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Word Studies, Devotionals, Sermons, Illustrations
Old and New Testament
God, after He
ago to the
In many parts [or, Bit by bit] and in various ways in time past, God
having spoken to the fathers by the prophets, in these last days He
spoke to us by [His] Son,
times past the word of God came to our fathers through the prophets,
in different parts and in different ways;
the past God spoke to our ancestors through the prophets. He spoke
to them many times and in many different ways. (ICB:
God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past
unto the fathers by the prophets,
Many were the forms and fashions in which God spoke of old to our
fathers by the prophets
God, who gave our forefathers many different glimpses of the
in the words of the prophets (Phillips:
In many parts and in different ways God in former times having
spoken to the fathers by means of the prophets, (Eerdmans)
In many parts, and many ways, God of old having spoken to the fathers
in the prophets,
J Ligon Duncan
J Ligon Duncan
J Ligon Duncan
T C Edwards
T C Edwards
Explore the Bible
F W Farrar
F B Hole
Jamieson, F, B
S Lewis Johnson
S Lewis Johnson
J Vernon McGee
F B Meyer
F B Meyer
Net Bible Notes
A W Pink
A W Pink
A T Robertson
C H Spurgeon
C H Spurgeon
Hebrews Commentary-Looking Unto Jesus -
goto page 6
and Study Guide
Hebrews 1-2 Glimpses
of the Glories of our Lord
Hebrews 1 Commentary
Hebrews 1:1-3 Notes
Hebrews 1 Commentary
Hebrews 1 Commentary
Hebrews 1:1-14 Notes
Hebrews 1 Commentary
Hebrews 1:1-2a God Has Spoken
Hebrews 1:2b-3 The Supremacy of
Hebrews Expository Notes
Hebrews 1:1-2 Commentary
The Epistle to the
Hebrews 1:1-2 Notes
Hebrews 1:1-2:4 The Uniqueness
and Authority of Jesus Christ
Hebrews 1:1-2 God
Has Spoken -
Provocative-Check it Out
Hebrews 1 Commentary
- Expositor's Greek Testament
Hebrews 1:1-3 Jesus: The Great
Revelation of God (1)
Hebrews 1:1-3 Jesus the Great Revelation
of God (2)
Hebrews 1:1-3 Jesus:
The Great Revelation of God (3)
Expositor's Bible Commentary
Hebrews 1:1-3 The
Revelation in a Son - Expositor's Bible Commentary
How can I get to Heaven?
2:1-4 Pay Attention
Christ is Better
Hebrews 1:1-4 The
Unrivalled Excellence of Christ
Hebrews Commentary - 641pp Discovering Christ in Hebrews
Hebrews 1:1-4 God's Greatest Word
Hebrews 1 Commentary
Hebrews 1 Commentary
Hebrews 1 Commentary
Hebrews 1:1-4 The
Finality and Superiority of the Son of God
Hebrews Commentary - Lange's
Hebrews - Examine
Yourself, Pt 2
Hebrews 1:1-2 Introduction to
Thru the Bible
Hebrews 1:1-2 The Nature of the
Incarnation, Part 1
Hebrews 1:1-3 The Supremacy of God's
Hebrews 1:2-3 The Preeminence of Christ
Hebrews 1:2-4 The Nature of the
Incarnation, Part 2
Commentary on Hebrews
Hebrews 1:1-2: The
Word of God
Hebrews 1 Commentary
Hebrews 1 Commentary
Hebrews 1 Commentary
Hebrews 1:1-2 God Has
Hebrews - Introduction
Hebrews 1:1 Divers Manners
Hebrews 1:1-3 The Superiority of Christ over the Prophet
Hebrews 1:1-3 The Superiority of Christ
over the Prophet
Hebrews 1:1-4 In these last
days, God has spoken by a Son
Hebrews 1:1-4 He made
purification for sins
Hebrews 1:1-4 He sat down at
the right hand of majesty
Hebrews 1 Jesus Christ-
infinitely greater than angels
Hebrews 1 Critical & Exegetical
Hebrews 1 Homiletic &
Suggestive Sermon Notes-Check
Hebrews 1 Illustrations
Hebrews 1 Exposition
Hebrews 1:1-2 God's Revelation
of Redemptive Truth to Man
Hebrews 1:2-3 The Transcendent
Glory of the Son of God
Hebrews 1:1-2 The Two
Testaments a Progressive Revelation of God
Hebrews 1:2-3 The Surpassing
Glory of Christ...
Hebrews 1:1-3 Christ as Prophet
of the Church
Hebrews 1:1-2 God Speaking to
Hebrews 1:2 Jesus Inheritor of
Hebrews 1: Greek Word
Hebrews 1:1-2a Introduction
Hebrews 1:2b, 3 Christ Is Appointed Heir
Of All Things
Hebrews 1:1-2 God Has Spoken
Hebrews 1:1-3 Portraits of Christ
Hebrews 1:1-3 Portraits of Christ, Part 2
Hebrews 1:1-4 The
Glory of the Son
Christ's Ascension to Glory
Letter to Hebrews -
329 page commentary
Hebrews 1:1 Death A Time of Questioning
Hebrews 1:1 God Hath Spoken
Christ's Relation to God
Hebrews 1 Commentary -
Hebrews 1:1-3 Depths and Heights
Hebrews 1 Exposition
Hebrews 1:1 - 2:4 The Final
Hebrews 1:1-3 Greater Than the Prophets
Hebrews 1: Greek Word Studies
The Present Work of Christ in Heaven - 8
Hebrews 1:1-2 Intro Jesus, God Of Power
Hebrews - Part 1 - Download
What Can We Learn From The Angels?
AFTER HE SPOKE LONG AGO TO THE
FATHERS: polumerous kai polutropos
palai o theos:lalesas
(AAPMSN) en tois prophetais:
(Ge 3:15; 6:3; 6:13-22, 8:15-19; 9:1-17; 12:1-3, 12:2; 12:3, 26:2, 3, 4,
5; 28:12, 13, 14, 15; Ge 32:24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30; 46:2, 3, 4; Ex
3:1; Ex 3:2-22 Lk 24:27; Lk 24:44 Acts 28:23; 1Pe 1:10;1Pe 1:11 1Pe 1:12
2Pe 1:20, 21)
Epistle to the Hebrews
Consider Jesus Our Great High Priest
BETTER THAN THE ANGELS:
SEVEN OT QUOTATIONS
Septuagint - LXX)
Jesus is God's
only begotten Son
God is His Father
Jesus is the Son
Jesus is to be
Hebrews 1:8, 1:9
Jesus Christ is God
Forever and ever
Hebrews 1:10, 11,12
Immutable and Eternal
Victor over All
*Psalm 97:7 - Some scholars favor this quotation as from Deut 32:43
which in the Greek (LXX)
reads "Rejoice, ye heavens, with him, and let all the angels
of God worship him". Either quote substantiates the writer's
In the past God spoke to our forefathers (NIV),
in time past (NKJV)
to our ancestors (NLT)
ancient days (WNT)
in olden times (Williams)
Referring to Hebrews it has said that
There is no portion of Scripture whose authorship is more disputed, nor
any of which the inspiration is more indisputable.
Irving Jensen says that...
The main theme of Hebrews may be
stated thus: The knowledge and assurance of how great this High Priest
Jesus is should lift the drifting believer from spiritual lethargy to
vital Christian maturity. Stated another way: The antidote for backsliding
is a growing personal knowledge of Jesus. (Jensen, I. L. Jensen's Survey
of the New Testament: Search and discover. Chicago: Moody Press)
Key Words (see
notes on key words)
in Hebrews: Whenever you are studying a book of the Bible make a conscious
effort to observe and note the repeated words, phrases or ideas that the
author records. In so doing you will begin to better understand the
writer's ultimate purpose for the book. You will also "make the book your
own" because you will be much more likely to remember the main ideas as
you "prospect" for the gold hidden in the key words. Admittedly I have
given you a "cheat sheet" below, but don't let that stop you for observing
carefully (and marking distinctively) the words in your Bible.
Angel - 13x in 12v - Heb
1:4, 5, 6, 7, (2x), He 1:13; 2:2, 5, 7, 9, 16; 12:22; 13:2
Better - 13x in 12v - Heb
1:4; 6:9; 7:19, 22; 8:6 (2x); He 9:23; 10:34; 11:4, 16, 35, 40; 12:24
Blood - 23x in 20v -
Heb 2:14; 9:7, He 9:12 (2x), He 9:13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 (2x), He
9:25; 10:4, 19, 29; 11:28; 12:4, 24 (2x); He 13:11, 12, 20
Covenant - 21x in 18v - Heb 7:22; 8:6, 7, 8, 9 (2x), He 8:13;
9:1, 4 (2x), He 9:15 (2x), He 9:16, 17, 20; 10:16, 29; 12:24; 13:20
- 6x in 6v - Heb 5:9; 6:2; 9:12, 14, 13:20
Faith - 33x in 31v - Heb
4:2; 6:1, 12; 10:22, 38, 39; 11:1, 3, 4 (2x), He 11:5, 6, 7 (2x), He 11:8,
9, 11, 13, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 39; 12:2; 13:7
Faithful - 6x in 6v -
Heb 2:17; 3:2, 5, 6; 10:23; 11:11
- 5x in 5v - Heb 9:24; 11:12; 12:23, 25, 26
Heavenly - 6x n 6v - Heb 3:1; 6:4; 8:5; 9:23; 11:16; 12:22
God - 71x in 66v - Heb
1:1, 6, 8, 9; 2:4, 9, 13, 17; 3:4, 12; 4:4, 9, 10, 12, 14; 5:1, 4, 10, 12;
6:1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, 17, 18; 7:1, 3, 19, 25; 8:5, 10; 9:14, 20, 24;
10:7, 12, 21, 29, 31, 36; 11:3, 4, 5, 10, 16, 19, 25, 40; 12:2, 7, 15, 16,
22, 23, 28, 29; 13:4, 7, 15, 16, 20
- 8x in 8v - Heb 2:3; 4:14; 7:4; 10:21, 32, 35; 12:1; 13:20
Greater - 6x in 6v - Heb 6:13, 16; 7:7, 23; 9:11; 11:26
- 14x in 14v (see also Son) - Heb 2:9; 3:1; 4:14; 6:20; 7:22, 24;
10:10, 19; 12:2, 24; 13:8, 12, 20, 21
Let us - 13x in 12v - Heb 4:1, 11, 14, 16; 6:1; 10:22, 23, 24; 12:1
(2x), He 12:28; 13:13, 15
Perfect - 9x in 9v - Heb
2:10; 5:9; 7:19, 28; 9:9, 11; 10:1; 11:40; 12:23
Priest (High priest,
priesthood) - 36x in 33v - Heb 2:17; 3:1; 4:14, 15; 5:1, 5, 6, 10; 6:20;
7:1, 3, 5, 11, (2x), He 7:12, 14, 15, 17, 21 (2x), He 7:23, 24, 26, 27,
28; 8:1, 3, 4; 9:6, 7, 11, 25; 10:11, 21; 13:11
Sacrifice - 19x in 18v -
Heb 5:1, 3; 7:27; 8:3; 9:9, 23, 26; 10:1, 3, 5, 6, 8 (2x), He 10:11, 12,
26; 11:4; 13:15, 16
Sin (Sinners) - 54x in 49v - Heb 1:3; 2:12, 14, 17, 18; 3:13, 17;
4:6, 14, 15; 5:1, 2, 3, 11; 6:6, 13; 7:25, 26, 27 (2x), He 8:4, 12; 9:7,
10, 15, 26 (2x), He 9:28 (2x); He 10:1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 11, 12, 17, 18, 19,
21, 22, 26 (2x); Heb 11:11, 25; 12:1 (2x), He 12:3, 4, 16, 28; 13:3, 11
Son - 25x in 22v (not all
refer to God's Son) - Heb 1:2, 5 (2x), He 1:8; 2:6, 10; 3:6; 4:14; 5:5, 8;
6:6; 7:3, 5, 28; 10:29; 11:17, 21, 22, 24; 12:5 (2x), He 12:6, 7, (2x), He
Therefore - 24x in 24v
- Heb 1:9; 2:14, 17; 3:1, 7, 10; 4:1, 6, 11, 14, 16; 6:1; 7:25; 9:18, 23;
10:5, 19, 35; 11:12, 16; 12:1, 12, 28; 13:12
by Verse Notes
will take the position that Paul cannot be established as the author and
thus the author is treated as unknown to all except God. This is the only
New Testament epistle that does not begin like a first-century letter,
with a formal salutation and prayer. It does have an epistolatory ending.
