMING WITH THE CLOUDS, and every eye will see Him, even those who pierced Him; and all the tribes of the earth will mourn over Him. So it is to be. Amen.

Revelation 1:8  "I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, "who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty."

NET  Revelation 1:8 "I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God– the one who is, and who was, and who is still to come– the All-Powerful!

NLT  Revelation 1:8 "I am the Alpha and the Omega-- the beginning and the end," says the Lord God. "I am the one who is, who always was, and who is still to come-- the Almighty One."

ESV  Revelation 1:8 "I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, "who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty."

NIV  Revelation 1:8 "I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, "who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty."

GNT  Revelation 1:8 Ἐγώ εἰμι τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ, λέγει κύριος ὁ θεός, ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, ὁ παντοκράτωρ.

KJV  Revelation 1:8 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.

ASV  Revelation 1:8 I am the Alpha and the Omega, saith the Lord God, who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.

CSB  Revelation 1:8 "I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, "the One who is, who was, and who is coming, the Almighty."

NKJ  Revelation 1:8 "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End," says the Lord, "who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty."

NRS  Revelation 1:8 "I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God, who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.

YLT  Revelation 1:8 'I am the Alpha and the Omega, beginning and end, saith the Lord, who is, and who was, and who is coming -- the Almighty.'

  • Alpha: Rev 1:11,17 Rev 2:8 Rev 21:6 Rev 22:13 Isa 41:4 Isa 43:10 Isa 44:6 Isa 48:12 
  • which is: Rev 1:4 
  • the Almighty: Rev 4:8 11:17 16:14 19:15 21:22 Ge 17:1 28:3 35:11 43:14 48:3 Ge 49:25 Ex 6:3 Nu 24:4 Isa 9:6 2Co 6:18 

JESUS CHRIST IS 
EVERYTHING FROM "A TO Z"

Related Passages:

Revelation 21:6  Then He said to me, “It is done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give to the one who thirsts from the spring of the water of life without cost.

Revelation 22:13   “I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.” 

I am the Alpha and the Omega," says the Lord God

Elmer Towns on the “Alpha and Omega.” - This is the Greek expression of a Hebrew idiom that implies completeness. The Jews took the first and last letters of their alphabet to emphasize and express the entirety of a thing. Alpha is the first letter of the Greek alphabet; omega is the last. A similar English expression is “everything from A to Z.” In a sense, this title includes all of the more than 700 names and titles of Jesus (see Appendix where the names and titles of Jesus are listed alphabetically). (The Names of Jesus

Who is and Who was and Who is to come - NET has "the One Who is, and Who was, and Who is still to come." This description speaks of present, past and future. In effect it covers all of time. Jesus is saying He always was and will always be. He is claiming eternality. It is surprising that the designation "Eternal God" occurs only twice in the Bible - Deut 33:27 and Romans 16:26+

Towns agrees that "There could be no more specific statement of the deity and eternality of Christ. This title of Christ parallels Moses' great affirmation of faith, “From everlasting to everlasting, thou art God” (Psalm 90:2+). Jesus is eternally contemporary, the “I am” of all times. The writer of the Hebrews speaks of “Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and today, and for ever” (Hebrews 13:8+)".(The Names of Jesus

Moses wrote:

Before the mountains were born Or You gave birth to the earth and the world, Even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God. (Ps 90:2)

Spurgeon - God was, when nothing else was. He was God when the earth was not a world but a chaos, when mountains were not upheaved, and the generation of the heavens and the earth had not commenced. In this Eternal One there is a safe abode for the successive generations of men. If God himself were of yesterday, he would not be a suitable refuge for mortal men; if he could change and cease to be God he would be but an uncertain dwelling place for his people. The eternal existence of God is here mentioned to set forth, by contrast, the brevity of human life.

John Calvin comments - The everlastingness of which Moses speaks is to be referred not only to the essence of God, but also to his providence, by which he governs the world. He intends not merely that he is, but that he is God. 

Martin Luther -  Such a God (he says) have we, such a God do we worship, to such a God do we pray, at whose command all created things sprang into being. Why then should we fear if this God favours us? Why should we tremble at the anger of the whole world? If He is our dwelling place, shall we not be safe though the heavens should go to wrack? For we have a Lord greater than all the world. We have a Lord so mighty that at his word all things sprang into being. And yet we are so fainthearted that if the anger of a single prince or king, nay, even of a single neighbour, is to be borne, we tremble and droop in spirit. Yet in comparison with this King, all things beside in the whole world are but as the lightest dust which a slight breath moves from its place, and suffers not to be still. In this way this description of God is consolatory, and trembling spirits ought to look to this consolation in their temptations and dangers. 

Related Resources:

The Almighty - NET has Jesus is "the All-Powerful." NLT has "the Almighty One." This Name is Jesus' "militant" Name, the Name which assures His victory over ALL anti-God forces! In other words, this Name speaks of Jesus' final victory over the enemies of God as John describes in Rev 19:15 "From His mouth comes a sharp sword, so that with it He may strike down the nations, and He will rule them with a rod of iron; and He treads the wine press of the fierce wrath of God, the Almighty (pantokrator)."

Elmer Towns suggests (and I tend to agree - see my note below) that in using the Name Almighty or Pantokrator "Possibly John was thinking in the context of El Shaddai, an Old Testament title of God usually translated “God Almighty.” Are you trusting the Almighty with your problems in life?

Almighty (3841) (pantokrator from pás = all + kratos = strength or might, especially manifested power, the power to rule or control) is literally the ruler over all or the One Who controls all things and Who has power over everything. The One in total control! Pantokrator thus describes God’s sovereign, omnipotent, irresistible power. Note that Vine gives the derivation of pantokrator as from pas = all + krateo = to hold or to have strength. Tony Garland adds that "The Almighty" [ho pantokrator] is derived from ho panton kraton which means the One Who holds all. (Re 1:8-noteKrateo means to hold or cling to is derived from kratos and gives the picture of being in the grip of Him in Whose hand are all things. God is the Almighty One, the One Who has His hand in everything and on everything! If believers are in the hands of a God like that (and they are), nothing can pluck them away.

My times are in thy hand:
I’ll always trust in thee;
And, after death, at thy right hand
I shall for ever be.

In light of the fact that 9/10 NT uses of Pantokrator are in The Revelation, clearly Pantokrator is the characteristic title for God in the book which records the consummation of God's victory over sin and the evil one Satan and His awesome control over all the universe and all history. In this final chapter of God's plan of the ages, God brings to consummation His initial covenant promises made and affirmed to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as He revealed Himself to them as El Shaddai some 4000+ years earlier in the book of beginnings, Genesis (see Genesis 17:1; 28:3; 35:9; 48:3; Ex 6:3). Although, EL Shaddai - God Almighty is not translated (in the Septuagint) with Pantokrator in these 6 uses in Genesis or in Exodus 6:3+, it is nevertheless notable that the Name EL Shadda by which God first revealed Himself to the patriarchs is related to the same Name, Pantokrator, by which He brings to final fulfillment the covenant promises made to the patriarchs! God is the same yesterday, today and tomorrow. The Names El Shaddai and Pantokrator undergird the assurance every believer should have that He is able to fulfill every one of His promises, so that "not one word of all the good words which Jehovah spoke has failed" (Joshua 23:14)

Richards adds that "Pantokrator signifies the unmatched greatness of God, who has power over all humankind and every competing authority (Ep 1:19, 20, 21-see notes Ep 1:192021). Occurrences of this word predominate (9 of the 10 uses) in Revelation. There they pick up the OT theme of God's final, decisive intervention in history, when He acts to destroy this world's kingdoms and to establish His own (EDITORIAL NOTE: Thus fulfilling His covenant promises to the the patriarchs and the Nation of Israel, which is not the church but the actual nation that will be composed of 100% believing Jews at the return of the Messiah, when as Paul states "all Israel will be saved" - see note Romans 11:26). As the Almighty, God makes promises to people and commits his own power to see these promises carried out. This God is ever-present, hovering over history and free to act within it, even though his authority may be unacknowledged by those who do his will. Ultimately, he will undertake a great, final intervention. Then every competing power will be visibly crushed, and God's hidden authority will be overwhelmingly visible. When this happens, the irresistible power that makes God almighty will be known and acknowledged by all (cf. Php 2:9, 10, 11-notes Php 2:91011Re 19:6-note). (Richards, L O: Expository Dictionary of Bible Words: Regency) (Bolding added)