The Greek translation of the Hebrew OT, the Septuagint (usually
abbreviated LXX) is the source of all the OT quotations from the Old
Testament, except two (He 10:30-note;
Respected Christian theologian R C Sproul once said that
I were cast into prison and allowed but one book, it would be the Bible.
If I were allowed only one book of the Bible, it would be the Epistle to
the Hebrews...because it contains our most comprehensive discussion of the
redemption wrought for us in the sacrifice of Jesus.
Stedman comments that
The epistle to the Hebrews begins as dramatically as a rocket shot to the
moon. In one paragraph, the writer breathtakingly transports his readers
from the familiar ground of Old Testament prophetic
writings, through the incarnation of the Son (who is at once creator, heir
and sustainer of all things and the fullest possible manifestation of
deity), past the purifying sacrifice of the cross to the exaltation of
Jesus on the ultimate seat of power in the universe. It is a paragraph
daring in its claims and clearly designed to arrest the reader's attention
and compel a further hearing. (Hebrews
1:1-3 Greater Than the Prophets)
(Theos) No other NT Epistle comes to the point as quickly as this
There is no attempt to prove God’s
existence. It is simply a self-evident given. Without
benefit of salutation or introduction, the writer plunges into setting
forth the superlative glories of the Lord Jesus Christ. These first four
verses comprise one majestic sentence in the Greek text and read like the
opening of a formal Greek oration rather than the customary "greetings" of
a letter and are among the four most important Christological passages in
Jn 1:1; , 2:7, 2:8, 2:9, 2:10, 2:11;
Col 1:15, 16, 17, 19, 19, 20-
Co 1:15; 16; 17; 18; 19 20;
Php 2:6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11-see notes
Hebrews begins like Genesis and John with
It is significant that the subject of the first verb is God,
is constantly before us in this epistle, used some 68 times or an average
of about once every 73 words throughout the epistle and few NT books speak
so often. Right at the beginning, then, we are confronted with the reality
and the fact that he has been active in man's story. How deftly the author
unveils the Trinity as active in the revelation of Scripture, here God
introduced as having spoken in time past, later noting
God the Son
God the Holy Spirit
After this long opening Greek
sentence, the author immediately begins quoting Scripture in the remainder
of this chapter.
[word study]) which originally referred to the
chattering of birds or prattling of children and evolved in use to the
highest form of speech, the thrice holy God choosing language
as His primary medium of communication to fallen, sinful mankind.
Note that spoke is in the aorist tense,
in context indicating past tense, the point being that aorist is used both
of God speaking by the prophets and also His speaking by Christ,
indicating that He has finished speaking in both cases. Beware of
those who teach about a new revelation, a word of prophecy, etc. God
speaks to us today primarily through His Word and the ministry of His
Spirit as we read, study and meditate on His Word. (cp Jer 23:16)
As Francis Schaeffer's book puts
He Is There And He Is Not
is not speechless. The true and living God, unlike the idols of the
heathen, is no dumb Being. The God of Scripture, unlike that absolute
and impersonal "first Cause" of philosophers and evolutionists, is not
Speak (spoke, spoken, speaking) is clearly a
key word in Hebrews (Click 18 occurrences in
Hebrews in NAS). Note that God took
the initiative to speak in the past and at the last!
revelation" contrasts with "natural revelation"
described by Paul as
that which is known about God is evident within (all men) for God made it evident to them. For since the creation
of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine
nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been
made, so that they are without excuse." (Ro 1:19, 20-see notes
David parallels this
thought in Psalm 19 writing that
the heavens are
telling of the glory of God and their expanse is declaring the work of His
hands. Day to day pours forth speech, and night to night reveals
knowledge." (Ps 19:1, 2-note)
means in the past, of olden times, long before now or of old. "Long
ago" is a time phrase
which in context refers to the time prior to Messiah's first coming and
contrasts to the "last
days" inaugurated at His
incarnation. The OT revelation is thus no novelty but has its roots deep
in the past.
Guzik notes that
Hebrews has 29
quotations and 53 allusions to the Old Testament, for a total of 82
references. Significantly, Hebrews does not refer even once to the
books of the Apocrypha. (Hebrews
The writer's emphasis on the Old Testament at
the inception of this epistle would be especially meaningful to a Jewish
audience trained up in the truths taught by the Law and the prophets.
continue in the things you have learned...from
childhood you have known the sacred writings (Old Testament
Scriptures) which are able to give you the wisdom that leads to
salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus." (see notes
Barnes adds that since
the object of
the (author of Hebrews) was to show the superior claims of the
gospel, and to lead them from putting confidence in the rites instituted
in accordance with the directions of the Old Testament, it was of
essential importance that he should admit that their belief of the
inspiration of the prophets was well founded.
(pater) refers to the Old
Testament forefathers and is contrast
us in the next verse.
would have been a term familiar to Jewish reader as illustrated by Paul's
address to the synagogue in Perga where he said
we preach to you the good news of
the promise made to
the fathers that God has
fulfilled this promise to our children in that He raised up Jesus, as it
is also written in the second Psalm, 'THOU ART MY SON; TODAY I HAVE
BEGOTTEN THEE." (Acts 13:32
Later to the Romans
Christ has become a servant to the
circumcision (Jews) on behalf of the truth of God to confirm the
promises given to
(The 9 other similar uses of the phrase the fathers
in the NT - Luke 1:17; John 6:58; 7:22; Acts 13:32; Ro 9:5; 11:28; 15:8;
Heb 1:1; 2Pet 3:4)
IN THE PROPHETS IN MANY
PORTIONS AND IN MANY WAYS: en tois prophetais polumeros kai polutropos:
(Nu 12:6, 7, 8;12:7, 12:8 Joel 2:28) (Lk 1:55;Lk 1:72 Jn 7:22; Acts 13:32)
through the prophets at many times and in various ways," (NIV)
at sundry times
and in divers manners" (KJV)
God spoke in
partial and various ways" (NAB)
forefathers many different glimpses of the truth in the words of the
many parts and in different ways" (Wuest)
moments in the past and by many means," (NJB)
in many separate
revelations [ each of which set forth a portion of the Truth] and in
different ways" (Amp)
in many distinct messages and by
various methods" (WNT)
in fragmentary and
varied fashion" (ISV)
by divers portions and
in divers manners" (ASV)
In many parts
[or, Bit by bit] and in various ways " (ALT)
it was bit by
bit and in many different ways" (Williams)
scattered bits and pieces!" (College Press NIV Commentary)
many fragments and in many fashions"
The author in this statement sets his seal upon the
Divine inspiration and authority of the Old Testament Scriptures.
gives us an excellent
overview writing that
The author intends to present a series
of arguments for the superiority of Jesus over all rival claims to
allegiance which his readers were feeling and hearing. Their attention was
easily diverted off in other directions, just as our attention is easily
distracted today. They, like us, were being tempted, frightened or
pressured into following other voices and serving other masters. In
Hebrews 1-7, he examines these rival authorities and reveals their
inadequacies. None was, in itself, a false or fraudulent voice. Each was
ordained by God and proper in its intended place. Each had served the
people of God well in the past, and no teaching or expectation was wrong
at the time it was given. But now the final word, the ultimate revelation
from God toward which all the other voices had pointed, had come. To this
supreme voice the author directs his readers' attention, and ours, by
contrasting this final word with the past utterances.
First, there were the prophets,
God's ancient spokesmen (Hebrews 1:1-3); then the angels, Israel's
guardians (Hebrews 1:4-2:18); then Israel's great leader, Moses (Hebrews 3:1-4:7);
Israel's godly general, Joshua (Hebrews 4:8-13); and finally the founder of
Israel's priesthood, Aaron (Hebrews 4:14-7:28). Each was a voice from
Israel's past that needed to be heard but that was woefully inadequate if
followed alone. It was clearly a case of the good being the enemy of the
best. Eclipsing all these, as the rising sun eclipses the light of the
stars, is the figure of Jesus, God's Son, creator and heir of all things."
1:1-3 Greater Than the Prophets)
from pró = before or forth + phemí = tell) is literally one who speaks forth and as used in
Scripture refers to one who is
divinely inspired to communicate God’s will to His people and to disclose
the future to them (Dt 18:18).
144x in 138v in NAS and always rendered prophet (63) or prophets (81) -
Matt 1:22; 2:5, 15, 17, 23; 3:3; 4:14; 5:12, 17; 7:12; 8:17; 10:41; 11:9,
13; 12:17, 39; 13:17, 35, 57; 14:5; 16:14; 21:4, 11, 26, 46; 22:40;
23:29ff, 34, 37; 24:15; 26:56; 27:9; Mark 1:2; 6:4, 15; 8:28; 11:32; Luke
1:70, 76; 3:4; 4:17, 24, 27; 6:23; 7:16, 26, 39; 9:8, 19; 10:24; 11:47,
49f; 13:28, 33f; 16:16, 29, 31; 18:31; 20:6; 24:19, 25, 27, 44; John 1:21,
23, 25, 45; 4:19, 44; 6:14, 45; 7:40, 52; 8:52f; 9:17; 12:38; Acts 2:16,
30; 3:18, 21ff; 7:37, 42, 48, 52; 8:28, 30, 34; 10:43; 11:27; 13:1, 15,
20, 27, 40; 15:15, 32; 21:10; 24:14; 26:22, 27; 28:23, 25; Rom 1:2; 3:21;
11:3; 1 Cor 12:28f; 14:29, 32, 37; Eph 2:20; 3:5; 4:11; 1 Thess 2:15;
Titus 1:12; Heb 1:1; 11:32; Jas 5:10; 1 Pet 1:10; 2 Pet 2:16; 3:2; Rev
10:7; 11:10, 18; 16:6; 18:20, 24; 22:6, 9
A prophet is one who speaks to men for God; a
priest is one who speaks to God for men. The priest takes man’s
problems to God; the prophet takes God’s message to men. Both, if
they are true, are commissioned by God, but their ministries are quite
different. The book of Hebrews has a great deal to say about priests,
but its opening verse speaks of prophets. The Holy Spirit
establishes the divine authorship of the Old Testament, its accuracy and
its authority, through the fact that it was given to and delivered by
God’s prophets." For example the "LORD said to Moses, "See,
I make you as God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron shall be your
prophet." (Ex 7:1)
John: Hebrews. Moody Press
Thus, the prophets
were the mouthpieces of God and their words were not the production of
their own spirit, but came from the Holy Spirit as emphasized by Peter who
no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but
men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God. (1Pe 1:21-note)
The prophet John the
Baptist quoting another prophet Isaiah explaining that he was but
a voice of One who is crying out in the
wilderness (Jn 1:23)
The One giving the message was God, John being His voice,
a vessel for honor, sanctified, useful to the Master, prepared for every
good work. (2Ti 2:21-note)
received their call or appointment directly from God, and some like
Jeremiah (Jer 1:5) or John the Baptist (Jn 1:13, 14, 15), were called
before birth. Although not all that God had spoken through the prophets
was predictive prophecy, this aspect of God's revelation is one of the
strongest evidences that the Bible is divinely inspired.