Pantokrator - 10v - 2 Co. 6:18; Rev. 1:8; Rev. 4:8; Rev. 11:17; Rev. 15:3; Rev. 16:7; Rev. 16:14; Rev. 19:6; Rev. 19:15; Rev. 21:22

Pantokrator - over 170x in the Septuagint most often translate the triumphant, militant Name Jehovah Sabaoth, LORD of hosts (of armies) - 2 Sam. 5:10; 2 Sam. 7:8; 2 Sam. 7:25; 2 Sam. 7:27; 1 Ki. 19:10; 1 Ki. 19:14; 1 Chr. 11:9; 1 Chr. 17:7; 1 Chr. 17:24; 1 Chr. 29:12; Job 5:17; Job 8:5; Job 11:7; Job 15:25; Job 22:17; Job 22:25; Job 23:16; Job 27:2; Job 27:11; Job 27:13; Job 32:8; Job 33:4; Job 34:10; Job 34:12; Job 35:13; Job 37:22; Jer. 3:19; Jer. 5:14; Jer. 15:16; Jer. 23:16; Jer. 25:27; Jer. 31:35; Jer. 32:14; Jer. 32:18; Jer. 33:11; Jer. 44:7; Jer. 49:18; Jer. 50:34; Jer. 51:5; Jer. 51:57; Hos. 12:5; Amos 3:13; Amos 4:13; Amos 5:8; Amos 5:14; Amos 5:15; Amos 5:16; Amos 5:27; Amos 9:5; Amos 9:6; Amos 9:15; Mic. 4:4; Nah. 2:13; Nah. 3:5; Hab. 2:13; Zeph. 2:10; Hag. 1:2; Hag. 1:5; Hag. 1:7; Hag. 1:9; Hag. 1:14; Hag. 2:4; Hag. 2:6; Hag. 2:7; Hag. 2:8; Hag. 2:9; Hag. 2:11; Hag. 2:23; Zech. 1:3; Zech. 1:4; Zech. 1:6; Zech. 1:12; Zech. 1:13; Zech. 1:14; Zech. 1:16; Zech. 1:17; Zech. 2:8; Zech. 2:9; Zech. 2:11; Zech. 3:7; Zech. 3:9; Zech. 3:10; Zech. 4:6; Zech. 4:9; Zech. 5:4; Zech. 6:12; Zech. 6:15; Zech. 7:3; Zech. 7:9; Zech. 7:12; Zech. 7:13; Zech. 8:1; Zech. 8:2; Zech. 8:3; Zech. 8:4; Zech. 8:6; Zech. 8:7; Zech. 8:9; Zech. 8:11; Zech. 8:14; Zech. 8:17; Zech. 8:18; Zech. 8:19; Zech. 8:20; Zech. 8:21; Zech. 8:22; Zech. 8:23; Zech. 9:14; Zech. 9:15; Zech. 10:3; Zech. 11:4; Zech. 12:4; Zech. 12:5; Zech. 13:7; Zech. 14:16; Zech. 14:17; Zech. 14:20; Zech. 14:21; Mal. 1:4; Mal. 1:6; Mal. 1:8; Mal. 1:9; Mal. 1:10; Mal. 1:11; Mal. 1:13; Mal. 1:14; Mal. 2:2; Mal. 2:4; Mal. 2:7; Mal. 2:8; Mal. 2:12; Mal. 2:16; Mal. 3:1; Mal. 3:5; Mal. 3:7; Mal. 3:10; Mal. 3:11; Mal. 3:12; Mal. 3:14; Mal. 3:17; Mal. 4:1; Mal. 4:3


The Almighty by Charles Roll - The strength of Christ's might and the majesty of His stability transcend all other sand all else in the ability and authority, for His is omnipotent. At this point we are to consider Christ as the competent, independent, self-sufficient One in His almightiness. The grand title which appears forty-eight times in the Old Testament is here applied to our Redeemer. The magnificence of the name in its depth of meaning and degree of might, defies the capacity of our reasoning powers. Superficially we comprehend its import, but actually we do not. The almighty is supremely real, dispassionately true and faultlessly just; yet withal infinitely tender and graciously kind, ad revealed in the Book of Job, where the title occurs thirty-one times.

His almightiness is expressed alike in the material, physical, spiritual and judicial realms. This feature may also be applied to His sublimity of thought, stability of mind, sovereignty of will, sufficiency of wisdom, security of power, suitability of grace and serenity of peace, in all of which He is the Almighty. When we pause to ponder His enormous energy, His prodigious power, His stupendous strength and marvelous might, these ponderous qualities of ableness, with their tremendous potential, cause us to tremble at the thought of meeting such forces in exercise; but when we turn and learn of the blended qualities of goodness demonstrated in the character of divine activity, we behold the gracious care, generous pity, gorgeous gifts and glorious love which are lavished so freely, and our fears depart for we view His heart. This is exactly what Job longed for when, discouraged and downcast, he concluded God had decided to despise the work of His hands (Job 10:3), hands which he knew to be characterized by wisdom and strength (Job 12:9-13). Job was definitely corrected in his mistaken ideas by Elihu who declared, "Behold, God is mighty, and despiseth not any: He is mighty in strength and wisdom" (Job 36:5).

All things emanate from His creative wisdom and are maintained by His sustaining strength. Round about us many demonstrations illustrate the magnanimity of God as expressed by Elihu. for instance, the sun is too majestic to despise a worm, the ocean is too gigantic to disdain a sprat, the rain is too prolific to disregard a leaf, and "behold, God is mighty, and despiseth not any." He is "mighty in battle" (Psalm 24:8). "I am poor and needy; yet the Lord thinketh upon me" (Psalm 40:17).

Revelation 1:9  I, John, your brother and fellow partaker in the tribulation and kingdom and perseverance which are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.

NET  Revelation 1:9 I, John, your brother and the one who shares with you in the persecution, kingdom, and endurance that are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony about Jesus.

NLT  Revelation 1:9 I, John, am your brother and your partner in suffering and in God's Kingdom and in the patient endurance to which Jesus calls us. I was exiled to the island of Patmos for preaching the word of God and for my testimony about Jesus.

ESV  Revelation 1:9 I, John, your brother and partner in the tribulation and the kingdom and the patient endurance that are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos on account of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.

NIV  Revelation 1:9 I, John, your brother and companion in the suffering and kingdom and patient endurance that are ours in Jesus, was on the island of Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.

GNT  Revelation 1:9 Ἐγὼ Ἰωάννης, ὁ ἀδελφὸς ὑμῶν καὶ συγκοινωνὸς ἐν τῇ θλίψει καὶ βασιλείᾳ καὶ ὑπομονῇ ἐν Ἰησοῦ, ἐγενόμην ἐν τῇ νήσῳ τῇ καλουμένῃ Πάτμῳ διὰ τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὴν μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ.

KJV  Revelation 1:9 I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.

ASV  Revelation 1:9 I John, your brother and partaker with you in tribulation and kingdom and patience which are in Jesus, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.

CSB  Revelation 1:9 I, John, your brother and partner in the tribulation, kingdom, and endurance that are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos because of God's word and the testimony about Jesus.

NKJ  Revelation 1:9 I, John, both your brother and companion in the tribulation and kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was on the island that is called Patmos for the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.

NRS  Revelation 1:9 I, John, your brother who share with you in Jesus the persecution and the kingdom and the patient endurance, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.