Barclay adds that
it is no part of
the purpose of the writer to the Hebrews to belittle the prophets; it is
his aim to establish the supremacy of Jesus Christ. He is not saying that
there is a break between the Old Testament revelation and that of the New
Testament; he is stressing the fact that there is continuity , but
continuity that ends in consummation."
The KJV translates
this phrase as by the prophets but the Greek is
explains that in
- Used here in the locative case...the locative of sphere. That is,
the writers of the First Testament constituted the sphere within which God
spoke. He spoke exclusively through them and through no other men,
so far as the written revelation is concerned. This preposition is used
also in the instrumental case. Then the writers would be looked
upon as the instruments in God’s hands by which the First Testament
Scriptures were written down."
K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans
documenting that God spoke long ago...
God spoke to Adam and told him that
the Savior would come from the Seed of the woman (Ge 3:15).
God spoke to Abraham and told him that the Savior would come from his Seed
(Ge 12:3, 18:18, 22:18).
God spoke to Jacob and told him that the Savior would come through the
tribe of Judah (Gen 49:10).
God spoke to David and told him that the Savior would be born of his house
God spoke to Micah and told him that the Savior would be born at Bethlehem
God spoke to Isaiah and told him that the Savior would be born of a virgin
See also topic -
That you may, therefore, understand the full import of this
the following arrangement shall be given —
Formerly by the Prophets
Now by the Son;
Then to the Fathers
But now to us;
Then at various times
Now as at the end of the times.
(polumeros from polús
= many + méros = part) (only use in the NT) is literally "many parts". It
means part by part, fragmentarily. The word points to the fragmentary
character of former revelation --it came in multiple segments or portions,
in many ways, in various manners. Polumeros could refer both
to the various geographical locations of the revelation as well as to the
various methods of disclosure—direct revelation, dreams, visions,
etc.—thus stressing the diversity of God’s Word
polumeros means that God spoke
a word here and there, now and then,
some at one time, some at another, to some a few words, to others many.
The speech of God
throughout the ages past was not unbroken chatter but given in episodes of speech
punctuating seasons of silence (eg 400 silent years of the inter-testament
period) This phrase is first in the Greek
construction for emphasis (emphatic position) and refers to the
incremental and progressive revelation (Genesis gives some
truth, Exodus some more truth, etc) in which God disclosed Himself in
portions of truth at different times until the appearance of the Son, Who
Himself is the consummation of Truth (Jn 1:17, Jn 14:6),
the fulfillment of the Law and Prophets (Mt 5:17-note).
The prophetic revelation was fragmentary, piece by piece in 39 OT books
delivered over some 1500 years by forty-plus writers, each contributing "portions"
of divine revelation, none in themselves complete. Finally, the revelation
is complete in Christ. Hallelujah!
Testament revelation was but the refracted rays, not the light unbroken
and complete. As illustrations of this we may refer to the gradual making
known of the Divine character through His different titles (Click
Studies on the Names of God), or to the prophesies concerning the
coming Messiah. It was 'here a little and there a little.'"
If is as if God had spoken in a spectrum of pure variegated lights in the
Old Testament and that the arrival of Jesus was like a "prism" Who
collects all these bands of pure light and focuses them into one final,
perfect and pure beam.
to the fragmentary nature of the OT revelation adding that even the
prophesied of the grace that would come...made careful search and inquiry,
seeking to know what person or time the Spirit of Christ within them was
indicating as He predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories to
follow." (see notes
1 Peter 1:10;
All was not
revealed to each one prophet; but one received one portion of revelation,
and another another. To Noah the quarter of the world to which Messiah
should belong was revealed; to Abraham, the nation; to Jacob, the tribe;
to David and Isaiah, the family; to Micah, the town of nativity; to
Daniel, the exact time; to Malachi, the coming of His forerunner, and His
second advent; through Jonah, His burial and resurrection; through Isaiah
and Hosea, His resurrection. Each only knew in part; but when that which
was perfect came in Messiah, that which was in part was done away" (1Cor
F B Meyer
puts it this way
prophet could speak out all the truth. Each was entrusted with one or two
syllables in the mighty sentences of God's speech. At the best the view
caught of God, and given to men through the prophets, though true, was
partial and limited. But in Jesus there is nothing of this piecemeal
revelation. "In Him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily." He
hath revealed the Father. Whosoever hath seen him hath seen God; and to
hear his words is to get the full-orbed revelation of the Infinite. (Hebrews
1:3-4: The Dignity of Christ)
from polús = many + trópos = a manner) points to the
different media and modes through which God disclosed His word, including
dream, direct voice, signs, angelic visitations and even in different ways
to different men. He spoke to Moses in the burning bush (Ex 3:2ff), to
Elijah in a still, small voice (1Ki 19:12), to Isaiah in a vision in the
temple (Isa 6:1ff), to Hosea in his family circumstances (Hos 1:2), and to
Amos in a basket of summer fruit (Am 8:1).
also alludes to the different OT literary types including law, history,
poetry, allegory, prophecy, etc. The writer's main point in this section
is to emphasize that all OT revelation was God speaking to man, albeit in
a manner that was fragmentary and occasional, lacking fullness and
we may see here an illustration of the sovereignty of God: He did not
act uniformly or confine Himself to any one method of speaking to the
fathers. He spake by way of promise and prediction, by types and symbols,
by commandments and precepts, by warnings and exhortations."
Expositor’s adds that the people of Israel “were like men listening to
a clock striking the hour, always getting nearer the truth but obliged to
wait till the whole is heard.”
MacArthur adds that
We must, of course, clearly understand that the Old Testament was not in
any way erroneous (2Ti 3:16, 17-
note). But there was in it a development, of spiritual light and of moral
standards, until God’s truth was refined and finalized in the New
Testament. The distinction is not in the validity of the revelation—its
rightness or wrongness—but in the completeness of it and the time of it.
Just as children are first taught letters, then words, and then sentences,
so God gave His revelation. It began with the “picture book” of types
and ceremonies and prophecies and progressed to final completion in Jesus
Christ and His New Testament...The Old Testament is only a part of God’s
truth, but it is not partially His truth. It is not His complete truth,
but it is completely His truth. It is God’s revelation, His progressive
revelation preparing His people for the coming of His Son, Jesus Christ.
John: Hebrews. Moody Press
Isaac Watts expresses the thoughts of verse 1-2 in hymn:
God, Who in various methods told
His mind and will to saints of old,
Sent down His Son, with truth and grace,
To teach us in these latter days.
Our nation reads the written Word,
That book of life, that sure record:
The bright inheritance of heav’n
Is by the sweet conveyance giv’n.
God’s kindest thoughts are here expressed,
Able to make us wise and bless’d;
The doctrines are divinely true,
Fit for reproof and comfort, too.
Who in Various Methods Told"
to us in
Amplified: [But] in the last of these days He has spoken to us
in [the person of a] Son, Whom He appointed Heir and lawful Owner of
all things, also by and through Whom He created the worlds and the
reaches of space and the ages of time [He made, produced, built,
operated, and arranged them in order].
Bible - Lockman)
Barclay: but in the end of these days he has spoken to us in
One who is a Son, a Son whom he destined to enter into possession of
all things, a Son by whose agency he made the universe. (Westminster
Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath
appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;
NLT: And now in these final days, he has spoken to us through
his Son. God promised everything to the Son as an inheritance, and
through the Son he created the universe. (NLT
- Tyndale House)
has now, at the end of the present age, given us the truth in the Son.
Through the Son God made the whole universe, and to the Son he has
ordained that all creation shall ultimately belong (Phillips:
Wuest: in the last of these days spoke to us in One who by
nature is [His] Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through
whom also He constituted the ages; (Eerdmans)
in these last days did speak to us in a
Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He did
make the ages;
LAST DAYS: ep eschatou ton hemeron touton:
(Ge 49:1; Nu 24:14; Dt 4:30; 18:15; 31:29; Isa 2:2; Jer 30:24; 48:47; Ezek
38:16; Da 2:28; 10:14; Hos 3:5; Mic 4:1; Acts 2:17; Gal 4:4; Eph 1:10; 2Pe
3:3; Jude 1:18)
THESE LAST DAYS?
In these last days is rendered
variously as - "at the end of these days" (DNT),
"But now in these final days"
(NLT), "at the end of
the present age" (Phillips), "in the last of these days." (Wuest)
The meaning of Hebrews 1:2 is that at the very termination of the times in which God is speaking to man, He
speaks, not through the prophets, but in His Son, Who is "the Word"
(Jn 1:1-2). So the writer of Hebrews is referring to the incarnation of
God's Son at His First Coming. It follows that this is when the last
days began. Luke utilizes the same time phrase writing
that "in the last days
God says that "I will pour forth of My Spirit upon all mankind"
(Acts 2:17), a prophecy
from Joel 2:28 which was partially fulfilled at Pentecost, at the birth of
the Church. Obviously Pentecost is related to the First Coming (and then
the ascension) of Christ. We can therefore conclude that the last
days were inaugurated by the First Coming of Christ.
noting that eschatos can refer specifically to Jesus’ return on “the last
day” or more generally to the period of time between His (Christ's) first
and second coming."
In his Second
exhorted us to be aware "that in the
last days mockers will come
with their mocking, following after their own lusts and saying, "Where is
the promise of His coming?"
In this context the mockers are not referring to the first but the
of Christ. It follows that the last days began with Christ's first coming
and will extend to His Second Coming.
In summary, the
last days are the time period between the First and Second Comings of
our Lord Jesus Christ. This time period overlaps with the so called
(eschatos from ek = from, primarily as it relates to place)
an adjective which means last in time
or space/place (most remote) (Acts 1:8, Acts 13:47).
Eschatos can refer to the lowest status or "last place" (Mt 19:30)
Eschatos indicates the meaning
“last” in the sense of a final stage in a process. For example, in Rev
15:1 the “last seven” plagues of judgment against the earth are
declared to be the completion of God’s wrath against the wickedness of
Eschatos can indicate the final element in a significant series.
THE LAST DAYS
One of the more notable uses of
eschatos is when it is coupled with hemera (day) to give us the well known
phrase "last days." See
for the "when" of the last days.
As noted above eschatos means "last" in time, last in a series, the
final stage in a drama. Eschatology then is the study of the "last
things", especially the times preceding and culminating in the Second
Coming of the King of kings (Rev 17:14-note,
Indeed, the return of our Lord Jesus Christ is the final (eschatos) stage
of the drama, the consummation of the history ("HIS-story") of the world!
The phrase "LAST DAYS" (eschatos hemera) is found in both the NT & the OT
(Specifically in the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Hebrew OT.)
See below for discussion of the prophetic significance of the 20 great OT
passages that use "eschatos hemera", "last days".
As noted above, ESCHATOS
describes the very DAYS in which we are living and which began at
the First Coming of Christ, for "in these LAST DAYS (God)
has spoken to us in His Son" (Heb 1:2), "in the LAST DAYS God says
'that I will pour forth My Spirit upon all mankind" (Acts 2:17), in the
LAST DAYS difficult (dangerous, hard, troublesome) times will come (2
Timothy 3:1), "it is in the LAST DAYS that you have stored up your
treasure" (James 5:3) and "in the LAST DAYS mockers will come with
their mocking, following after their own lusts and saying 'Where is the
promise of HIS COMING?'" (2 Peter 3:3-4). Indeed, HE IS COMING
AGAIN, for He Himself promised that we "will see the Son of Man
COMING ON THE CLOUDS OF THE SKY with power and great glory" (Mt
24:30), a promise which was repeated by John who declared "BEHOLD, HE
IS COMING WITH THE CLOUDS and every eye will see Him, even those who
pierced Him; and all the tribes of the earth will mourn over Him. Even so.
Amen." (Rev 1:7-note).
Father, hear our cry -
"Maranatha" ("Our Lord Come!"). Amen
(1 Corinthians 16:22)
used to describe a number of entities in the New Testament - Money ("last cent" - Mt 5:26, Lk
12:59); the state of one's soul (Mt 12:45, Lk 11:26, 2Pe 2:20), a place
"in line" so to speak (Mt 19:30, 20:16, Mk 10:31, Lk 13:30, cp Mt 20:8, 14), the day
of resurrection of believers (Jn 6:39, 40, 44, 54, 11:24); judgment day of
unbelievers (Jn 12:48); how to be "first" (Mk 9:35, Lk 14:10); Christ (the last Adam - 1Co 15:45); the last
trumpet associated with our bodies being changed in the twinkling of an
eye (1Co 15:52); the time of the Second Coming (1Pe 1:5); the last
plagues which complete the outpouring of God's righteous wrath (Rev 15:1-note,
and finally, eschatos describes
death as the "last enemy" (1Cor 15:26) who will "at last" be destroyed
Eschatos is used three times in a descriptive
Name of Jesus (Rev 1:17-note,
The Greek word Eschatos "has a variety of meanings
depending upon the larger frame of reference: farthest extent in space,
final element of time, and last piece of money." (The Anchor
Yale Bible Dictionary 2:576)
NIDNTT writes that
The adjective eschatos, attested from
Homer onwards, is a superlative form derived from the prep. ek/ex, out of,
away from, and originally designated the person or thing that was furthest
outside (ex). Spatially it meant the place furthest away (e.g. Hesiod,
Theog. 731, the utmost ends of the earth), temporally the last events of a
series (e.g. Hdt., 7, 107), materially the extreme, rarely the highest
(e.g. Libanius, Orationes 59, 88, greatest wisdom), mostly the lowest
place in order of rank (e.g. Plato, Tht. 209b; Diod. Sic. 8, 18, 31, the
most miserable of men)....
The Gk. language uses the term eschatos
to designate the end-point of a continuously conceived succession of
circumstances....In qualitative respects eschatos designates an extreme
positive or negative intensification (Pindar, Ol. 1, 113, the highest
reaches its peak with kings; Plato, Rep. 361a, greatest injustice; Gorgias
511d, extreme danger).
Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986.
What happens in the last days
(observations derived solely from the passages which use "eschatos")?
There is a pouring forth of God's
Spirit (Acts 2:17); there will be difficult, dangerous, perilous times
(2Ti 3:1); mockers will come (2Pe 3:3, cp Jude 1:18), God has spoken (past
tense) in His Son (Heb 1:2, cp "last times" 1Pe 1:20); treasure will rust
(Jas 5:3). Compare to the phrase the last hour - antichrist coming
Eschatos - 52x in 47v - Eschatos
is translated in NAS = end(1), last(46), last of all(1), last
man(1), last men(1), late(1), remotest part(1).
(For context see Mt 5:23-25) "Truly I say to you, you
will not come out of there until you have paid up the last cent (a
small Roman coin).
Comment: In the ancient
world debtors were jailed till the debts were paid. Reconciliation should
be made today. If there is any bitterness, anger, unforgiveness, hatred
(or any other sin) that is separating you from someone, you need to "pay
up the last cent" so to speak!
John MacArthur: The basic
teaching is plain and unmistakable: we are to make every effort, with
no delay, to make our relationship right with our brother before our
relationship can be right with God and we can avoid chastening.
(MacArthur, John. Matthew. Chicago: Moody Press)
Beloved, this verse begs the question,
a serious, sobering question - Is that any other individual made in the
image of God with to whom you "owe a debt?" Jesus thought this issue was
so important to our spiritual life that He included it in the disciple's
prayer "forgive us our debts as (just like, in the same manner) we forgive
those who trespass against us." (Mt 6:12-note)
And then of all the points in this great prayer, the one to which He gave
extra attention was forgiveness (Read His "exposition" in Mt 6:14-15-note)
Matthew 12:45 "Then it goes and takes along with it seven other spirits
more wicked than itself, and they go in and live there; and the last state
of that man becomes worse than the first. That is the way it will also be
with this evil generation."
Matthew 19:30 "But many who are first will be last; and the last,
Matthew 20:8 "When evening came, the owner of the vineyard said to his
foreman, 'Call the laborers and pay them their wages, beginning with the
last group to the first.'
Matthew 20:12 saying, 'These last men have worked only one hour, and you
have made them equal to us who have borne the burden and the scorching
heat of the day.'
Matthew 20:14 'Take what is yours and go, but I wish to give to this last
man the same as to you.
Matthew 20:16 "So the last shall be first, and the first last."
Matthew 27:64 "Therefore, give orders for the grave to be made secure
until the third day, otherwise His disciples may come and steal Him away
and say to the people, 'He has risen from the dead,' and the last
deception will be worse than the first."
Mark 9:35 Sitting down, He called the twelve and said to them, "If anyone
wants to be first, he shall be last of all and servant of all."
Mark 10:31 "But many who are first will be last, and the last, first."
Mark 12:6 "He had one more to send, a beloved son; he sent him last of all
to them, saying, 'They will respect my son.'
Mark 12:22 and so all seven left no children. Last of all the woman died
Luke 11:26 "Then it goes and takes along seven other spirits more evil
than itself, and they go in and live there; and the last state of that man
becomes worse than the first."
Luke 12:59 "I say to you, you will not get out of there until you have
paid the very last cent."
Luke 13:30 "And behold, some are last who will be first and some are first
who will be last."
Luke 14:9 and he who invited you both will come and say to you, 'Give your
place to this man,' and then in disgrace you proceed to occupy the last
place. 10 "But when you are invited, go and recline at the last
place, so that when the one who has invited you comes, he may say to you,
'Friend, move up higher'; then you will have honor in the sight of all who
are at the table with you.
John 6:39 "This is the will of Him who sent Me, that of all that He has
given Me I lose nothing, but raise it up on the last day. 40 "For
this is the will of My Father, that everyone who beholds the Son and
believes in Him will have eternal life, and I Myself will raise him up on
the last day."
John 6:44 "No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him;
and I will raise him up on the last day.
John 6:54 "He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and
I will raise him up on the last day.
Comment: In the previous four
passages in which Jesus repeats the phrase "on the last day", clearly
accentuates the eternal security of every believer's salvation. Glory!
John 7:37 Now on the last day, the great day of the feast, Jesus stood and
cried out, saying, "If anyone is thirsty, let him come to Me and drink.
tells what believers are to "drink" -
Jn 7:38, 39! Not water but the Spirit!)
Comment: At dawn during
the Feast of Tabernacles the priests took water from the Pool of Siloam in
a golden vessel and brought it to the temple. As they approached the Water
Gate the trumpets sounded “a short blast, a long one, then another short
one. At the morning offering the water along w. wine was poured on the
altar from two silver bowls. Perhaps at this time Jesus stood and cried
out w. a loud voice (Edersheim, The Temple, 281f).
John 11:24 Martha said to Him, "I know that he will rise again in the
resurrection on the last day."
John 12:48 "He who rejects Me and does not receive My sayings, has one who
judges him; the word I spoke is what will judge him at the last day.
Acts 1:8-note but you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon
you; and you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and
Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth."
Acts 2:17 'AND IT SHALL BE IN THE LAST DAYS,' God says, 'THAT I WILL POUR
FORTH OF MY SPIRIT ON ALL MANKIND; AND YOUR SONS AND YOUR DAUGHTERS SHALL
PROPHESY, AND YOUR YOUNG MEN SHALL SEE VISIONS, AND YOUR OLD MEN SHALL
Acts 13:47 "For so the Lord has commanded us, 'I HAVE PLACED YOU AS A
LIGHT FOR THE GENTILES, THAT YOU MAY BRING SALVATION TO THE END OF THE
1 Corinthians 4:9 For, I think, God has exhibited us apostles last of all,
as men condemned to death; because we have become a spectacle to the
world, both to angels and to men.
1 Corinthians 15:8 and last of all, as to one untimely born, He appeared
to me also.
Comment: The last in a "series"
- The apostles were brought out to make the grand finale
1 Corinthians 15:26 The last enemy that will be abolished is death.
Comment: "By separating it and
drawing special attention to it, emphasis is placed on the fact that the
reign of Christ is not complete until death is conquered; everything is
still in process.” (1 Corinthians. Baker exegetical commentary on the New
In 1Cor 15:24 at the end of the
Christ "delivers up the (Millennial) kingdom to the God and Father."
Christ "must reign until He has put all His enemies under His feet" (1Cor
15:25) which is accomplished at the end of His Millennial reign which then
is followed by the Great White Throne Judgment at which time "death
and Hades" are thrown into Gehenna, the Lake of fire (Rev 20:14-note),
so that then the last enemy death is abolished! Hallelujah to the King of
1 Corinthians 15:45 So also it is written, "The first MAN, Adam, BECAME A
LIVING SOUL." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit.
1 Corinthians 15:52 in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last
trumpet; for the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised
imperishable, and we will be changed.
2 Timothy 3:1-note But realize this, that in the
last days difficult (dangerous, hard, perilous - demon of Mt 8:28
was "dangerous") times will
come (literally "will stand", will set in, will be at hand).
Hebrews 1:2-note in these
last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He
appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the world.