YLT  Revelation 1:9 I, John, who also am your brother, and fellow-partner in the tribulation, and in the reign and endurance, of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, because of the word of God, and because of the testimony of Jesus Christ;

  • John: Rev 1:4 
  • companion: Rev 2:9,10 7:14 Joh 16:33 Ac 14:22 Ro 8:17 1Co 4:9-13 Php 1:7 4:14 2Ti 1:8 2:3-12 
  • in the: Rev 3:10 13:10 14:12 Ro 2:7,8 5:3,4 8:25 2Th 1:4,5 3:5 Heb 10:36 Jas 5:7,8 
  • for the word: Rev 1:2 6:9 11:7 12:11,17 19:10 

 I, John, your brother and fellow partaker in the tribulation and kingdom and perseverance which are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus

Lehman Strauss writes that "Notice, it is not "The Revelation of St. John the Divine." There is no authority for this designation. Moreover, John refers to himself as "your brother, and companion in tribulation" (Revelation 1:9). He was a saint in the sense that all true Christians are saints, but he would be the last person to refer to himself as "divine." He was the chosen instrument to be the human penman of the book, but he was not divine." (The Book of the Revelation: Outlined Studies)

Strauss comments that John "himself was sent in chains as a prisoner to the small and dreary island called Patmos, about twenty-five miles off the coast of Asia Minor, in the Aegean Sea. It was while he was there that God turned his bondage into a blessing. The Patmos of persecution became to John the open door for service. The chains of pagan Rome bound his body but they could not bind his soul. Shut off from the rest of the world, he entered into a communion with his Lord he had never known before." (Ibid)

Revelation 1:10  I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and I heard behind me a loud voice like the sound of a trumpet,

NET  Revelation 1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord's Day when I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet,

NLT  Revelation 1:10 It was the Lord's Day, and I was worshiping in the Spirit. Suddenly, I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet blast.

ESV  Revelation 1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet

NIV  Revelation 1:10 On the Lord's Day I was in the Spirit, and I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet,

GNT  Revelation 1:10 ἐγενόμην ἐν πνεύματι ἐν τῇ κυριακῇ ἡμέρᾳ καὶ ἤκουσα ὀπίσω μου φωνὴν μεγάλην ὡς σάλπιγγος

KJV  Revelation 1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,

ASV  Revelation 1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and I heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet

CSB  Revelation 1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and I heard a loud voice behind me like a trumpet

NKJ  Revelation 1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord's Day, and I heard behind me a loud voice, as of a trumpet,

NRS  Revelation 1:10 I was in the spirit on the Lord's day, and I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet

YLT  Revelation 1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord's-day, and I heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet, saying,

  • I was in the Spirit : Rev 4:2 17:3 21:10 Mt 22:43 Ac 10:10-33 2Co 12:2-4 
  • on the Lord's day: Joh 20:19,26 Ac 20:7 1Co 16:2 
  • like the sound of a trumpet: Rev 4:1 Rev 10:3-8 

 I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day - "In one sense the faithful are always ‘in the Spirit;’ they are ‘spiritual’ (1 Cor. 3:1, 15); are ‘led by the Spirit’ (Rom. 8:14); ‘walk in the Spirit’ (Gal. 5:16, 25). But here, and at Rev 4:2; Rev 21:10 (cf. Ezek. 40:2, ‘in the visions of God’), the words are used in an eminent and peculiar sense; they describe not the habitual condition of faithful men, but an exceptional state, differing from the other not in degree only, but in kind; a condition in which there is a suspension of all the motions and faculties of the natural life; that a higher life may be called, during and through this suspension, into a preternatural activity. It is the state of trance or ecstasy, that is, of standing out of oneself," (Trench)

and I heard behind me a loud voice like the sound of a trumpet,


Question - What is the Lord’s day? 

Answer: The Lord’s day (as distinguished from the day of the Lord) is Sunday. The term Lord’s day is used only once in Scripture. Revelation 1:10 says, “I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day, and I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet.” Since the apostle John does not elaborate on the meaning of “Lord’s day,” we can assume that his target audience, first-century Christians, were already familiar with the expression.

Some have assumed that the Lord’s day is the New Testament equivalent of the Sabbath. The Sabbath day was instituted by God for the nation of Israel to commemorate His deliverance of them from Egypt (Deuteronomy 5:15). Sabbath began Friday at sunset and ended Saturday at sunset and was to be a day of complete rest from all labor, symbolic of the Creator’s resting on the seventh day (Genesis 2:2–3; Exodus 20:11; 23:12). The Sabbath was a special sign to the Israelites that they had been set apart as followers of the most High God. Their keeping of the Sabbath would help distinguish them from the nations around them. However, nowhere in Scripture is the Sabbath ever referred to as the Lord’s day. The term Sabbath was still in use within the Jewish community in New Testament times and is referred to as such by Jesus and the apostles (Matthew 12:5; John 7:23; Colossians 2:16).

Sunday was the day that Jesus Christ rose from the dead, an act that forever separated Christianity from any other religion (John 20:1). Since that time, believers have gathered on the first day of the week to celebrate His victory over sin and death (Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 16:2). Even though the Sabbath day was designated by God as a holy day, Jesus demonstrated that He was Lord over the Sabbath (Matthew 12:8). Jesus stated that He had come not to abolish but to fulfill the whole Law. Rule-keeping could not justify anyone; only through Jesus could sinful humanity be declared righteous (Romans 3:28). Paul echoes this truth in Colossians 2:16–17 when he writes, “Therefore do not let anyone judge you by what you eat or drink, or with regard to a religious festival, a New Moon celebration or a Sabbath day. These are a shadow of the things that were to come; the reality, however, is found in Christ.”

The Lord’s day is typically thought of as Sunday, but it is not a direct counterpart to the Jewish Sabbath—in other words, Sunday is not the “Christian Sabbath.” Although we should set aside a day for rest and honoring the Lord who died and rose for us, we are not under the Law (Romans 6:14–15). As born-again followers of Jesus, we are free to worship Him on any day that our conscience determines. Romans 14 gives clear explanation of how Christians are to navigate those subtle gray areas of discipleship. Verses 4 and 5 say, “One person considers one day more sacred than another; another considers every day alike. Each of them should be fully convinced in their own mind. Whoever regards one day as special does so to the Lord. Whoever eats meat does so to the Lord, for they give thanks to God; and whoever abstains does so to the Lord and gives thanks to God.”

Some Messianic Jews want to continue regarding the Sabbath day as holy because of their Jewish heritage. Some Gentile Christians join their Jewish brothers and sisters in keeping the Sabbath as a way to honor God. Worshiping God on the Sabbath is acceptable—again, the day of the week is not the most important issue—but the heart motivation behind that choice is crucial. If legalism or law-keeping motivates the choice to observe the Sabbath, then that choice is not made from a right heart condition (Galatians 5:4). When our hearts are pure before the Lord, we are free to worship Him on Saturday (the Sabbath) or Sunday (the Lord’s day). God is equally pleased with both.

Jesus warned against legalism when He quoted Isaiah the prophet: “These people honor me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me. They worship me in vain; their teachings are merely human rules” (Matthew 15:8–9; cf. Isaiah 29:13). God is not interested in our keeping of rituals, rules, or requirements. He wants hearts that are on fire with His love and grace on the Sabbath, on the Lord’s day, and on every other day (Hebrews 12:28–29; Psalm 51:15–17).(Source:GotQuestions.org

Revelation 1:11  saying, "Write in a book what you see, and send it to the seven churches: to Ephesus and to Smyrna and to Pergamum and to Thyatira and to Sardis and to Philadelphia and to Laodicea."

NET  Revelation 1:11 saying: "Write in a book what you see and send it to the seven churches– to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea."

NLT  Revelation 1:11 It said, "Write in a book everything you see, and send it to the seven churches in the cities of Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea."

ESV  Revelation 1:11 saying, "Write what you see in a book and send it to the seven churches, to Ephesus and to Smyrna and to Pergamum and to Thyatira and to Sardis and to Philadelphia and to Laodicea."