James 5:3 Your gold and your silver have rusted; and their rust will be a
witness against you and will consume your flesh like fire. It is in the
last days that you have stored up your treasure!
Comment: Do not a suggestion of
irony, for the treasure in mind is not their riches, but the misery that
awaits them. What are you storing up for yourself? Treasure on earth or
heaven? Where is your heart? (Mt 6:19-21-note,
1 Peter 1:5-note who are protected by the power of God through faith for a
salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.
Comment: The word "time" is
kairos which signifies the fit or appointed time or moment. The idea is
that this is the last in an order of time. In this context, this is the
appointed time when our inheritance is fully completed by the last episode
of redemptive history (Mt 25:34).
MacArthur writes: Christians
possess some of the benefits of salvation in this life, but the great
fullness of redemption is yet to come. God has promised unfathomable
glories in the eternal perfection of heaven that will one day be the
conscious experience of every believer. He is the source of the believer’s
inheritance; it came because of His mercy and by the gracious means of the
new birth; and it remains perfect and eternally secure, a reality all
believers can fix their hope on. (MacArthur, J.. 1 Peter. Chicago: Moody
1 Peter 1:20-note For He was foreknown before the foundation of the world, but has
appeared in these last times for the sake of you
Comment: Last times is a synonym
for the last days, the time period between the first and second comings.
2 Peter 2:20-note For if, after they have escaped the defilements of the world
by the knowledge of the Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, they are again
entangled in them and are overcome, the last state has become worse for
them than the first.
2 Peter 3:3-note Know this first of all, that in the
last days mockers will
come with their mocking, following after their own lusts,
Comment: Little wonder that they
scoff! There denial of Jesus return facilitates as it were, their self
gratification. As Paul summed it up "There is no fear of God before their
eyes!" (Ro 3:18-note).
See Jude's warning where "last time" is synonymous with last days. (Jude
1 John 2:18 Children, it is the last hour; and just as you heard that
antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have appeared; from this
we know that it is the last hour.
Comment: Last hour is a synonym
of last days or latter days.
Jude 1:18 that they were saying to you, "In the last time there will be
mockers, following after their own ungodly lusts."
Revelation 1:17-note When I saw Him, I fell at His feet like a dead man. And He
placed His right hand on me, saying, "Do not be afraid; I am the first and
Revelation 2:8-note "And to the angel of the church in Smyrna write: The first
and the last, who was dead, and has come to life, says this:
Revelation 2:19-note 'I know your deeds, and your love and faith and service
and perseverance, and that your deeds of late are greater than at first.
Revelation 15:1-note Then I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvelous,
seven angels who had seven plagues, which are the last, because in them
the wrath of God is finished.
Revelation 21:9-note Then one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls full
of the seven last plagues came and spoke with me, saying, "Come here, I
will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb."
Revelation 22:13-note "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the
the beginning and the end."
Eschatos - 64x in the non-apocryphal
Septuagint (most in Jeremiah = 14x) - Ge 33:2; 49:1; Ex 4:8; Lev
23:16; 27:18; Nu 2:31; 10:25; 24:14; 31:2; Dt 4:30; 8:16; 13:9; 17:7;
24:3; 28:49; 31:27, 29; 32:20; 34:2; Josh 1:4; 10:14; 24:27; Jdg 15:7;
Ruth 3:10; 1Sa 29:2; 2Sa 2:26; 13:16; 19:11f; 23:1; 24:25; 1Kgs 9:26;
17:13; 1Chr 23:27; 2Chr 9:29; 12:15; 16:11; 20:34; 25:26; 26:22; 28:26;
35:27; Ezra 8:13; Neh 5:15; 8:18; Job 8:7, 13; 11:7; 18:20; 23:8; 42:12;
Ps 73:17; 135:7; 139:4, 9; Pr 5:11; 19:20; 23:32; 25:8; 29:21; 31:25; Eccl
1:11; 4:16; 7:8; 10:13; Isa 2:2; 8:9; 37:24; 41:22, 23; 45:22; 46:10;
47:7; 48:20; 49:6; 62:11; Jer 6:22; 9:2; 10:13; 16:19; 17:11; 23:20;
25:32; 30:24; 31:8; 49:39; 50:12, 41; 51:16, 31; Lam 1:9; Ezek 35:5; 38:6,
8, 15, 16; 39:2; Da 2:28, 29, 45; 8:19, 23; 10:14; 11:20, 29; Hos 3:5;
Joel 2:20; Jonah 2:5; Mic 4:1; Hag 2:9; Zech 14:8.
Eschatos is frequently in the
Lxx in a phrase "first to last" which summarizes the deeds of
kings- 2Chr 9:29 Solomon, 2Chr 12:15 Rehoboam, 2Chr 16:11 Asa, 2Chr
20:34 Jehoshaphat, first to last, 2Chr 25:26 Amaziah, 2Chr 26:22 Uzziah,
2Chr 28:26 (Ahaz) acts; 2Chr 35:27 (Josiah)
ESCHATOS IS THE ORIGIN
OF THE WORD ESCHATOLOGY
Eschatology (eschatos + logos -
the "last word") refers to the last
things or final events in God’s relationship with history and creation. In
short, eschatology is teaching about the "end times" or more
literally the doctrine of last things. A modern dictionary definition
defines eschatology as "a branch of theology concerned with the
final events in the history of the world or of mankind." Another secular
dictionary says this term relates to "the end of the world" which is a
somewhat "bleak" outlook! Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Dictionary
states that eschatology is "the study of what will happen when all things
are consummated at the end of history, particularly centering on the event
known as the Second Coming of Christ." Unger says that eschatology
is a "theological term employed to designate the doctrine of last things,
particularly those dealing with the second coming of Christ and the events
preceding and following this great event."
The Zondervan Encyclopedia gives
us a good perspective regarding the significance of eschatology (or why
believers should know prophecy) writing that...
It is hardly possible to overestimate
the importance of eschatology to Christian faith: life without faith is
empty, and faith without hope is impossible. If the “eschatology” of
modern science—death for the individual, death for the species, death for
the entire system of wheeling suns that we call the universe—is the only
truth by which we can live, then indeed “let us eat, and drink, and be
merry, for tomorrow we die.” The Christian, however, does not believe that
death is the last word. For him the resurrection of Jesus Christ has
robbed death of its victory and brought hope and immortality to light. It
is the content of this hope that the Christian doctrine of eschatology
sets forth. (Silva, M., & Tenney, M. C. The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the
Bible, Volume 2, D-G. The Zondervan Corporation)
Dr John MacArthur
days are days of
fulfillment. In the Old Testament the Jew saw the
last days as the time when
all the promises would be fulfilled. In these days Messiah would come and
the Kingdom would come and salvation would come and Israel would no longer
be under bondage. In the last
days promises would stop and
fulfillments begin. That is exactly what Jesus came to do. He came to
fulfill the promises. Even though the
earthly aspect of the promised Kingdom is yet future, the age of kingdom
fulfillment began when Jesus arrived, and it will not finally be completed
until we enter into the eternal heavens. The Old Testament age of promise
ended when Jesus arrived." (MacArthur,
John: Hebrews. Moody Press
IN THE OT:
LAST DAYS IN
Greek translation of the Hebrew OT
repeatedly uses virtually the
same Greek words (eschatos = last + hemera =
day) to describe the last
days, a term that any
Jewish reader should have been familiar with. In the OT the term last
days most often
foretold of the coming "Great Tribulation" (Mt 24:21)
and/or the establishment of Messiah's earthly (millennial) kingdom.
In all of the following Old
Testament passages the Hebrew time phrase is translated by the Greek words
and hemera (day) (The actual Greek phrase = ep eschaton ton hemeron)
which is literally "last days." Below is a summary of all the Old Testament passages that use
eschatos in an eschatological sense.
Genesis 49:1 Then Jacob summoned his
sons and said, "Assemble yourselves that I may tell you what will befall
you in the days to come
(Lxx = eschatos hemera = last days [ep eschaton ton hemeron]).
Comment: The days to come is
more literally "the latter end of the days." While not everyone
agrees with this interpretation, Jacob's phrase appears to be very
compatible with what will happen to the 12 Tribes of Israel in the
last days just before Messiah's Second Coming. Certainly the book of
Revelation speaks of events which are related to the 12 Tribes (See
John MacArthur agrees writing "Throughout the Pentateuch, “the
latter days” refers to the time when Messiah will establish His
kingdom (see Ge 49:1, 8–12; Nu 24:14–24; Dt 32:39–43)."
Numbers 24:14 "And now, behold, I am going to my people; come, and I will
advise you what this people will do to your people in the days to come
(Lxx = eschatos hemera [ep eschaton ton hemeron])."
The Jewish reader should have been familiar with Balaam's last and
greatest prophecy regarding Israel and the Messiah as Balaam informed King Balak (Nu
"what (Israel would)
do to (his) people in the days to come (= the last days)"
going on to foretell of the Messiah, saying "I see Him, but not
now; I behold Him, but not near. A Star shall come forth
from Jacob, and a Scepter shall rise from Israel...One from
Jacob shall have dominion..." (Nu 24:17, 24:19)
Deuteronomy 4:30 "When you are in distress and all these things have come
upon you, in the latter days
(Lxx = eschatos hemera [ep eschaton ton hemeron])
you will return to the LORD your God
and listen to His voice.
Comment: In the Septuagint the
last phrase of Dt 4:29 is "in your affliction" (Lxx =
same word used by Jesus to describe the "Great Tribulation" in Mt 24:21) (See
Bible Knowledge Commentary
comments: “The later days (Dt 4:30) may refer to any time after the
initial dispersions, but the ultimate reference is to the time when the
Lord Jesus will return to earth to establish His 1,000-year kingdom (Rev.
20:4). At that time a repentant Israel will finally seek the Lord...look
for Him with all her heart and...soul and will obey Him (Dt 4:29).
Deuteronomy 8:16 "In the wilderness He fed you manna which your fathers
did not know, that He might humble you and that He might test you, to do
good for you in the end
(Lxx = eschatos hemera [ep eschaton ton hemeron]).
Comment: The phrase "in the end"
in English translation of the Septuagint is literally "in the last days."
While it is conceivable that this passage could refer to Israel's future
and the good that God will do to them at the termination of the Great
Tribulation, it is difficult to be as certain about this passage as some
of the others in this list.
J Vernon McGee comments: At the
“latter end,” in the future Millennium, God promises to make Israel the
leading nation with earthly blessings. God has not promised that to the
church, my friend; so don’t appropriate that promise for yourself. The
Lord Jesus said, "I go to prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare
a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself; that
where I am, there ye may be also” (John 14:2–3). The hope of the child of
God today is that Christ is coming to take us out of this world. The hope
of Israel is in this world. That distinction is of utmost importance. If
you try to mix these promises, it will cause utter confusion. Too many
so-called theologians use a blender. They put the whole Bible into a
blender, and they really mix it up! If you let the Bible stand as it is,
you will see that God is very specific when He makes promises.
J V: Thru the Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson
Deuteronomy 31:29 "For I know that
after my death you will act corruptly and turn from the way which I have
commanded you; and evil will befall you in the latter days
(literally - "the end of days" Lxx = eschatos hemera [ep eschaton ton hemeron]),
for you will do that which is evil in the sight of the LORD, provoking Him
to anger with the work of your hands."