NIV  Revelation 1:11 which said: "Write on a scroll what you see and send it to the seven churches: to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea."

GNT  Revelation 1:11 λεγούσης, Ὃ βλέπεις γράψον εἰς βιβλίον καὶ πέμψον ταῖς ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαις, εἰς Ἔφεσον καὶ εἰς Σμύρναν καὶ εἰς Πέργαμον καὶ εἰς Θυάτειρα καὶ εἰς Σάρδεις καὶ εἰς Φιλαδέλφειαν καὶ εἰς Λαοδίκειαν.

KJV  Revelation 1:11 Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.

ASV  Revelation 1:11 saying, What thou seest, write in a book and send it to the seven churches: unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamum, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.

CSB  Revelation 1:11 saying, "Write on a scroll what you see and send it to the seven churches: Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea."

NKJ  Revelation 1:11 saying, "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last," and, "What you see, write in a book and send it to the seven churches which are in Asia: to Ephesus, to Smyrna, to Pergamos, to Thyatira, to Sardis, to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea."

NRS  Revelation 1:11 saying, "Write in a book what you see and send it to the seven churches, to Ephesus, to Smyrna, to Pergamum, to Thyatira, to Sardis, to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea."

YLT  Revelation 1:11 'I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last;' and, 'What thou dost see, write in a scroll, and send to the seven assemblies that are in Asia; to Ephesus, and to Smyrna, and to Pergamos, and to Thyatira, and to Sardis, and to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea.'

  • I am: Rev 1:8,17 
  • What: Rev 1:19 2:1 10:4 14:13 19:9 21:5 De 31:19 Isa 30:8 Jer 30:2 Hab 2:2 
  • seven: Rev 1:4 2:1,8,12,18 3:1,7,14 
  • Ephesus: Ac 18:19-21,24 19:1-41 20:17 1Co 15:32 16:8 Eph 1:1 1Ti 1:3 
  • Laodicea: Col 4:15,16 

saying, "Write in a book what you see, and send it to the seven churches: to Ephesus and to Smyrna and to Pergamum and to Thyatira and to Sardis and to Philadelphia and to Laodicea.

Revelation 1:12  Then I turned to see the voice that was speaking with me. And having turned I saw seven golden lampstands;

NET  Revelation 1:12 I turned to see whose voice was speaking to me, and when I did so, I saw seven golden lampstands,

NLT  Revelation 1:12 When I turned to see who was speaking to me, I saw seven gold lampstands.

ESV  Revelation 1:12 Then I turned to see the voice that was speaking to me, and on turning I saw seven golden lampstands,

NIV  Revelation 1:12 I turned around to see the voice that was speaking to me. And when I turned I saw seven golden lampstands,

GNT  Revelation 1:12 Καὶ ἐπέστρεψα βλέπειν τὴν φωνὴν ἥτις ἐλάλει μετ᾽ ἐμοῦ, καὶ ἐπιστρέψας εἶδον ἑπτὰ λυχνίας χρυσᾶς

KJV  Revelation 1:12 And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks;

ASV  Revelation 1:12 And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And having turned I saw seven golden candlesticks;

CSB  Revelation 1:12 I turned to see whose voice it was that spoke to me. When I turned I saw seven gold lampstands,

NKJ  Revelation 1:12 Then I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. And having turned I saw seven golden lampstands,

NRS  Revelation 1:12 Then I turned to see whose voice it was that spoke to me, and on turning I saw seven golden lampstands,

YLT  Revelation 1:12 And I did turn to see the voice that did speak with me, and having turned, I saw seven golden lamp-stands,

  • see: Eze 43:5,6 Mic 6:9 
  • I saw: Rev 1:13,20 2:1 Ex 25:37 Zec 4:2 

Then I turned to see the voice that was speaking with me.

And having turned I saw seven golden lampstands - This is clearly figurative language but just as clearly has a literal meaning which is discerned by comparing Scripture with Scripture. So comparing Revelation 1:12 with Revelation 1:20 it is crystal clear that "the seven lampstands are the seven churches."

Revelation 1:13  and in the middle of the lampstands I saw one like a son of man, clothed in a robe reaching to the feet, and girded across His chest with a golden sash.

NET  Revelation 1:13 and in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man. He was dressed in a robe extending down to his feet and he wore a wide golden belt around his chest.

NLT  Revelation 1:13 And standing in the middle of the lampstands was someone like the Son of Man. He was wearing a long robe with a gold sash across his chest.

ESV  Revelation 1:13 and in the midst of the lampstands one like a son of man, clothed with a long robe and with a golden sash around his chest.

NIV  Revelation 1:13 and among the lampstands was someone "like a son of man," dressed in a robe reaching down to his feet and with a golden sash around his chest.

GNT  Revelation 1:13 καὶ ἐν μέσῳ τῶν λυχνιῶν ὅμοιον υἱὸν ἀνθρώπου ἐνδεδυμένον ποδήρη καὶ περιεζωσμένον πρὸς τοῖς μαστοῖς ζώνην χρυσᾶν.

KJV  Revelation 1:13 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.

ASV  Revelation 1:13 and in the midst of the candlesticks one like unto a son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about at the breasts with a golden girdle.

CSB  Revelation 1:13 and among the lampstands was One like the Son of Man, dressed in a long robe and with a gold sash wrapped around His chest.

NKJ  Revelation 1:13 and in the midst of the seven lampstands One like the Son of Man, clothed with a garment down to the feet and girded about the chest with a golden band.

NRS  Revelation 1:13 and in the midst of the lampstands I saw one like the Son of Man, clothed with a long robe and with a golden sash across his chest.

YLT  Revelation 1:13 and in the midst of the seven lamp-stands, one like to a son of man, clothed to the foot, and girt round at the breast with a golden girdle,

  • like: Rev 14:14 Eze 1:26-28 Da 7:9,13 10:5,6,16 Php 2:7,8 Heb 2:14-17 Heb 4:15 
  • clothed: Da 10:5 
  • and girded: Rev 15:6 Ex 28:6-8 Ex 39:5 Lev 8:7 Isa 11:5

and in the middle of the lampstands - Note the strategic location of the glorified Christ -- in the middle of the lampstands, indicating He is the middle of these seven churches. His location in the middle indicates He has contact with all seven churches and that they should have contact with Him. One is reminded of Paul's description of Christ in Colossians 2:19 and not holding fast to the head (CHRIST), from Whom the entire body (CHURCH), being supplied and held together by the joints and ligaments, grows with a growth which is from God. In Eph 4:15-16 we read "but speaking the truth in love, we are to grow up in all aspects into Him who is the head, even Christ, from whom the whole body (THE CHURCH), being fitted and held together by what every joint supplies, according to the proper working of each individual part, causes the growth of the body (THE CHURCH) for the building up of itself in love."

I saw one like a son of man,

clothed in a robe reaching to the feet,

and girded across His chest with a golden sash - This parallels the description of the garments of the high priest as described in Lev 8:7 "He put the tunic on him and girded him with the sash, and clothed him with the robe and put the ephod on him; and he girded him with the artistic band of the ephod, with which he tied it to him." Indeed, Jesus is "great high priest who has passed through the heavens." (Heb 4:14). 

Revelation 1:14  His head and His hair were white like white wool, like snow; and His eyes were like a flame of fire.

NET  Revelation 1:14 His head and hair were as white as wool, even as white as snow, and his eyes were like a fiery flame.

NLT  Revelation 1:14 His head and his hair were white like wool, as white as snow. And his eyes were like flames of fire.

ESV  Revelation 1:14 The hairs of his head were white, like white wool, like snow. His eyes were like a flame of fire,

NIV  Revelation 1:14 His head and hair were white like wool, as white as snow, and his eyes were like blazing fire.

GNT  Revelation 1:14 ἡ δὲ κεφαλὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ αἱ τρίχες λευκαὶ ὡς ἔριον λευκόν ὡς χιὼν καὶ οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτοῦ ὡς φλὸξ πυρὸς

KJV  Revelation 1:14 His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire;

ASV  Revelation 1:14 And his head and his hair were white as white wool, white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire;

CSB  Revelation 1:14 His head and hair were white like wool-- white as snow-- and His eyes like a fiery flame.