MacArthur comments: “The latter
days” (lit. “at the end of the days”) referred to the far distant future.
This was the time when the king would come from Judah (Ge 49:8–12) to
defeat Israel’s enemies (Nu 24:17–19). Here it is revealed that it would
also be a time when disaster would fall upon Israel because of evil done,
thus bringing the Lord’s wrath. The description of God’s judgment on
Israel and the nations in this song can’t be limited to the immediate
future of the people as they entered the Land, but extends to issues which
are eschatological in time and global in extent, as the song indicates
(32:1–43). (Bolding added)
Deuteronomy 32:20 "Then He said, 'I will hide My face from them, I will
see what their end shall be; For they are a perverse generation, Sons in
whom is no faithfulness.
Comment: The Lxx uses eschatos
to translate end so that the English rendering of the Lxx is "will show
what shall happen to them (Israel) in the last days (days is not in
the Greek text though)."
Now it will come about that In the last days The mountain of the
house of the LORD Will be established as the chief of the mountains (referring to Jerusalem),
And will be raised above the hills; And all the nations will stream to it.
Isaiah (and Micah
= Mic 4:1 is virtually identical to Isa 2:2) foretell of Messiah's glorious
anger of the LORD will not turn back until (expression
of time - should always cause you to pause and ask "What time is it?") He has performed and carried
out the purposes of His heart. In the last days (Lxx = eschatos
hemera [ep eschaton ton hemeron]) you will clearly
understand it. (Jer 23:20)
Jeremiah prophesied of
Great Tribulation (so named by
Jesus), the "time of Jacob's distress"
Jeremiah 30:24 The fierce anger of the LORD will not turn
back, until He has performed, and until He has accomplished the intent of
His heart; In the
(Lxx = eschatos hemera [ep eschaton ton hemeron]) you will
Jeremiah 49:39 'But it will come about
in the last days
(Lxx = eschatos hemera
[ep eschaton ton hemeron])
that I will restore the fortunes of Elam,'"
Declares the LORD.
Ezekiel 38:8 "After many days you will be summoned; in the latter years
(Lxx = eschatos heton
[ep eschaton heton])
you will come into the land that is restored from the sword, whose
inhabitants have been gathered from many nations to the mountains of
Israel which had been a continual waste; but its people were brought out
from the nations, and they are living securely, all of them.
Comment: This passage is yet
Ezekiel 38:16 and you
will come up against My people
Israel like a cloud to cover the land. It will come about in the
(Lxx = eschatos hemera
[ep eschaton ton hemeron]) that I shall bring you against My land,
in order that the nations may know Me when I shall be sanctified through
you before their eyes, O Gog." (Ezekiel 38:16)
Comment: This passage is yet
"However, there is a God in heaven who
reveals mysteries, and He has made known to King Nebuchadnezzar what will
take place in the latter days
(Lxx = eschatos hemera [ep eschaton ton hemeron]).
This was your dream and the visions in your mind while on your bed.
Comment: Daniel's comments here
introduce his following description of King Nebuchadnezzar's dream
followed by the interpretation. Note that the prophecy in Daniel 2:28-45
deals especially with what will happen to the major Gentile kingdoms of
the world history (specifically the kingdoms that interacted with God's
chosen people Israel). In Daniel 7, the eschatological writings deal in
more detail with what will happen to Israel. Finally in Daniel 10-12 there
is even greater detail of what will happen to the nation of Israel in the
last days or the end times. Given the miraculous "rebirth" of
Israel in May, 1948 after almost 2000 years of non-existence as a
sovereign nation, it is hard to believe that some Christians make the
absurd statement that God is finished with Israel and has transferred all
His OT promises to the Church. Louis Berkhof was so convinced that God was
finished with Israel that in 1947 in his famous book on Systematic
Theology he flatly stated that Israel would never again become a nation
state, (a belief that fit with his amillennial belief). Beloved, if
God had been finished with Israel as a land and as a national entity, it
is hardly conceivable that He would have gone to the "trouble" to rebirth
the nation in a single day!
"As for you, O king, while on your bed your thoughts turned to what would
take place in the future
(Lxx = eschatos hemera = last days = [ep eschaton ton hemeron]);
and He who reveals mysteries has made known to you what will take place.
Comment: Note that future is
rendered last days in the Septuagint, referring to the time
preceding and including the Second Coming of Christ (the Stone in Da
(one version of Lxx, but not Theodoret) Daniel 2:45 "Inasmuch as you saw
that a Stone
at His Second Coming) was cut out of the mountain without hands
(supernatural) and that it crushed
the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver and the gold (Da 2:35-Note
= "all at the same time...not a trace of them was found"!), the great God has
made known to the king what will take place in the future
(Lxx = eschatos hemera [ep eschaton ton hemeron] = "upon the last days"); so the dream is true and its
interpretation is trustworthy."
Comment: Remember that 25% of
God's Word was prophetic at the time it was intially penned. Therefore we dare not
reduce our study of prophecy to that of a neglected "step child" lest we
find ourselves unaware of the "signs of the times." Indeed, God "has made known"
(Da 2:28, 29) to His children who have eyes to see and
ears to hear "what the Spirit says to the churches" (cp Rev 2:7) regarding
"what will take place upon the last days!"
Daniel 8:19-note He said, "Behold, I am going to let you know what will occur
at the final period of the indignation, for it pertains to the appointed
time of the end.
Comment: "Final period of
indignation" in Lxx is "ep eschaton tes orges" literally
the "time of wrath." This is a difficult passage and it is best not to be
dogmatic. Some see this as referring only to Antiochus Epiphanes, while
some see this ancient foe to be a "type" of the future antichrist.
Finally, some see a double fulfillment, partially fulfilled in Antiochus
and finally fulfilled in the Antichrist. The difference between "type" and
"double fulfillment" is minimal as both in some way see a prediction of
the future Antichrist.
David Guzik comments: Some see
this Antiochus and Antichrist connection, and some do not. Martin
Luther wrote, "This chapter in Daniel refers both to Antiochus and
Antichrist." John Calvin wrote, "Hence Luther, indulging his
thoughts too freely, refers this passage to the masks of Antichrist."
"In the latter period of their rule, When the transgressors have run their
course, A king will arise, Insolent and skilled in intrigue.
Comment: See interpretation of
MacArthur's comment: The far
fulfillment sees Antiochus in Da 8:23–25 as prophetically illustrating the
final tribulation period and the Antichrist. In such a view, the king here
is also the “little horn,” as in Da 7:7; 8:9 and the willful king in Da
Daniel 10:14-note (The archangel Michael was sent
to Daniel to give him ) "Now I have come to give you an understanding of what will happen to your
people (Jews = Israel) in the
(Lxx = eschatos hemera [ep eschaton ton hemeron]),
for the vision pertains to the days yet future.
Careful observation reveals that the last three chapters of Daniel (Da
10-12) comprise a single "vision" and must be interpreted as a "unit" in
order for one to arrive at the correct interpretation. This section
unequivocally refers to the yet future time that immediately precedes the
return of the Messiah Who will deliver Zion, remove ungodliness from Jacob
(Israel) at which time "all Israel will be saved." (i.e., all of those who
by grace place their faith in Christ.) (Ro 11:25-note).
Hosea 3:5 Afterward the sons of Israel will return and seek the LORD their
God and David their king and they will come trembling to the LORD and to
His goodness in the
(Lxx = eschatos hemera [ep eschaton ton hemeron]). (Hos
Comment: When will Israel come
trembling to the LORD? Certainly this awaits a future fulfillment and the
best "candidate" is at the end of the Great Tribulation and the inception
In a sense the last of Israel's "last days" will mark the beginning their
"best days" as they prepare to enter the Messiah's earthly kingdom for
1000 years. David will be raised up
to rule (Jer 30:9, Ezekiel 34:23-24, Ezekiel 37:24-note;
cp indirect reference in Amos 9:11)
under the greater David, the Son of David, the Messiah, Who will be King
of kings (Viz, King over King David). While some theologians
interpret the references to the resurrection and rule of David in the Old
Testament as fulfilled in Christ, it is notable that Christ is never
called "David." In fact Jeremiah prophecies that in days to come (future
days, last days), God will raise up FOR David a Righteous Branch and He
will reign as King (referring to Messiah Jer 23:5, 33:16 = note "a
Righteous Branch OF David."). Furthermore, a normal reading of the plain
interpretation) is easily and most simply interpreted as
literal (albeit resurrected) David!
Can God do this?
Certainly He can and He promises He will, whether we interpret the
passages correctly or not!
Micah 4:1 (See comments above on
Isaiah 2:2) And it will come about in the last days That the mountain of the
house of the LORD Will be established as the chief of the mountains. It
will be raised above the hills, And the peoples will stream to it.
NIDNTT summarizes the sense of
eschatos as used in the Septuagint translation...
Yahweh will make it possible for his
people to turn back (Hos. 3:5). He will destroy his enemies (Jer. 23:20;
30:24). The nations will come to Jerusalem and receive instruction from
Israel (Isa. 2:2ff.; Micah 4:1ff.). Salvation will penetrate “to the end
of the earth” (Isa. 48:20; 49:6). Here the local significance has a
universal eschatological function. In all this Yahweh will reveal himself
as holy (Ezek 38:16, 23). However much the individual pictures of
salvation presented by the various prophets differ, the expectation of a
comprehensive age of salvation “at the end of the days” brought in by
Yahweh himself is common to them all.
Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986.
HE HAS SPOKEN TO US IN HIS SON:
elalesen (3SAAI) hemin
en huio: (Heb 1:5;8
2:3; 5:8; 7:3; Mt 3:17; 17:5; 26:63; Mk 1:1; 12:6; Jn 1:14;17 18 Jn 3:16;
15:15; Ro 1:4)
given us the truth in the Son" (Phillips)
spoke to us in One
Who by nature is [His] Son" (Wuest)
CHRIST THE FINAL
WORD OF GOD!
is in the aorist tense which in context speaks of a past completed action.
In other words in reference to God speaking by the prophets and also "in
His Son" the aorist tense indicates that God has finished speaking in both
cases. As A T Robertson says the first aorist indicative here
indicates that God "did speak in a final and full revelation."
The full and final revelation of
Scripture will not be embellished, superseded or antiquated through the
entire period of church history until our Lord's bodily return. God has
spoken and we will be judged concerning our faith in and obedience to what
He has said in Scripture. (Hebrews 1:1-2
God Has Spoken)
God spoke periodically and partially in
the Old Testament prophets,
but finally and fully by the final "Prophet"
-- the OT prophets were but channels while the Son as Prophet is the
culmination. The OT prophet Moses in fact foretold of the final Prophet
(God's Son), declaring to Israel
The LORD your God will raise up for
you a prophet like me from among you, from your countrymen, you
shall listen to him." (Deut 18:15)
No man has seen God at any time; the only begotten God,
who is in the bosom of the Father, He (Jesus the Son) has explained
(exegeomai = relate in detail, expound = "exegeted")
Him (God the Father)." (Jn
God had given predictions and foreshadowing but in
He provides the fulfillment and substance. The idea is not merely what
Jesus said, but what He is.