NKJ  Revelation 1:14 His head and hair were white like wool, as white as snow, and His eyes like a flame of fire;

NRS  Revelation 1:14 His head and his hair were white as white wool, white as snow; his eyes were like a flame of fire,

YLT  Revelation 1:14 and his head and hairs white, as if white wool -- as snow, and his eyes as a flame of fire;

  • and his hair: Da 7:9 Mt 28:3 
  • and his eyes: Rev 2:18 Rev 19:12 Da 10:6 

His head and His hair were white like white wool, like snow; and His eyes were like a flame of fire

Revelation 1:15  His feet were like burnished bronze, when it has been made to glow in a furnace, and His voice was like the sound of many waters.

NLT  Revelation 1:15 His feet were like polished bronze refined in a furnace, and his voice thundered like mighty ocean waves.

ESV  Revelation 1:15 his feet were like burnished bronze, refined in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar of many waters.

NIV  Revelation 1:15 His feet were like bronze glowing in a furnace, and his voice was like the sound of rushing waters.

GNT  Revelation 1:15 καὶ οἱ πόδες αὐτοῦ ὅμοιοι χαλκολιβάνῳ ὡς ἐν καμίνῳ πεπυρωμένης καὶ ἡ φωνὴ αὐτοῦ ὡς φωνὴ ὑδάτων πολλῶν,

KJV  Revelation 1:15 And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters.

ASV  Revelation 1:15 and his feet like unto burnished brass, as if it had been refined in a furnace; and his voice as the voice of many waters.

CSB  Revelation 1:15 His feet were like fine bronze as it is fired in a furnace, and His voice like the sound of cascading waters.

NKJ  Revelation 1:15 His feet were like fine brass, as if refined in a furnace, and His voice as the sound of many waters;

NRS  Revelation 1:15 his feet were like burnished bronze, refined as in a furnace, and his voice was like the sound of many waters.

YLT  Revelation 1:15 and his feet like to fine brass, as in a furnace having been fired, and his voice as a sound of many waters,

  • his feet: Rev 2:18 Eze 1:7 40:3 Da 10:6 
  • his voice: Rev 14:2 19:6 Ps 93:4 Isa 17:13 Eze 43:2 

His feet were like burnished bronze, when it has been made to glow in a furnace,

and His voice was like the sound of many waters.

Revelation 1:16  In His right hand He held seven stars, and out of His mouth came a sharp two-edged sword; and His face was like the sun shining in its strength.

NET  Revelation 1:16 He held seven stars in his right hand, and a sharp double-edged sword extended out of his mouth. His face shone like the sun shining at full strength.

NLT  Revelation 1:16 He held seven stars in his right hand, and a sharp two-edged sword came from his mouth. And his face was like the sun in all its brilliance.

ESV  Revelation 1:16 In his right hand he held seven stars, from his mouth came a sharp two-edged sword, and his face was like the sun shining in full strength.

NIV  Revelation 1:16 In his right hand he held seven stars, and out of his mouth came a sharp double-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining in all its brilliance.

GNT  Revelation 1:16 καὶ ἔχων ἐν τῇ δεξιᾷ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ ἀστέρας ἑπτὰ καὶ ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ ῥομφαία δίστομος ὀξεῖα ἐκπορευομένη καὶ ἡ ὄψις αὐτοῦ ὡς ὁ ἥλιος φαίνει ἐν τῇ δυνάμει αὐτοῦ.

KJV  Revelation 1:16 And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength.

ASV  Revelation 1:16 And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength.

CSB  Revelation 1:16 He had seven stars in His right hand; a sharp double-edged sword came from His mouth, and His face was shining like the sun at midday.

NKJ  Revelation 1:16 He had in His right hand seven stars, out of His mouth went a sharp two-edged sword, and His countenance was like the sun shining in its strength.

NRS  Revelation 1:16 In his right hand he held seven stars, and from his mouth came a sharp, two-edged sword, and his face was like the sun shining with full force.

YLT  Revelation 1:16 and having in his right hand seven stars, and out of his mouth a sharp two-edged sword is proceeding, and his countenance is as the sun shining in its might.

  • He held: Rev 1:20 Rev 2:1 Rev 3:1 Rev 12:1 Job 38:7 Da 8:10 12:3 
  • out of His mouth: Rev 2:12,16 Rev 19:15,21 Isa 11:4 Isa 49:2 Eph 6:17 Heb 4:12 
  • and His face was like: Rev 10:1 Isa 24:23 60:19,20 Mal 4:2 Ac 26:13 

In His right hand He held seven stars 

Spurgeon - What do you see in Christ’s right hand? Seven stars; yet how insignificant they appear when you get a sight of his face! They are stars, and there are seven of them; but who can see seven stars, or, for the matter of that, seventy thousand stars, when the sun shineth in his strength? How sweet it is, when the Lord himself is so present in a congregation that the preacher, whoever he may be, is altogether forgotten! I pray you, dear friends, when you go to a place of worship, always try to see the Lord’s face rather than the stars in his hand; look at the sun, and you will forget the stars.” 

and out of His mouth came a sharp two-edged sword  

Augustine called the two-edged sword "the old and the new law," but this is a clear example of allegorizing or spiritualizing the text. There is no Scripture to support this interpretation.

and His face was like the sun shining in its strength 

Revelation 1:17  When I saw Him, I fell at His feet like a dead man. And He placed His right hand on me, saying, "Do not be afraid; I am the first and the last,

NET  Revelation 1:17 When I saw him I fell down at his feet as though I were dead, but he placed his right hand on me and said: "Do not be afraid! I am the first and the last,

NLT  Revelation 1:17 When I saw him, I fell at his feet as if I were dead. But he laid his right hand on me and said, "Don't be afraid! I am the First and the Last.

ESV  Revelation 1:17 When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. But he laid his right hand on me, saying, "Fear not, I am the first and the last,

NIV  Revelation 1:17 When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. Then he placed his right hand on me and said: "Do not be afraid. I am the First and the Last.

GNT  Revelation 1:17 Καὶ ὅτε εἶδον αὐτόν, ἔπεσα πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ ὡς νεκρός, καὶ ἔθηκεν τὴν δεξιὰν αὐτοῦ ἐπ᾽ ἐμὲ λέγων, Μὴ φοβοῦ· ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος

KJV  Revelation 1:17 And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last:

ASV  Revelation 1:17 And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as one dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying, Fear not; I am the first and the last,

CSB  Revelation 1:17 When I saw Him, I fell at His feet like a dead man. He laid His right hand on me and said, "Don't be afraid! I am the First and the Last,

NKJ  Revelation 1:17 And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead. But He laid His right hand on me, saying to me, "Do not be afraid; I am the First and the Last.

NRS  Revelation 1:17 When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. But he placed his right hand on me, saying, "Do not be afraid; I am the first and the last,

YLT  Revelation 1:17 And when I saw him, I did fall at his feet as dead, and he placed his right hand upon me, saying to me, 'Be not afraid; I am the First and the Last,

  • I fell: Eze 1:28 Da 8:18 10:8,9,17-19 Hab 3:16 Mt 17:2-6 Joh 13:23 Joh 21:20 
  • And he: Da 8:18 10:10 
  • Do not be afraid: Ge 15:1 Ex 14:13 20:20 Isa 41:10 Da 10:12 Mt 28:4 Mk 16:5,6 Lu 24:37-39 
  • I am: Rev 1:8,11 Rev 2:8 Rev 22:13 Isa 41:4 Isa 44:6 Isa 48:12 

JOHN'S OVERWHELMED BY VISION
OF OUR AWESOME CHRIST

When I saw Him, I fell at His feet like a dead man -  John had a view of the risen Christ and fell down in awe, overcome by the vision of the glorified Christ. 

THOUGHT - As we grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (2 Peter 3:18+), we will also have an increasing awareness of His presence and power. We will grow in our reverence and awe of and for Him. And we will live "fallen at His feet" lives (so to speak), living as bond-servants increasingly submitted to His Word and His Will. Our faith will increase for "faith comes by hearing and hearing by the Word of Christ." Our obedience will become more and more a delight and less a sense of duty and certainly not a sense of drudgery. In effect will be experientially obeying Paul's command in Ro 13:14+ "put on (aorist imperative see our need to depend on the Holy Spirit to obey) the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision (present imperative with a negative) for the flesh in regard to its lusts."

Trench "This falling, as is evident, is no voluntary act of homage on the part of St. John, but an involuntary expression of the effect produced upon him by that awful vision which he saw....The unholy, and all flesh is such, cannot endure immediate contact with the holy, the human with the divine. ...The beloved disciple, who looked upon, and whose hands had handled, the Word of life (1 John 1:1), who had lain in his Lord’s bosom in the days of his flesh, could as little as any other endure the revelation of his majesty, or do without that ‘Fear not,’ with which that Lord at once reassures him.”

THOUGHT - Compare a similar reaction by mortal men in many Scriptures - Gen. 3:8; 17:3; Exod. 3:6; Num. 16:22; 22:31; Josh. 5:14; Judg. 6:22; 13:6, 20, 22; 1 Chron. 21:20; 2 Chron. 7:3; Job 4:12–15; 42:5, 6; Isai. 6:5; Ezek. 1:28; 3:23; 43:3; 44:4; Dan. 7:15; 8:17; 10:7–9, 15; Tob. 12:16; Matt. 17:6; 28:4, 5; Mark 16:5, 8; Luke 1:12, 29; 2:9; 5:8; Lk 24:5; John 18:6; Acts 9:4; 10:4.

This recalls the lyrics of a popular Christian song I Can Only Imagine...

I can only imagine what it will be like
When I walk, by your side
I can only imagine what my eyes will see
When you face is before me
I can only imagine
I can only imagine

Surrounded by You glory
What will my heart feel
Will I dance for you Jesus
Or in awe of You be still
Will I stand in your presence
Or to my knees will I fall
Will I sing hallelujah
Will I be able to speak at all
I can only imagine

C H Spurgeon - WE long, sometimes, to behold Christ in his glory. Certainly, it is one of our brightest hopes that we shall see him as he is. Every true believer can say, with Job, “I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth: and though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God: whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another.” But, brethren, as we are now constituted, we are quite unfit for the vision of our Master’s glory. It was well that, when he was on earth, he veiled himself in the form of man, for when he did uplift the veil a little, as he did on the mountain of transfiguration, the sight, though it was but a glimpse, was too much for Peter, and James, and John. They were overpowered by it, they fell asleep even upon the holy mount; and even when they were awake, they knew not what to say. And as we now are, if we could be favoured with a sight of Christ in his glory, it would be too much for us also. It was too much even for John, and we are far inferior to him; our eyes are not as clear and strong as his eyes were; yet he could not endure that wondrous vision. The grey old saint in Patmos had been familiar with his Master more years than most of us have known him; he had laid his head upon the Saviour’s bosom,—a privilege accorded to none beside himself; he had stood at the cross, and seen the blood and water flow from that dear heart that loved him so well; and yet, though he was “that disciple whom Jesus loved,” when even he had a sight of his glorified Master, he fell at his feet as dead. The full glory of Christ is too much for us to behold while we are here on the earth, so ask not to have it yet, dear friends. By-and-by, when you are fitted for it, and Christ has prepared a place for you, his prayer shall be fulfilled in your happy experience, “Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me.” He might say to each one of you, “Not yet, my child, not yet may you see me as I am; your eyes are not yet fit for such a sight as that.” (The Ever-Living Christ)

And He placed His right hand on me, saying - Holiness personified touching a sinful man (Saved but still a sinner). Is this not amazing grace indeed! 

THOUGHT - First, he laid his right hand upon him; and that is where your comfort and mine must always come from,—from the hand that was crucified for us. There streams from that pierced hand a wondrous power that makes the weakest strong. A touch of it proves how near Christ is to us. We know, when he touches us, that he is man as well as God; and the familiar touch, which brings him so consciously near our spirit, makes us glad and joyous, and we become strong again. (Spurgeon)

Trench on the right hand "The right hand being ever contemplated in Scripture as the hand of power alike for God (Deut. 33:2; Isai. 48:13; Acts 7:55) and for man (Gen. 48:14; Zech. 3:1; Matt. 5:30), it is only fit that with the right hand of the Lord he should be thus strengthened and revived (cf. Isai. 41:10)."

At the transfiguration John had fallen on his face

Matthew 17:6-7 When the disciples heard this, they fell face down to the ground and were terrified. And Jesus came to them and touched them and said, “Get up, (aorist imperative) and do not be afraid (present imperative with a negative).”

Do not be afraid -  Phobeo in present imperative with a negative was a command to stop an action in process - stop being afraid. 

Trench - This same ‘Fear not’ is uttered on similar occasions to Daniel (10:12), to Peter (Luke 5:1), to the Three at the Transfiguration, of whom John himself was one (Matt. 17:7); to the holy women at the sepulchre (Matt, 28:5; Mark 16:6). Nor is this reassurance confined to words only; the Lord at the same time lays his hand upon him,—something parallel to which goes along with more than one ‘Fear not’ of those referred to just now (cf. Jer. 1:9; Isai. 6:7); and from the touch of that hand the Seer receives strength again, and is set, no doubt, upon his feet once more (Ezek. 1:28; 2:1, 2; Acts 26:16). 

THOUGHT - ARE YOU FEARFUL DEAR SAINT? Jesus would say to you as "he did to John, “Fear not.” The Master is saying that to each one of you who believe in him, but especially to such of you as are very faint and weak, and who feel that you are soon to die. He is drawing near to you, sisters and brothers, who are shortly to lay aside the frail tabernacle of this mortal body. The glintings and gleamings of the glory yet to be revealed overcome you; but he whispers in your ear, “Fear not; I am the first and the last: I am he that liveth, and was dead.” All these words are full of good cheer to spirits that faint away with expectation of the coming of the King, and to hearts that are ravished with desire for the company of the Best beloved.  (C H Spurgeon)

I am the first and the last - He is before anything else. I am is ego eimi signifying I am continually. 

Trench comments "He is from eternity to eternity, so that there is no room for any other. All creation comes forth from Him (John 1:1–3), all creation returns to Him again, as from whom and by whom and to whom are all things."

This designation of Jesus the Messiah as the first and the last is mentioned three times in Isaiah

Isaiah 41:4  “Who has performed and accomplished it, Calling forth the generations from the beginning? ‘I, the LORD, am the first, and with the last. I am He.’” 

Isaiah 44:6  “Thus says the LORD, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, the LORD of hosts: ‘I am the first and I am the last, And there is no God besides Me. 

Isaiah 48:12  “Listen to Me, O Jacob, even Israel whom I called; I am He, I am the first, I am also the last. 

Three times in the Revelation, Rev 1:17 and...

Revelation 2:8   “And to the angel of the church in Smyrna write: The first and the last, who was dead, and has come to life, says this: 

Revelation 22:13  “I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.” 