Luke records that
Moses and with all the
and prophets being the Jewish way of designating the entire OT), He (Jesus) explained to (the two on the road to Emmaus)
the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures." (Lk
Stated another way, Jesus is the end of all prophecy
and of the law of Moses (Jn 1:17).
As Guthrie writes
If men cannot learn about God
from the Son, no amount of prophetic voices or actions would convince them.
divides history for everything before pointed toward Him and everything
since points back to Him. Or as someone else has said "The Old
Testament slopes upward to Christ". The OT revelation is not
irrelevant to the New but is continuous with it for the same God has
spoken in both. The Old prepares the way for the New, which the author
emphasizes again and again in Hebrews, continually substantiating his
arguments with quotations from the Old Testament. As someone has well
said, the Old is the New concealed and the New is the Old revealed.
Pink quoting Adolph Saphir
(his well-respected commentary is listed above)
comments on the contrast between Old Testament and New Testament writing
new covenant is contrasted with the old covenant, not in the way in which
the light of the knowledge of God is contrasted with the darkness and
ignorance of heathenism, for the old covenant is also of God, and is
therefore possessed of Divine glory. Beautiful is the night in which the
moon and the stars of prophecy and types are shining; but when the sun
arises then we forget the hours of watchfulness and expectancy, and in the
clear and joyous light of day there is revealed to us the reality and
substance of the eternal and heavenly sanctuary".
Son - Lacks
the definite article (the) in the Greek - so the idea is that the absence
of the article fixes attention upon the nature and
not upon the personality of the mediator of a new revelation. God spoke to
us in one who has this character—that He is Son (cp "a Son" in Heb 3:6-note,
WHOM HE APPOINTED HEIR OF ALL
THINGS:on etheken (3SAAI) kleronomon panton: (Heb
2:8;2:9 Ps 2:6;2:7, 2:8, 2:9 Isa 9:6, 9:7; 53:10, 11, 12; Mt 21:38; 28:18;
Jn 3:25; 13:3; Jn 16:15; 17:2; Acts 10:36; Ro 8:17; 1Cor 8:6; 15:25, 26,
27; Eph 1:20, 21, 22, 23; Php 2:9, 10, 11; Col 1:17; 18)
God promised everything to the
Son as an inheritance" (NLT)
has chosen his Son to own all things" (ICB)
God made his Son
responsible for everything" (GWT)
he one whom God has chosen to possess all things at the end" (TEV)
Whom He appointed Heir and
lawful Owner of all things" (Amp)
Who is the pre–destined Lord of
the universe" (WNT)
Whom He appointed lawful owner of
to the Son he has ordained that all creation shall
THE LOT HAS FALLEN
TO THE SON!
As noted in the
derivation of this word (see below), heir or kleronomos is
derived from the term lot and referred to a situation in which lots
were drawn to divide property or select a winner; the one who drew the
lot was the heir. The word came to be used for dividing the property
that a father left to his children when he died. Only one son meant only
one heir. Christ is the heir of all things precisely because God has only
one Son, so only one Heir.
[word study] from kleros = lot + nomos
= something parceled out, allotted) is literally a sharer by lot.
Kleronomos signifies not only one who inherits or obtains a
portion but also signifies one who takes into possession of the portion.
15x in 15v (note 3 uses in Hebrews) - Mt 21:38; Mark 12:7; Luke 20:14; Ro
4:13, 14; Ro 8:17; Gal 3:29; 4:1, 7; Titus 3:7; Heb 1:2-note;
Kleronomos also conveys the ideas of dominion and authority.
The truth that the Son
is appointed heir
of all things
emphasizes the infinite superiority of the Son to the prophets.
knowing that the Father had given all things into His hands" (Jn
and that "all things
that the Father has are Mine"
declared that "All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on
earth." (Mt 28:18)
The entire universe belongs to
Son by divine
appointment for He is "He is Lord of all" (Acts 10:36) He will reign over all
KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS." (Rev 19:1-note)
The Son as "Heir
of all things" is the fulfillment of OT prophecy. For example Isaiah
will be born to us, a Son
will be given to us; and the government will rest on His shoulders; and
His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father,
Prince of Peace. There will be no end to the increase of His government or
of peace, on the throne of David and over his kingdom, to establish it and
to uphold it with justice and righteousness from then on and forevermore.
The zeal of the LORD of hosts will accomplish this."
(Isa 9:6, 9:7)
The psalmist records
God the Father speaking to God the Son declaring
of Me, and I will surely give the nations as Thine
and the very ends of the earth as Thy
Not only is the Son
of all things but
you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham's offspring, heirs
according to promise" (Gal 3:29)
"heirs of the promise" (Heb 6:17-note),
heirs "of the righteousness which is according to faith"
heirs "of the world" (Ro 4:13-note),
"heirs also, heirs of God and fellow heirs with
Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him in order that we may also be
glorified with Him" (Ro 8:17-note)
"heirs of the kingdom which He promised to those who love Him"
for the Son
promises that "He who
overcomes shall inherit these things, and I will be his God and he
will be My son." (Rev-note)
When and how does
the Son inherit His possession? In Revelation 5 John
saw in the
right hand of Him who sat on the throne a book written inside and on the
back, sealed up with seven seals" (Rev 5:1-note)
who is very respected in the area of interpretation of Bible
prophecy and John MacArthur, one of the most respected Biblical expositors
of Scripture in the world, both interpret the "book"
(scroll) as the title deed to the earth.
required that a will had to be sealed seven times, to protect it from
tampering and as it was rolled up, every turn was sealed and each of the
seven seals could not to be broken until after the person whose will it
was had died. John recognizing the significance of the sealed scroll began
weep greatly, because no one was found worthy to open the book, or to look
into it." (Rev 5:4-note)
One of the elders said" to John "Stop weeping; behold, the Lion that is
from the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has overcome so as to open the
book and its seven seals." (Rev 5:5-note)
Having paid the
price of redemption (Rev 5:9-note) the
Son...Heir of all things) standing, as if slain...came, and He took
(the scroll) out of the right hand of Him who sat on the throne." (Rev
Then as "the Lamb
broke (the first) of the seven seals" (Rev 6:1-note), He initiates the 7 year period often referred to
as the Tribulation although not specifically designated as such in
Scripture (the "great tribulation" refers to the last half). The rapidly
unfolding events lead to the trumpet judgments culminating in the mid
point of the 7 year period when John records that
the second woe is past; behold, the third woe is coming quickly. And the
seventh angel sounded (the 7th Trumpet judgment) and there arose loud
voices in heaven, saying, "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom
of our Lord, and of His Christ; and He will reign forever and ever." (Rev
And so as the Lamb unrolls the
seven seals and the seventh trumpet blows John records that the earth
belongs to Christ, the appointed legal "Heir
of all things".
Satan fully understands the truth in the Revelation and armed with that
knowledge, approached Jesus in the wilderness to tempt Him to take control
of the world by falling down and worshiping Satan (Mt 4:8, 4:9).
Since the beginning of time, Satan, the ruler of this world, has known
that he was a temporary "squatter" and so he has continually tried to
prevent the true Heir
from receiving His inheritance but as Hebrews and Revelation record he
will not succeed.
THROUGH WHOM ALSO HE MADE THE
WORLD: di' hou di hou kai epoiesen (3SAAI) tous aionas: (Pr
8:22-31; Isa 44:24; 45:12, 18, Jn 1:3; 1Cor 8:6; Eph 3:9; Col 1:16 17)
through whom he also created the worlds"
Son he made the universe and everything in it." (NLT),
Whom He made the ages" (NJB, WNT)
by and through Whom He created
the worlds and the reaches of space and the ages of time [He made,
produced, built, operated, and arranged them in order]" (Amp)
through whom He made the Ages (WNT)
through Whom also He constituted the
ages; " (Wuest)
(dia) is a marker whereby
something is accomplished or effected. In other words the Son as Heir is
also the "Intermediate Agent" accomplishing the work of creation.
See survey of uses
of the phrase
= through Christ
John declares that
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word
was with God, and the Word was God" and that "all things
came into being by (dia = through) Him ("the Word"),
and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into
being." (Jn 1:1, 1:3)
Paul in refuting the "Colossian
heresy" that Jesus was a created being writes that to the contrary
(literally "in" = within the sphere of His personality,
resides the Creative will and the creative energy, and in that sphere the
creative act takes place = the Agent of creation) Him ("the Son") all things were
created (aorist tense speaks of a past, definite historical
event or act), both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether
thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities (various categories of
angels whom Christ created and rules over)-- all things have been
created (perfect tense = abiding result = “stand or remain
created” - permanence of universe rests on Christ more than on gravity =
the standing universe is a monument and proof of His creative might) by (dia = through) Him and
for (He is the goal of creation) Him (all history
is moving toward the goal when the whole created universe will glorify
Christ)." (see note
the Corinthians that
there is but one God, the Father,
from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ,
by (dia = through) Whom are all things, and we
exist through Him." (1Cor 8:6)
[word study]) does not mean the material world but “the ages”
and here refers to the whole created universe of time and space.
Jesus as God's "Agent" created both matter and history.
The Amplified says
that "He created the worlds and the reaches of space and the ages of
According to rabbinical use,
aion refers not only to the
periods of time, but also to the content of the world. Jesus Christ is not
a created being, as Jehovah’s Witnesses and others claim but as Scripture
clearly records, He is the Creator of everything, not merely the vast,
magnificent, mysterious physical universe, but the times and ages through
which the purpose and plan of God are gradually unfolding.
the Son is the Divine Agent not only in
the original creation of the physical universe, but also in the operation
and management of that universe and all its creatures all down the ages of
time. And that makes Him better than the prophets.
K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans
being, to reach existence, must have passed through the thought and will
of the Logos
Henry Alford adds that
God’s revelation of Himself in a sphere whose
conditions are Time and Space, and so all things existing under these
conditions, plus these conditions themselves which exist not independently
of the Creator, but are His work, His appointed conditions of all created
existence, so that the universe, as well in its great primeval
conditions,—the reaches of Space, and the ages of Time, as in all material
objects and all successive events, which furnish out and people Space and
Time, God made by Christ.”
is responsible not only for the physical earth but also created time,
space, energy, and matter -- whatever has been at any time, is, or shall
be. Christ created the whole universe and everything that makes it
function and He did it all by speaking
the word (rhema
= spoken word) of
God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible."
The irony is that the Son, Who is Heir of all things, also created all
things. Jesus, then Who is the “last word,” is also the “first word.”