Triumphant "I Ams" in the Book of Revelation
    • "I am Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the Ending" (Revelation 1:8). 
    • "I am the first and the last" (Revelation 1:17). 
    • "I am alive forevermore" (Revelation 1:18). 
    • "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end." (Revelation 21:6). 
    • "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.” " (Revelation 22:13). 
    • "I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star.” " (Revelation 22:16)

Charles Roll on "The first and the last" - Great comfort is to be derived from Christ's claiming to be the First and the Last. In this capacity He outlives all idolatrous opposition and all iniquitous oppression. They who inflict penalties on His people and imprison His servants and saints must needs succumb to His enduring sovereignty. So this title is definitely directed to help and hearten John in his banishment. He proves that his Lord and Master is wholly familiar with the pressure of circumstances to which he has been subjected because of his witness. Why be afraid when the almighty One says, "Fear not; I Am the first and the last." Why fear sin? The sinless One atones adequately. Why fear life? The living One lives and loves abidingly. Why fear death? The risen deathless One ascends triumphantly. Why fear the beyond? The exalted One assures convincingly. Why fear the ages? The ageless One administers immortally. Why fear foes? The enthroned One rules and reigns eternally. Why fear defects? The spotless One avails perfectly. Yea, verily, we are altogether accepted in the Beloved, everlastingly. Christ's name and fame as the First and the Last cover the whole wide range of realism; indicating that He is the Sum and Substance from start to finish, the Fountain and Fullness from spring to sea, the Origin and Objective from gateway to goal, yea, the Framer in priority and Finisher in finality of all things. We need our thoughts of Him to be enlarged, expanded, and exalted, until He fills and thrills our hearts with loftier conceptions of His transcendent glory. We should resolve to take a more attentive look at His lofty lordship as Son of man, recall afresh that this dignified Lover "loved us and loosed us from our sins by His own blood," and then learn anew to admire and adore His intrinsic loveliness, by virtue of which we shall long to live and labor for Him alone. If we rate His love highly, we shall be stirred to ardent activity, our gratitude will grow deeper, our devotion stronger, and our loyalty firmer. (Names and Titles of Jesus Christ)

   Look! ye saints, the sight is glorious,
   See the Man of Sorrows now,
   From the fight returned victorious:
   Every knee to Him shall bow.
   Crown Him! Crown Him!
   Crowns become the Victor's brow.   
 THOMAS KELLY


A well-known minister was in his study writing an Easter sermon when the thought gripped him that his Lord was living. He jumped up excitedly and paced the floor repeating to himself, “Why Christ is alive, His ashes are warm, He is not the great ‘I was,’ He is the great ‘I am.’ ” He is not only a fact, but a living fact. Glorious truth of Easter Day!


THE TOUCH OF THE MASTER'S HAND - A RENOWNED violinist announced before a concert that he would play one of the world's most expensive violins. He played the first composition flawlessly, and the audience was thrilled at the performance. After taking his bows, the musician suddenly smashed the instrument, completely demolishing it, as the audience watched in horror.

The violinist explained that he had been playing a cheap vio­lin, and then, picking up the expensive instrument, he drew the bow across the strings. The sound was beautiful, but most of the people couldn't tell any difference between the music from the expensive violin and the cheap one. The quality of the instru­ment was secondary to the skill of the violinist.

It's something like that in our service for the Lord. The Master can take ordinary instruments like us and produce beautiful music from our lives. The results of our service depends not so much on us as it does on Him. The apostle Paul said that "God has chosen the foolish things of the world to put to shame the wise" (1 Corinthians 1:27). God did so "that no flesh should glory in His presence" (v. 29).

Like that cheap violin, we can be instruments in the Master's hands to declare the beauty of the Lord and to bless others.—R W DeHaan


THOUGHT - BELOVED, IS YOUR LIFE "OUT OF TUNE" THEN LET THE MASTER TOUCH YOUR LIFE LIKE HE DID JOHN!

Play Wayne Watson's Touch of the Master's Hand

This song seems to be based on the writing by Myra 'Brooks' Welch

The Touch of the Masters Hand

Twas battered and scarred, and the auctioneer
thought it scarcely worth his while to waste much time on the old violin,
but held it up with a smile; "What am I bidden, good folks," he cried,
"Who'll start the bidding for me?" "A dollar, a dollar"; then two!" "Only
two? Two dollars, and who'll make it three? Three dollars, once; three
dollars twice; going for three.." But no, from the room, far back, a
gray-haired man came forward and picked up the bow; Then, wiping the dust
from the old violin, and tightening the loose strings, he played a melody
pure and sweet as caroling angel sings.

The music ceased, and the auctioneer, with a voice that was quiet and low,
said; "What am I bid for the old violin?" And he held it up with the bow.
A thousand dollars, and who'll make it two? Two thousand! And who'll make
it three? Three thousand, once, three thousand, twice, and going and
gone," said he. The people cheered, but some of them cried, "We do not
quite understand what changed its worth." Swift came the reply: "The touch
of a master's hand."

And many a man with life out of tune, and battered and scarred with sin,
Is auctioned cheap to the thoughtless crowd, much like the old violin, A
"mess of pottage," a glass of wine; a game - and he travels on. "He is
going" once, and "going twice, He's going and almost gone." But the Master
comes, and the foolish crowd never can quite understand the worth of a soul
and the change that's wrought by the touch of the Master's hand.

Myra 'Brooks' Welch

Revelation 1:18  and the living One; and I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of death and of Hades.

NET  Revelation 1:18 and the one who lives! I was dead, but look, now I am alive– forever and ever– and I hold the keys of death and of Hades!

NLT  Revelation 1:18 I am the living one. I died, but look-- I am alive forever and ever! And I hold the keys of death and the grave.

ESV  Revelation 1:18 and the living one. I died, and behold I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of Death and Hades.

NIV  Revelation 1:18 I am the Living One; I was dead, and behold I am alive for ever and ever! And I hold the keys of death and Hades.

GNT  Revelation 1:18 καὶ ὁ ζῶν, καὶ ἐγενόμην νεκρὸς καὶ ἰδοὺ ζῶν εἰμι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων καὶ ἔχω τὰς κλεῖς τοῦ θανάτου καὶ τοῦ ᾅδου.

KJV  Revelation 1:18 I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.

ASV  Revelation 1:18 and the Living one; and I was dead, and behold, I am alive for evermore, and I have the keys of death and of Hades.

CSB  Revelation 1:18 and the Living One. I was dead, but look-- I am alive forever and ever, and I hold the keys of death and Hades.

NKJ  Revelation 1:18 "I am He who lives, and was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen. And I have the keys of Hades and of Death.

NRS  Revelation 1:18 and the living one. I was dead, and see, I am alive forever and ever; and I have the keys of Death and of Hades.

YLT  Revelation 1:18 and he who is living, and I did become dead, and, lo, I am living to the ages of the ages. Amen! and I have the keys of the hades and of the death.

  • the living One;: Job 19:25 Ps 18:46 Joh 14:19 Ro 6:9 2Co 13:4 Ga 2:20 Col 3:3 Heb 7:25 
  • and I was dead: Ro 14:8,9 2Co 5:14,15 Heb 1:3 Heb 12:2 
  • behold, I am alive forevermore: Rev 4:9 Rev 5:14 Heb 7:16,25 
  • the keys: Rev 3:7 Rev 9:1 Rev 20:1,2,14 Ps 68:20 Isa 22:22 Mt 16:19 

and the living One - The living One. 

In probably the oldest book of the Bible, the book of Job, we read "As for me, I know that my Redeemer lives, And at the last He will take His stand on the earth." Play "I Know My Redeemer Live.

And I was dead - This speaks of His crucifixion. 

Paul writes 

For if we live, we live for the Lord, or if we die, we die for the Lord; therefore whether we live or die, we are the Lord’s. For to this end Christ died and lived again, that He might be Lord both of the dead and of the living. (Romans 14:8; 9 )

Behold (2400)(idou) is a command in the aorist middle imperative and is a charge to see, perceive, look at and is used to draw attention to what follows. Spurgeon reminds us that "Behold is a word of wonder; it is intended to excite admiration. Wherever you see it hung out in Scripture, it is like an ancient sign-board, signifying that there are rich wares within, or like the hands which solid readers have observed in the margin of the older Puritanic books, drawing attention to something particularly worthy of observation." I would add, behold is like a divine highlighter, a divine underlining of an especially striking or important text. It says in effect "Listen up, all ye who would be wise in the ways of Jehovah!"

I am alive forevermore - Jesus speaks of His resurrection to which the writer of Hebrews would say "Therefore He is able also to save forever those who draw near to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them." (Hebrews 7:25). 

John 11:25-26 - Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life; he who believes in Me will live even if he dies, and everyone who lives and believes in Me will never die. Do you believe this?”

And I have the keys of death and of Hades - Keys open and keys lock and Jesus has both. Hades speaks of judgment which the Father gave over to the Son, John writing "“For not even the Father judges anyone, but He has given all judgment to the Son." (John 5:22)

Hades (86)(hades) is the transliteration of the Greek word Hades (from a = negative + eido = to see) literally means "not seen" or "unseen". Usually in the NT as the temporary underworld prison where the souls of the ungodly await the judgment. 10v - Matt. 11:23; Matt. 16:18; Lk. 10:15; Lk. 16:23; Acts 2:27; Acts 2:31; Rev. 1:18; Rev. 6:8; Rev. 20:13; Rev. 20:14

Revelation 6:8   I looked, and behold, an ashen horse; and he who sat on it had the name Death; and Hades was following with him. Authority was given to them over a fourth of the earth, to kill with sword and with famine and with pestilence and by the wild beasts of the earth.

Revelation 20:13  And the sea gave up the dead which were in it, and death and Hades gave up the dead which were in them; and they were judged, every one of them according to their deeds.

Revelation 20:14  Then death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire.

Gotquestions on Hades - In the Hebrew Scriptures, the word used to describe the realm of the dead is sheol. It simply means “the place of the dead” or “the place of departed souls/spirits.” The New Testament Greek equivalent to sheol is hades, which is also a general reference to “the place of the dead.” The Greek word gehenna is used in the New Testament for “hell” and is derived from the Hebrew word hinnom. Other Scriptures in the New Testament indicated that sheol/hades is a temporary place where souls are kept as they await the final resurrection. The souls of the righteous, at death, go directly into the presence of God—the part of sheol called “heaven,” “paradise,” or “Abraham’s bosom” (Luke 23:43; 2 Corinthians 5:8; Philippians 1:23).


David Jeremiah - LISTEN TO JESUS REVELATION 1:17–18

I am the First and the Last. I am He who lives, and was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore.

Who is Jesus? He’s the Son of God and the Son of Man. He is the God-man and the man-God. He is Jesus Christ, the Son of the Living God. He is God walking around in a body. He is God forever enthroned in heaven now at the right hand of the Father. Jesus Christ is God. One of the greatest illustrations of who Christ is and why we should listen to His words is found in the prologue of the Book of Revelation. John was in exile on the Isle of Patmos, and he saw this One to Whom we are appealing and said, “When I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead. But He laid His right hand on me, saying to me, ‘Do not be afraid; I am the First and the Last. I am He who lives, and was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore. Amen’ ” (Revelation 1:17–18). There is no one like Jesus Christ. He is the only one who has ever lived or ever will live who has a true grasp of the future. Because the Lord Jesus Christ as God lives in the time about which He speaks, He views all of time as if it were the present. He is the Eternal One, the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last.

Revelation 1:19  "Therefore write the things which you have seen, and the things which are, and the things which will take place after these things.

NET  Revelation 1:19 Therefore write what you saw, what is, and what will be after these things.

NLT  Revelation 1:19 "Write down what you have seen-- both the things that are now happening and the things that will happen.

ESV  Revelation 1:19 Write therefore the things that you have seen, those that are and those that are to take place after this.

NIV  Revelation 1:19 "Write, therefore, what you have seen, what is now and what will take place later.

GNT  Revelation 1:19 γράψον οὖν ἃ εἶδες καὶ ἃ εἰσὶν καὶ ἃ μέλλει γενέσθαι μετὰ ταῦτα.

KJV  Revelation 1:19 Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which shall be hereafter;

ASV  Revelation 1:19 Write therefore the things which thou sawest, and the things which are, and the things which shall come to pass hereafter;

CSB  Revelation 1:19 Therefore write what you have seen, what is, and what will take place after this.

NKJ  Revelation 1:19 "Write the things which you have seen, and the things which are, and the things which will take place after this.

NRS  Revelation 1:19 Now write what you have seen, what is, and what is to take place after this.

YLT  Revelation 1:19 'Write the things that thou hast seen, and the things that are, and the things that are about to come after these things;

  • the things: Rev 1:11,12-20 
  • and the things which are: Rev 2:1-3:22 
  • and the things which shall be: Rev 4:1-22:21 

THE PLAN OF THE
REVELATION

This verse is the key that opens the door to the book of the Revelation of Jesus Christ. Notice three sets of "the things." 

Therefore write the things which you have seen - John refers to the glorified Christ in Revelation 1

and the things which are - This refers to the seven letters to the churches in Revelation 2-3

and the things which will take place after these things - The things that are yet future in Revelation 4-22. Notice the time phrase after these things in Rev 4:1. Notice that there is no mention of a church or churches after Revelation 2-3. 

Strauss writes "These three divisions are clear and they do not overlap. Each division is complete in itself and distinct from the other two. This is God's own division of the book. Hold fast to it, and you cannot go astray in your quest to understand its meaning. Do not at any time lift events from one division and attempt to place them in another.

  • Chapter 1—The Unveiling of His Person (His Glory)
  • Chapters 2 and 3—The Utterances of His Purpose (His Grace)
  • Chapters 4-22—The Unfolding of His Power (His Government)

Revelation 1:20  "As for the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

NET  Revelation 1:20 The mystery of the seven stars that you saw in my right hand and the seven golden lampstands is this: The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

NLT  Revelation 1:20 This is the meaning of the mystery of the seven stars you saw in my right hand and the seven gold lampstands: The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

ESV  Revelation 1:20 As for the mystery of the seven stars that you saw in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands, the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

NIV  Revelation 1:20 The mystery of the seven stars that you saw in my right hand and of the seven golden lampstands is this: The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

GNT  Revelation 1:20 τὸ μυστήριον τῶν ἑπτὰ ἀστέρων οὓς εἶδες ἐπὶ τῆς δεξιᾶς μου καὶ τὰς ἑπτὰ λυχνίας τὰς χρυσᾶς· οἱ ἑπτὰ ἀστέρες ἄγγελοι τῶν ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησιῶν εἰσιν καὶ αἱ λυχνίαι αἱ ἑπτὰ ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαι εἰσίν.

KJV  Revelation 1:20 The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.

ASV  Revelation 1:20 the mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks are seven churches.

CSB  Revelation 1:20 The secret of the seven stars you saw in My right hand and of the seven gold lampstands is this: The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

NKJ  Revelation 1:20 "The mystery of the seven stars which you saw in My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands: The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands which you saw are the seven churches.

NRS  Revelation 1:20 As for the mystery of the seven stars that you saw in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

YLT  Revelation 1:20 the secret of the seven stars that thou hast seen upon my right hand, and the seven golden lamp-stands: the seven stars are messengers of the seven assemblies, and the seven lamp-stands that thou hast seen are seven assemblies.

  • mystery: Mt 13:11 Lu 8:10 
  • the seven stars: Rev 1:13,16 
  • the seven golden: Rev 1:12 
  • The seven stars: Rev 2:1,8,12,18 3:1,7,14 Mal 2:7 
  • and the: Zec 4:2 Mt 5:15,16 Php 2:15,16 1Ti 3:14-16 

As for the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in My right hand - Don't miss the important truth in this passage regarding mystery. What does John say about mystery? In other words does use the word like we commonly do in secular writings to describe that which is concealed or does he use it to describe what is revealed? Revealed of course. So what does that teach us about the definition of "mystery?" It is something previously hidden which has now been revealed. Mystery occurs 4 times in the Revelation -  Rev. 1:20; Rev. 10:7; Rev. 17:5; Rev. 17:7

Notice that the number seven occurs 11 times in Revelation 1 and 6 times in Rev 1:20. - Rev. 1:4; Rev. 1:11; Rev. 1:12; Rev. 1:16; Rev. 1:20 

and the seven golden lampstands:

the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches,

and the seven lampstands are the seven churches

 

 

 

 

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