The writer is giving clear testimony of the
Son’s Deity for only God can create.
summarizes the first 2 verses
The New Testament is better than and takes the place of
the First Testament because its Founder, the Messiah, is better than the
prophets, since Messiah is God the Son, heir of all things, and creator of
K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans
The writer reminds
his readers later that
"it is impossible for the
blood of bulls and goats to take away sins" (Heb 10:4-note),
He goes on to explain
when Christ appeared as a High Priest...He entered through the greater and
more perfect tabernacle (in contrast to the earthly tabernacle and the
Holy of holies that the Levitical priests entered once a year on the Day
and not through the blood of goats and calves, but through His own
blood... (into) the holy place once for all, having obtained
eternal redemption. For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a
heifer sprinkling those who have been defiled, sanctify for the cleansing
of the flesh, how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the
eternal Spirit offered Himself without blemish to God,
(or "purify" - katharizo) your conscience from dead works to
serve the living God? … but now once at the consummation of the ages He
has been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself." (see
This truth must have
seemed especially remarkable to those to whom the book of Hebrews was
first written. The cross was a stumbling block to Jews, but the writer
does not apologize for it. Instead, he shows it to be one of the seven
excellent glories of Christ. (MacArthur,
John: Hebrews. Moody Press
MacDonald nicely summarizes the purifying
work of the Son writing that
Creator and the Sustainer became the Sin-bearer. In order to create the
universe, He only had to speak. In order to maintain and guide the
universe, He only has to speak...but in order to put away our sin once for
all, He had to die on the cross of Calvary. It is staggering to think that
the sovereign Lord would stoop to become the sacrificial Lamb. “Love so
amazing, so divine, demands my soul, my life, my all,” as Isaac Watts’
hymn says." (MacDonald,
W & Farstad, A. Believer's Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson
SAT DOWN AT THE RIGHT HAND (see
F B Meyer in his book Way
Into the Holiest has a chapter on Hebrews 1:1,2 entitled...
GOD—who at sundry times and in
divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, hath
in these last days spoken unto us by his Son." HEBREWS 1:1,2.
GOD. What word could more
fittingly stand at the head of the first line of the first paragraph in
this noble epistle! Each structure must rest on him as foundation; each
tree must spring from him as root; each design and enterprise must
originate in him as source. "IN THE BEGINNING-GOD," is a worthy motto to
inscribe at the commencement of every treatise, be it the ponderous volume
or the ephemeral tract. And with that name we commence our attempt to
gather up some of the glowing lessons which were first addressed to the
persecuted and wavering Hebrews in the primitive age, but have ever been
most highly prized by believing Gentiles throughout the universal Church.
The feast was originally spread for the children of the race of Abraham;
but who shall challenge our right to the crumbs? In our endeavor to gather
them, be thou, God, Alpha and Omega, First and Last. In the original
Greek, the word "God" is preceded by two other words, which describe the
variety and multitudinousness of his revelation to man. And the whole
verse is full of interest as detailing the origin and authority of the
Word of God, and as illustrating the great law which appears in so many
parts of the works of God, and has been fitly called the law of
VARIETY IN UNITY.
That law operates in Nature. The
earliest book of God. No thoughtful man can look around him without being
arrested by the infinite variety that meets him on every side. "All flesh
is not the same flesh; . . . there are celestial bodies, and bodies
terrestrial: but the glory of the celestial is one; and the glory of the
terrestrial is another. . . . One star differeth from another star in
glory." You cannot match two faces in a crowd; two leaves in a forest; or
two flowers in the woodlands of spring. It would seem as if the molds in
which natural products are being shaped are broken up and cast aside as
soon as one result has been attained. And it is this which affords such an
infinite field for investigation and enjoyment, forbidding all fear of
monotony or weariness of soul.
And yet, amid all natural variety, there is a marvelous unity.
Every part of the universe interlocks by subtle and delicate links with
every other part. You cannot disturb the balance anywhere without sending
a shock of disturbance through the whole system. Just as in some majestic
Gothic minster (monastery, a cathedral church) the same idea repeats
itself in bolder or slighter forms, so do the same great thoughts recur in
tree and flower, in molecule and planet, in diatom and man. And all this
because, if you penetrate to Nature's heart, you meet God. "Of him, and
through him, and to him, are all things." "There are diversities of
operations; but it is the same God which worketh all in all." The unity
that pervades Nature's temple is the result of its having originated from
one mind, and having been effected by one hand, the mind and hand of God.
That law also operates throughout the Scriptures. There is as great
variety there as in Nature. They were written in different ages. some in
the days of "the fathers"; others at "the end of these days" for us. In
the opening chapters, under the guidance of the Spirit of God, Moses has
embodied fragments of hallowed tradition, which passed from lip to lip in
the tents of the patriarchs; and its later chapters were written when the
holy city, Jerusalem, had already been smitten to the ground by the mailed
hand of Titus.
They were written in different countries: these in the deserts of
Arabia; those under the shadow of the pyramids; and others amid the tides
of life that swept through the greatest cities of Greece and Rome. You can
detect in some the simple pastoral life of Palestine; in others the
magnificence of Nebuchadnezzar's empire. In one there is the murmur of the
blue Aegean; and in several the clank of the fetter in the Roman
They were written by men belonging to various ranks, occupations, and
methods of thought.. shepherds and fishermen, warriors and kings; the
psalmist, the prophet, and the priest; some employing the stately
religious Hebrew, others the Chaldaic patois, others the polished
Greek-every variety of style, from the friendly letter, or sententious
proverb, to the national history, or the carefully prepared treatise, in
which thought and expression glow as in the fires--but all contributing
their quota to the symmetry and beauty of the whole.
And yet, throughout the Bible, there is an indubitable unity. What
else could have led mankind to look upon these sixty-six tractlets as
being so unmistakably related to each other that they must be bound up
together under a common cover? There has been something so unique in these
books that they have always stood and fallen together. To disintegrate one
has been to loose them all. Belief in one has led to belief in all. Their
hands are linked and locked so tightly that where one goes all must
follow. And though wise and clever men have tried their best, they have
never been able to produce a single treatise containing that undefinable
quality which gives these their mysterious oneness; and to lack which is
fatal to the claims of any book to be included with them, or to demand the
special veneration and homage of mankind.
The world is full of religious books; but the man who has fed his
religious life upon the Bible will tell in a moment the difference between
them and the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. The eye can
instantly detect the absence of life in the artificial flower; the tongue
can immediately and certainly detect the absence or presence of a certain
flavor submitted to the taste; and the heart of man, his moral sense, is
quick to detect the absence in all other religious books of a certain
savor which pervades the Bible, from Genesis, the book of beginnings, to
the Apocalyptic announcements of the quick coming of the King.
And in the possession of this mysterious attribute, the Old and new
Testaments are one. You cannot say there is more of it in the glowing
paragraphs of the Apostle Paul than in the splendid prophecies and appeals
of the great evangelic prophet, Isaiah. It is certainly in the Gospels;
but it is not less in the story of the Exodus. Throughout, there is
silence on topics which merely gratify curiosity, but on which other
professed revelations have been copiously full. Throughout, there is no
attempt to give instruction on science or nature; but to bend all energy
in discussing the claims of God on men. Throughout, the crimson cord of
sacrifice is clearly manifest, on which the books are strung together as
beads upon a thread. And throughout, there is ever the subtle, mysterious,
ineffable quality called Inspiration: a term which is explained by the
majestic words of this opening verse, "God, having spoken of old to the
fathers, hath at the end of these days spoken to us."
Scripture is the speech of God to man. It is this which gives it
its unity. "The Lord, the mighty God, hath spoken, and called the earth."
The amanuenses may differ; but the inspiring mind is the same. The
instruments may vary; but in every case the same theme is being played by
the same master-hand. We should read the Bible as those who listen to the
very speech of God. Well may it be called "the Word of God."
But the Scripture is God's speech in man. The heavenly treasure is
in vessels of earth. "He spake unto the fathers in the prophets. . . He
hath spoken unto us in his Son." It is very remarkable to study the life
of Jesus, and to listen to his constant statements as to the source of his
marvelous words. So utterly had he emptied himself, that he originated
nothing from himself; but lived by the Father, in the same way as we are
to live by him. He distinctly declared that the words he spake, he spake
not of himself; but that words and works alike were the outcome of the
Father, who dwelt within. Through those lips of clay the eternal God was
speaking. Well might he also be called "the Word of God"!
And here the words of the prophets in the Old Testament are leveled up to
the plane of the words of Jesus in the New. Without staying to make the
least distinction, our writer tell us, beneath the teaching of the Spirit,
that he who spake in the one spake also in the others. Let us then think
with equal reverence of the Old Testament as of the New. It was our
Saviour's Bible. It was the food which Jesus loved, and lived upon. He was
content to fast from all other food, if only he might have this. It was
his one supreme appeal in conflict with the devil, and in the clinching of
his arguments and exhortations with men. And here we discover the reason.
The voice of God spake in the prophets, whose very name likens them to the
up-rush of the geyser from its hidden source.
As God spake in men, it is clear that he left them to express his thoughts
in the language, and after the method, most familiar to them. They will
speak of Nature just as they have been accustomed to find her. They will
use the mode of speech whether poem or prose which is most habitual to
their cast of thought. They will make allusions to the events transpiring
around them, so as to be easily understood by their fellows. But, whilst
thus left to express God's thoughts in their own way, yet most certainly
the divine Spirit must have carefully superintended their utterances, so
that their words should accurately convey his messages to men.
In many parts of the Bible there is absolute dictation, word for word. In
others, there is divine superintendence guarding from error, and guiding
in the selection and arrangement of materials: as when Daniel quotes from
historic records; and Moses embodies the sacred stories which his mother
had taught him beside the flowing Nile. In all, there is the full
inspiration of the Spirit of God, by whom all Scripture has been given.
Holy men spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit, . . . searching
what, or what manner of time, the Spirit of Christ which was in them did
signify" (2Ti 3:16 ; 2Pe 1:20, 21 ; 1Pe 1:2).
We need not deny that other men have been illuminated; but the difference
between illumination and inspiration is as far as the east is from the
west. Nor do we say that God has not spoken in other men, or in these men
at other times; but we do say that only in the Bible has God given the
supreme revelation of his will, and the authoritative rule of our faith
and practice. The heart of man bears witness to this. We know that there
is a tone in these words which is heard in no other voice. The upper
chords of this instrument give it a timbre which none other can rival.
The revelation in the Old Testament was given in fragments (or
portions). This is the meaning of the word rendered in the Old Version
sundry times, and in the Revised divers portions. It refers, not to the
successive ages over which it was spread, but to the numerous "portions"
into which it was broken up. No one prophet could speak out all the truth.
Each was intrusted with one or two syllables in the mighty sentences of
God's speech. At the best the view caught of God, and given to men through
the prophets, though true, was partial and limited.
But in Jesus there is nothing of this piecemeal revelation. "In him
dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily." He hath revealed the
Father. Whosoever hath seen him hath seen God; and to hear his words is to
get the full-orbed revelation of the Infinite.
The earlier revelation was in many forms. The earthquake, the fire,
the tempest, and the still small voice-each had its ministry. Symbol and
parable, vision and metaphor, type and historic foreshadowing, all in turn
served the divine end; like the ray which is broken into many prismatic
hues. But in Jesus there is the steady shining of the pure ray of his
glory, one uniform and invariable method of revelation.
Oh the matchless and glorious Book, the
Word of God to men-to us; revealing not only God, but ourselves;
explaining moods for which we had no cipher; touching us as no other book
can, and in moments when all voices beside wax faint and still; telling
facts which we have not been able to discover, but which we instantly
recognize as truth; the bread of the soul; the key of life; disclosing
more depths as we climb higher in Christian experience: we have tested
thee too long to doubt that thou art what Jesus said thou was, the
indispensable and precious gift of God.
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